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Zofran (Ondansetron)

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Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Dexamethasone, Scopolamine, Anzemet


Also known as:  Ondansetron.


Generic Zofran is used for preventing nausea and vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy or surgery. It may also be used for other conditions.

Generic Zofran is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor blocker. It works by blocking a chemical thought to be a cause of nausea and vomiting in certain situations (e.g., chemotherapy).

Zofran is also known as Ondansetron, Vomiof, Danzetron, Ondaz.

Generic name of Generic Zofran is Ondansetron.

Brand name of Generic Zofran is Zofran.


Take each dose with a full glass of water.

Take Generic Zofran with food or an antacid to lessen stomach discomfort.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Zofran and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at temperature between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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The most common side effects associated with Zofran are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Zofran if you are allergic to Generic Zofran components.

Be careful with Generic Zofran if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Generic Zofran should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 4 months old. Safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Zofran suddenly.

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Recent studies have shown that endogenous serotonin is not required for colonic peristalsis in vitro, nor gastrointestinal (GI) transit in vivo. However, antagonists of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors can inhibit peristalsis and GI-transit in mammals, including humans. This raises the question of how these antagonists inhibit GI-motility and transit, if depletion of endogenous 5-HT does not cause any significant inhibitory changes to either GI-motility or transit? We investigated the mechanism by which 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists inhibit distension-evoked peristaltic contractions in guinea-pig distal colon. In control animals, repetitive peristaltic contractions of the circular muscle were evoked in response to fixed fecal pellet distension. Distension-evoked peristaltic contractions were unaffected in animals with mucosa and submucosal plexus removed, that were also treated with reserpine (to deplete neuronal 5-HT). In control animals, peristaltic contractions were blocked temporarily by ondansetron (1-10 μM) and SDZ-205-557 (1-10 μM) in many animals. Interestingly, after this temporary blockade, and whilst in the continued presence of these antagonists, peristaltic contractions recovered, with characteristics no different from controls. Surprisingly, similar effects were seen in mucosa-free preparations, which had no detectable 5-HT, as detected by mass spectrometry. In summary, distension-evoked peristaltic reflex contractions of the circular muscle layer of the guinea-pig colon can be inhibited temporarily, or permanently, in the same preparation by selective 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists, depending on the concentration of the antagonists applied. These effects also occur in preparations that lack any detectable 5-HT. We suggest caution should be exercised when interpreting the effects of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 antagonists; and the role of endogenous 5-HT, in the generation of distension-evoked colonic peristalsis.

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the participation of central 5-HT(3) receptors in the control of blood pressure and heart rate (HR) of non-stressed and stressed rats. The pharmacological stimulation of brain 5-HT(3) receptors by third ventricle injections of the selective 5-HT(3) receptor agonist m-CPBG induced a significant decrease in blood pressure in non-stressed rats and impaired the hypertensive response induced by restraint stress. The blockade of brain 5-HT(3) receptors by the central administration of the selective 5-HT(3) antagonist ondansetron elicited a significant increase in blood pressure in non-stressed rats. Conversely, the hypertensive response induced by restraint stress was not affected by central administration of ondansetron. Additionally, baroreflex-mediated bradycardia during phenylephrine-induced hypertensive response was preserved in non-stressed animals receiving third ventricle injections of m-CPBG, while the baroreflex-mediated tachycardia that occurs during the hypotensive response induced by the administration of sodium nitroprusside was impaired. It is concluded that the serotoninergic component represented by the brain 5-HT(3) receptors exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on the central control of blood pressure in non-stressed rats, probably by a sympathoinhibitory-related mechanism. On the other hand, during stress, this central 5-HT(3)-dependent inhibitory drive is overwhelmed by the different neurochemical systems that harmonically trigger and sustain the hypertensive response.

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Two hundred forty-four adults were randomized to receive i.v. haloperidol 1 mg or ondansetron 4 mg, during general anesthesia. Nausea, vomiting, need for rescue, sedation, extrapyramidal effects, QTc intervals, and time to postanesthesia care unit discharge were evaluated with a third-party blind design.

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The management of chemotherapy induced emesis presents a major difficulty in the paediatric population. Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 antagonist and its antiemetic properties have been established in adults receiving chemotherapy. Experience in the treatment of children, however, is limited. There is no standard comparative antiemetic in paediatric practice, so this European, multi-centred study aimed to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of ondansetron in a large cohort of children receiving a range of emetogenic chemotherapy regimens for malignant disease. Two hundred patients were entered into the study, of whom 183 fulfilled entry criteria. Forty per cent (10/25) of patients receiving cisplatin, 68% (27/40) receiving ifosfamide and 70% (83/118) receiving other drugs had less than 3 emetic episodes (vomit or retch) during their worst 24 hours of chemotherapy. The number of days without vomiting or retching during and shortly after receiving chemotherapy was also related to the emetic potential of the agents in the regimen: cisplatin 82/182 (45%), ifosfamide 137/213 (64%) and other agents 430/566 (76%). The control of nausea appeared better than that of emesis in each of the sub-groups analysed. Ondansetron was safe, well tolerated and effective in the prevention of vomiting in children receiving a wide variety of chemotherapy regimens.

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Ondansetron was more effective with 45.3 POV-free patients (PFP) in an adjusted cohort of 100, while dimenhydrinate resulted in 38.2 PFP in an adjusted cohort of 100. The costs were significantly different between the two groups, CAD dollars 185.90 (+/-26.37, 95% CI, CAD dollars 173,89; CAD dollars 197.90) and CAD dollars 232.90 (+/-CAD dollars 66.84, 95% CI, CAD dollars 198.53; CAD dollars 267.27) per patient for ondansetron and dimenhydrinate, respectively. The length of stay in the postanesthetic care unit (PACU) represented over 97% of total costs, and the mean lengths of stay in the PACU for ondansetron and dimenhydrinate were significantly different, 3.43 and 4.41 h, respectively.

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In children undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation and receiving prophylactic ondansetron, a frequent incidence (60%) of postoperative vomiting was observed under an isoflurane-based anesthetic, whereas the incidence was significantly reduced to a very low level (5%) under a propofol-based anesthetic.

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Ondansetron is a 5-hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonist which has shown activity in the prevention of cytotoxic-induced emesis. Preliminary non-randomized studies also indicated efficacy in preventing sickness following radiotherapy. The present study was therefore undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of ondansetron (8 mg tds orally) and metoclopramide (10 mg tds orally) in preventing sickness after single-exposure radiotherapy treatments of 8-10 Gy to the upper abdomen. Of 82 evaluable patients 38 received ondansetron and 44 metoclopramide. On the first day after irradiation vomiting or retching was prevented in all but one of the patients on ondansetron whereas metoclopramide achieved complete control of these symptoms in only 46% of subjects (P less than 0.001). Similarly nausea was significantly better controlled by ondansetron in the first 24 hours after treatment (P = 0.001). Complete or major control of vomiting or retching was maintained for 92%-100% of patients on ondansetron during the five days of the study period. In the metoclopramide group the proportion of patients with equivalent control improved from 70% on day 1 to 95 on day 5. Both drugs were well-tolerated.

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An analytical method based upon liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) detection with electrospray ionization interface has been developed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of droperidol and ondansetron in human plasma. The two drugs were isolated from 0.5 mL of plasma using a basic liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether/heptane (90/10, v/v) and tropisetron and haloperidol as internal standards, with satisfactory extraction recoveries. They were separated on a 5-μm C(18) Highpurity column (150 mm×2.1 mm I.D.) maintained at 30°C. The elution was achieved isocratically with a mobile phase of 2 mM HCOONH(4) pH 3.8 buffer/acetonitrile (60/40, v/v) at a flow rate of 200 μL/min. Data were collected either in full-scan MS mode at m/z 100-450 or in full-scan MS-MS mode, selecting the [M+H] (+) ion at m/z=294.0 for ondansetron, m/z=285.2 for tropisetron, m/z=380.0 for droperidol and m/z=376.0 for haloperidol. The most intense daughter ion of ondansetron (m/z=212.0) and droperidol (m/z=194.0) were used for quantification. Retention times for tropisetron, ondansetron, droperidol and haloperidol were 2.50, 2.61, 3.10 and 4.68 min, respectively. Calibration curves were linear for both compounds in the 0.50-500 ng/mL range. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.10 ng/mL and 0.50 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precisions were lower than 6.4% and intra- and inter-assay recoveries were in the 97.6-101.9% range for the three 3, 30 and 300 ng/mL concentrations. This method allows simultaneous and rapid measurement of droperidol and ondansetron, which are frequently co-administrated for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

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All antiemetic trials in patients receiving chemotherapy that were published from January 2000 to July 2004 were evaluated. Standard prophylactic antiemetic therapy was derived from contemporary antiemetic guidelines published by oncology professional organizations and expert panels. The number of patients and studies in which patients received standard and substandard antiemetic therapy was determined for both the acute and delayed phases of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Separate determinations were made for severely and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. The annual percentage of studies in which substandard antiemetic prophylaxis was given and the percentage of patients who received substandard prophylaxis also were determined.

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Nausea and vomiting associated with poisoning can complicate treatment and in some cases delay potential antidote administration. Side effect such as lowering the seizure threshold may at times discourage the use of traditional phenothiazine and butyrophenone antiemetics.

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Effects of benzodiazepine (diazepam, lorazepam) and benzodiazepine-like anxiolytics (alpidem, suriclone) and a 5-HT-3 antagonist (ondansetron) on actual driving performance were measured in three double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Subjects were healthy volunteers in two and anxious patients in the third. Treatments lasted for 8 days. Standardized testing occurred within the first full day and on the last day of treatment. No important differences existed between volunteers' and patients' baseline and/or placebo performances and both groups responded similarly to comparable drugs/doses. Benzodiazepine and benzodiazepine-like anxiolytics produced marked and pervasive driving impairment, which lasted throughout treatment; but ondansetron, none.

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In a randomised, double-blind trial, we compared the use of ondansetron and droperidol for the prevention of nausea and vomiting after total abdominal hysterectomy, during patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. One hundred and forty-two patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups. All patients received a standardised general anaesthetic and postoperative analgesic regimen. One group received ondansetron 4 mg at induction of anaesthesia, and ondansetron 0.13 mg with each 1-mg bolus dose of morphine. The other group received droperidol 0.5 mg at induction and droperidol 0.05 mg per 1-mg bolus dose of morphine. Results were available for 137 patients. During the first 24 h after surgery, prophylaxis was successful in 26 of 66 patients given ondansetron (39%) compared with 36 of 71 patients given droperidol (51%). This difference was not statistically significant (Chi-squared = 1.766, p = 0.18). We conclude that in the regimens studied, ondansetron is not more effective than droperidol at preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting.

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The complete effective rate and effective rate of prevention of nausea, vomiting, and anorexia during the periods 0 - 6 hours, 6 - 12 hours, 24 - 48 hours, and 48 - 62 hours after chemotherapy were similar in these 2 groups. However, these rates during the period 12 approximately 24 hours after chemotherapy were significantly higher in group A than in group B (all P < 0.05). The side effects of these 2 drugs included carebarja, headache, fatigue, etc, all being mild and not significantly different between these 2 groups.

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We have performed a randomized, double-blind study comparing droperidol and high-dose ondansetron mixed with morphine for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). To detect a reduction in the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting from 55% to 20% with a power of 80% at the P < 0.05 level, 29 patients per group were required. We studied 60 healthy women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy, anaesthetized using a standard technique. Group D received a bolus dose of droperidol 1.25 mg at induction followed by droperidol 0.1 mg per 1 mg of morphine from the PCA system. Group O received a bolus dose of ondansetron 4 mg at induction followed by ondansetron 0.32 mg per 1 mg of morphine. This dose of ondansetron is more than double that studied previously. Mean nausea and vomiting scores at 4, 8, 12 and 24 h, mean time to first vomit, sedation scores, incidence of side effects, and doses of prochlorperazine did not differ between the groups. In group D, 24 patients did not vomit compared with 23 in group O. The only significant difference between the groups was increased morphine consumption in the ondansetron group up until 12 h after operation (P < 0.05), but by 24 h this difference was not significant. The ondansetron regimen was more expensive (at local prices) by a factor of 27, and our results suggested no clinical advantage over droperidol.

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Forty hospitalized patients admitted for heart failure or acute coronary syndromes with one or more risk factors for torsades de pointes and an order for intravenous ondansetron 4 mg were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) was obtained via a 12-lead electrocardiogram on admission and again 120 minutes after the first dose of ondansetron in order to determine the mean change in QTc following ondansetron exposure.

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This study compared the preventive effects of ramosetron and ondansetron on postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in highly susceptible patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy.

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A number of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists are currently in clinical development as antiemetics. In this paper we focus on two of these antagonists, granisetron and ondansetron, and compare their antimetic activity against cisplatin (10 mg/kg i.v.)- or whole body X-irradiation (200 rads)-induced emesis in the conscious ferret. The results presented here have been discussed in the light of the recently published literature. Our data suggest that in comparison to ondansetron, granisetron is a more potent, longer acting and pharmacologically "cleaner" compound with a more conventional dose-response profile. The possible impact of these features upon the performance of these compounds in the clinic is discussed particularly with respect to dosing regimens and clinical efficacy. Differences appear to be emerging between granisetron and ondansetron in both these respects, although a direct head-to-head clinical comparison has yet to be carried out. This would involve studies monitoring a sufficiently high number of patients receiving severely emetogenic regimes to allow real clinical differences to be detected with the appropriate statistical power.

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The neurochemical consequences of aversive behavior based on novelty, rat social interaction, have been assessed in various rat brain regions utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) technique. The present studies indicated that compared to animals from the home cage, those exposed to the high-light aversive unfamiliar test condition, had significantly increased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the metabolite of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), in the tested brain regions including amygdala, entorhinal cortex, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, tuberculum olfactorium, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and striatum. The levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), the metabolites of dopamine (DA), were increased in tuberculum olfactorium, nucleus accumbens, and striatum. When compared to the low-light familiar test condition (LF), the levels, following exposure to the highlight unfamiliar situation, of 5-HIAA were significantly increased in the amygdala, entorhinal cortex, tuberculum olfactorium, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, while the 5-HIAA levels remained unchanged in the frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and striatum. The DOPAC and HVA levels were also increased by the HU situation in the amygdala, tuberculum olfactorium, and nucleus accumbens. An increase was also found for the levels of DA in the amygdala. Such effects were prevented by diazepam or the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. It is concluded that the aversive test condition of the social interaction test (HU) increases 5-HT and DA turnover throughout the rat brain. Such effects might be related to the sensitivity to novel anxiolytic drug of the social interaction test.

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Two university-affiliated centers.

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Ondansetron combined with haloperidol produced a significantly greater improvement on PANSS overall scale and subscales for negative symptoms, general psychopathology, and cognition at endpoint compared to placebo with haloperidol, but no between-treatment group difference was observed on the subscale for positive symptoms and CGI-S. The ondansetron-treated group had a significantly higher proportion of patients with a 30% or greater baseline-to-endpoint reduction in PANSS total score than placebo. Patients in adjunctive ondansetron therapy also experienced significantly lower incidence and severity of parkinsonism and akathisia as well as fewer behavioral hyperactivity, cardiac, and gastrointestinal side effects.

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Our retrospective chart review identified 20 orally treated patients and 17 IV-treated patients. For both groups, we calculated the total number of antiemetic doses given, their associated cost, and also determined parameters that correlated with antiemetic use.

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To compare the antiemetic efficacy of ondansetron and dexamethasone in adults undergoing middle ear surgery.

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No patient in the NK1 group experienced vomiting (0%) during the first 24 and 48 h after surgery, while 5 of 19 (26%) patients in the ONS group experienced this complication, indicating a significant difference between groups. There were no significant differences in the incidence of PONV, complete response rate, rescue antiemetic use, nausea score, and VAS score for pain between the NK1 and ONS groups during the study period.

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It is a randomised cross-over multicenter study comparing the efficacy and the tolerance of granisetron (Gra) 1 mg and ondansetron (Ond) 8 mg, oral, given during two consecutive cycles to 188 naive patients scheduled to receive a moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. The antiemetic treatment is given one day per course, 1 hour before chemotherapy and the second administration from 8 to 12 hours after the beginning, during each of the two cycles; alternatively according to the randomisation. Five criteria are assessed; nausea (ordinal and visual analogic scales), emeric episodes (vomiting orland retching), complete response (minor or no nausea, no emetic episode and no rescue treatment), patient preference and tolerance. The intent to treat analysis showed no significant difference at cycle 1 between Gra and Ond; at cycle 2, there is no significant difference in the number of emetic episodes; for the prevention of nausea, the ordinal scale shows a significant difference (p = 0.028 in favour of Gra at day 1 (D1) but not from D2 to D5. Gra induced more complete response than Ond at D1 (p = 0.028), but not from D2 to D5. The cross-over study did not show any period or order effect, whereas a treatment effect on Ond was significant in favour of Gra (p = 0.01). There is no significant patients preference in favour of Gra or Ond. In conclusion, Gra was more efficient in preventing nausea and obtaining complete response on the first day of treatment, significantly at the second cycle. Both Gra and Ond had a good antiemetic activity for moderately emetogenic chemotherapy with complete response rates always over 50% on day 1; delayed emesis remain less weli controlled.

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1. The influence of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor agonists and antagonists on the emptying phase (circular muscle contraction) of the peristaltic reflex was investigated in the guinea-pig isolated ileum. 2. The effect of drug application to the serosal surface was measured as the changes in threshold pressure required to trigger the peristaltic reflex and the interval between the peristaltic strokes. A facilitation or inhibition of peristalsis was defined as a reduction or increase in threshold pressure respectively. 3. Peristalsis was not modified by the inclusion of methysergide (1 microM) and/or ondansetron (2 microM) in the bathing medium. 5-HT (0.1-1.0 microM) caused a facilitation of the peristaltic reflex; the response curve to 5-HT was not altered by the presence of methysergide (1 microM) and ondansetron (2 microM). 4. In the presence of methysergide (1 microM) plus ondansetron (2 microM), 5-HT (7.36 +/- 0.06), 5-methoxytryptamine (7.01 +/- 0.17), 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5.43 +/- 0.06), renzapride (6.09 +/- 0.17), (S)-zacopride (5.99 +/- 0.11), (R)-zacopride (5.61 +/- 0.13) and metoclopramide (4.8 +/- 0.65) caused a concentration-related facilitation of the peristaltic reflex, the pEC50 values (mean +/- s.e.mean) being shown in parentheses. 2-Methyl-5-HT was ineffective up to 10 microM. 5. The administration of SDZ 205-557 (1 microM) alone failed to modify the peristaltic reflex, but caused a parallel dextral shift in the concentration-effect curve to 5-HT (apparent pKB 7.38 +/- 0.30). It failed to modify the effect of acetylcholine to enhance the peristaltic reflex. 6. It is concluded that the rank order of potency of the 5-HT agonists from the indole and substituted benzamide series to facilitate the emptying phase of the peristaltic reflex in the guinea-pig ileum closely correlates with their published actions as 5-HT4 agonists in other systems. An agonist action on the 5-HT4 receptor is also supported by the potency of the 5-HT3/5-HT4 antagonist SDZ 205-557 (but not the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron) to inhibit the effects of 5-HT.

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Formalin tests of rats treated with antidepressants and antagonists of monoamine receptors indicate that alpha(1) adrenoceptors, serotonin (5-HT)(2) receptors, and 5-HT(3) receptors are involved in antidepressant-induced antinociception, suggesting functional interactions between noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons as mechanisms of antidepressant-induced antinociception.

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zofran dosage pregnancy 2016-12-21

160 ASA physical status I buy zofran and II children ages 1 to 12 years who were scheduled for strabismus surgery.

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We estimated the cost-utility of palonosetron-based therapy compared with generic ondansetron-based therapy throughout four cycles of anthracycline and cyclophosphamide for treating women with breast cancer. We developed a Markov model comparing six strategies in which ondansetron and palonosetron are combined with either dexamethasone alone, dexamethasone plus aprepitant following emesis, or dexamethasone plus aprepitant up front. Data on the effectiveness of antiemetics and emesis-related utility were obtained from published sources. Relative to the ondansetron-based two-drug therapy, the buy zofran incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the palonosetron-based regimens were $115,490/quality-adjusted life years (QALY) for the two-drug strategy, $199,375/QALY for the two-drug regimen plus aprepitant after emesis, and $200,526/QALY for the three-drug strategy. In sensitivity analysis, using the $100,000/QALY benchmark, the palonosetron-based two-drug strategy and the two-drug regimen plus aprepitant following emesis were shown to be cost-effective in 39% and 26% of the Monte Carlo simulations, respectively, and with changes in values for the effectiveness of antiemetics and the rate of hospitalization. The cost-utility of palonosetron-based therapy exceeds the $100,000/QALY threshold. Future research incorporating the price structure of all antiemetics following ondansetron's recent patent expiration is needed.

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All 13 patients were discharged 3-6 h postoperatively. None were readmitted; thus, the day care success was 100%. The mean operative time was 38 min (range, 35-112). Patient satisfaction was excellent in all but buy zofran one case, due to pain on the 1st postoperative day.

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An inspired oxygen fraction of 0.8 during general anesthesia with sevoflurane does not decrease PONV in patients undergoing strabismus repair. Ondansetron also did not significantly decrease PONV in our study setting. buy zofran

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We investigated the effects of ramosetron (YM060, (-)-(R)-5-[(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)carbonyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1 H-benzimidazole monohydrochloride) on the short-circuit current (Isc) responses to 5-HT receptor agonists in the rat distal colon, and compared its potency to that of other 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration-dependently increased Isc. The Isc response to 5-HT was partially reduced by tetrodotoxin and ramosetron, and strongly inhibited by GR113808 ([[1-[(2-methyl-sulphonyl) amino]ethyl]-4-piperidin-yl]methyl 1-methyl-1 H-indole-3-carboxylate). 2-Methyl-5-HT and 5-methoxytryptamine also increased Isc. The former response was inhibited by ramosetron, and the latter was abolished by GR113808. Ramosetron, YM114 (KAE-393, (-)-(R)-5-[(1-indolinyl)carbonyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1 H-benzimidazole monohydrochloride) and granisetron concentration-dependently antagonized the Isc responses to 2-methyl-5-HT with reduction in the maximal response at higher concentrations. Apparent pA2 values for these antagonists were 10.40, 10.37 and 8.99, respectively. Ondansetron produced clear rightward shifts of the concentration-response curves to 2-methyl-5-HT, with a pA2 value of 8.53. These results suggest that 5 buy zofran -HT increases Isc through the 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, and that ramosetron is a potent and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist in rat colonic mucosa.

zofran adult dose 2015-10-07

A total of 199 773 doses of buy zofran ondansetron were administered to 37 794 patients over 58 009 visits. Average dose was 0.13 mg/kg/dose (range 0.005-0.86 mg/kg/dose). Seven patients received ondansetron within 24 hours prior to a ventricular arrhythmia. All 7 patients had underlying congenital cardiac conduction abnormalities (n = 3) or other major cardiac diagnoses (n = 4). In clinical review, torsades de pointes was found in only 1 of the 7 patients.

zofran iv dose 2015-05-22

The objective of the present study was to examine the problem of the control of nausea and vomiting induced by non-cisplatin containing cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy regimens in breast cancer patients. This was randomized, double-blind, parallel-group and placebo-controlled study comparing the efficacy of three antiemetic therapeutic regimens (ondansetron for 3 days, ondasetron plus metoclopramide, and ondansetron given in a single dose) in breast cancer patients receiving cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy regimens on an outpatient basis. Both the primary and the secondary efficacy were measured. The primary efficacy variable was the number of emetic episodes (considering early and delayed emesis). The secondary efficacy variable measured was the quality of life. Two-by-two tables using the chi-square test and relative-risk concept were elaborated for statistical analysis. There was no difference between high-dose ondansetron and ondansetron plus metoclopramide among patients given CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil). The single-dose ondansetron regimen showed the worst results. In patients given an FEC regimen (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil) the buy zofran antiemetic efficacy was best for the high-dose ondansetron regimen, followed by the ondansetron plus metoclopramide regimen, and was worst for single-dose ondansetron administration. Despite the use of different antiemetic schedules, nausea and emesis are significant problems in patients receiving cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy. Their adequate control should be the aim of any antiemetic approach.

zofran 2 mg 2015-03-29

The incidences of nausea (19.5% versus 16.1%), vomiting (2.4% versus 0%), constipation (34.1% versus 30.4%), and insomnia (17.1% versus 17.9%) were not significantly different between the OND + DEX group and DEX alone group. In all buy zofran low emetic risk chemotherapies, US $78,883 of potential cost saving was estimated in the first year after changing the antiemetic treatment.

zofran generic image 2017-05-21

Assignments of 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts were made by means of heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC buy zofran ) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) experiments for ondansetron, and by means of 1H-1H correlation spectroscopy (1H-1H COSY) and two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments for two novel metabolites (M1 and M2) of ondansetron. These two metabolites were isolated for the first time from Mucor circinelloides.

zofran medicine 2016-03-04

There have been 3 published reports (4 cases) of symptomatic sinus bradycardia occurring after intravenous (IV) administration of the buy zofran selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist ondansetron. We report a fifth case in which the patient developed asystole after rechallenge with ondansetron.

zofran 8mg dosage 2015-08-21

From 1989 to 1992, 76 patients (47 male, 29 female; median age 38 years) underwent total body irradiation before autologous bone marrow transplantation. They received 3 daily doses of 1.20 Gy each every 4 h on 4 successive days buy zofran to a total dose of 14.40 Gy. Thirty-nine patients received 3 x 8 mg (daily, intravenous or per os) ondansetron during the whole course of irradiation.

zofran children dosage 2017-06-16

The preclinical pharmacologic profile is different among the 5-HT3 antagonists in terms of potency, selectivity, dose response, and duration of action. The comparative clinical trials show that a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of granisetron 3 mg is as effective as multiple (8 mg x 3) or single (32 mg) i.v. doses of ondansetron for the prevention of acute nausea and emesis due to cisplatin. In the two moderately emetogenic clinical trials, granisetron 3 mg i.v. was at least as effective as ondansetron 8 mg i.v. +/- 24 mg orally and tropisetron 5 mg i.v. Patient preference was evaluated in three of the four crossover trials: granisetron was preferred in three of four, and no preference was reported in buy zofran the fourth. The one trial to compare ondansetron 0.15 mg/kg x 3 versus granisetron 10 micrograms/kg x 1 or granisetron 40 micrograms/kg i.v. demonstrated equivalent control of nausea and vomiting in patients who received cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

zofran maximum dose 2015-11-21

Vomiting was prevented Lopressor Dosing Iv in 15 of 21 (76%) patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 53%-92%) receiving cisplatin and 21 of 31 (71%) individuals (95% CI, 52%-86%) given cyclophosphamide plus doxorubicin. Adverse effects were mild and transient and included sedation, loose stools, akathisia, and hiccoughs.

zofran 9 mg 2016-07-28

The basic concepts underlying compulsive, impulsive and addictive behaviours overlap, which may help explain why laymen use these expressions interchangeably. Although there has been a large research effort to better characterize and disentangle these behaviours, clinicians and scientists are still unable to clearly differentiate them. Accordingly, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICD) and substance-related disorders (SUD) overlap on different levels, including phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurocircuitry, neurocognition, neurochemistry and family history. In this review we summarize these issues with particular emphasis on the role of the opioid system in the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD, ICD and SUD. We postulate that with progression and chronicity of OCD, the proportion of the OCD-related behaviours (e.g. checking, washing, ordering and hoarding, among others) that are driven by impulsive 'rash' processes increase as involvement of more ventral striatal circuits becomes prominent. In contrast, as SUD and ICD progress, the proportion of the SUD- and ICD-related behaviours that are driven by compulsive 'habitual' processes increase as involvement of more dorsal striatal circuits become prominent. We are not arguing that, with time, ICD becomes OCD or vice versa. Instead, we are proposing that these disorders may acquire qualities of the other with time. In other words, while patients with ICD/SUD may develop 'compulsive impulsions', patients with OCD may exhibit 'impulsive compulsions'. There are many potential implications of our model. Theoretically, OCD patients exhibiting impulsive or addictive features could be managed with drugs that address the quality of the underlying drives and the involvement of neural systems. For example, agents for the reduction or prevention of relapse of addiction (e.g. heavy drinking), which modulate the cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system through the opioid (e.g. buprenorphine and naltrexone), glutamate (e.g. topiramate), serotonin ( Plavix Tablets 75mg e.g. ondansetron) or γ-aminobutyric acid (e.g. baclofen and topiramate) systems, may prove to show some benefit in certain forms of OCD. Based on the available evidence, we suggest that the treatment of patients with these disorders must account for alterations in the underlying motivations and neurobiology of the condition. We provide an initial guide to the specific treatments that future clinical trials might consider in patients with OCD. For example, it might be wise to test naltrexone in patients with co-morbid SUD and ICD, topiramate in patients with co-morbid ICD and eating disorders, and baclofen in patients with co-morbid Tourette's syndrome. These trials could also include scales aimed at assessing underlying impulsivity (e.g. Barratt Impulsiveness Scale) to check whether this construct might predict response to drugs acting on the reward system.

zofran 32 mg 2017-10-26

The occurring frequency of 14 most common chemotherapy and anti-nausea drug side-effects was examined. The studies were performed on 29 women with ovarian cancer treated by total number of 125 chemotherapy courses (schedule PAC and Acy) and additionally, in order to eliminate nausea caused by the chemotherapy, by anti-nausea drugs (Zofran, Solu-Medrol, Droperidol, Metoclopramide + Fenactil, Torecan). Zofran caused the fewest number Lioresal Gel of side-effects, solu-medrol inhibited nausea and vomiting significantly, however it caused many side-effects such as flush on a face, restlessness, incitement and headaches. Torecan did not prevent patients from vomiting. The greatest number of side-effects was observed after droperidol and metoclopramide + fenactil treatment.

ondansetron zofran dosage 2017-02-19

Studies were identified by searching PubMed (1980 to March, 2010), EMbase (1980 to March, 2010), Cochrane Libraries (Issue 2, 2010), CNKI (1980 to March, 2010), CBMdisc (1980 to March, 2010), and WanFang Data (1982 to March, 2010). Randomized controlled trials of aprepitant for the prevention of CINV were included. The quality of included studies was assessed and meta 6 Mg Paxil -analysis was performed for the results of homogeneous studies by RevMan 5.0.23 software.

zofran 8mg cost 2017-08-18

Our analysis suggests that, compared with palonosetron and ondansetron Aggrenox Medication Generic , 3 mg granisetron may be a cost-effective treatment option in the current Chinese healthcare setting.

zofran generic 2016-07-26

An oral solution of ondansetron seems suitable for the treatment of alcohol dependence, yielding findings consistent Buspar Starting Dose with evidence from a placebo-controlled trial that ondansetron, at a dosage of 4 microg/kg twice daily, is of value in the treatment of EOAs.

zofran dose iv 2017-03-23

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of repeated oral administration of ondansetron, a 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, on psychomotor performance. The study was of a randomised, double-blind, four-way, cross-over design in 12 Amalaki Review healthy subjects, with 1 mg and 8 mg ondansetron, placebo and 2 mg lorazepam evaluated. Each subject received five administrations per treatment period. Ondansetron, 1 mg and 8 mg, and placebo were given as twice daily dosing for 2 1/2 days. Lorazepam was administered as a 2 mg single oral dose which was taken as the fifth administration; placebo was given for the remaining four doses. Within each treatment period, subjects underwent a baseline (pre-dose) assessment of psychomotor performance using four commonly used and validated psychomotor tests, and were then re-assessed after the fifth and final dose over a 7-h, post-dose period. Following dosing with lorazepam, statistically significant changes were seen in five of the six test variables compared with placebo. Ondansetron, at both the 1 mg and the 8 mg doses, did not produce a statistically significant effect on any measure of psychomotor performance compared with placebo.

zofran generic otc 2016-10-17

Many studies have shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. However, the relative contribution of 5-HT3 receptor remains Zocor Oval Pill unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor in control of feeding behavior in fed and fasted mice.

zofran zydis dosage 2015-06-24

Contractile activity in the gastric antrum of 5 dogs was monitored using a long-term implanted force transducer and measured by integrating the area under the curve. Test materials were continuously infused Abilify Maintena Dosing or injected intravenously.

zofran mg 2015-10-17

In species which vomit, elevated intestinal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) may stimulate abdominal vagal afferent fibers, which in turn evoke the vomiting reflex. The release of 5-HT from intestinal enterochromaffin (EC) cells is regulated by polymodal mechanisms. The object of this study was to evaluate the involvement of 5-HT autoreceptors in the regulation of 5-HT release from the small intestine. Functional studies were carried out Arcoxia 240 Mg using 5-HT3 receptor agonist and antagonists, and 5-HT4 receptor agonist. Ferret and rat ileal tissue were isolated and 5-HT released into the bathing solution was determined using HPLC with an electrochemical detector (ECD). We previously reported that cisplatin produced a significant increase in cumulative 5-HT release and that ondansetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, did not alter the 5-HT release from the ferret ileum. In this study, a selective 5-HT3 agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, induced a dose-dependent increase of 5-HT from the rat ileum. This release of 5-HT was significantly reduced by granisetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, a selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist, 5-methoxytryptamine induced a concentration-dependent increase of 5-HT in the rat ileum. These results suggest that both 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors may be involved in intestinal 5-HT release.

drug zofran 2015-11-11

The consequences of alcohol dependence concern serious health care, social and economic problems. The scope of many studies is to better understand mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction in order to work out new, more effective Coumadin 3mg Tablet treatment strategies. Alcohol affects many neurotransmission systems within the brain. In general, acute alcohol enhances inhibitory transmission, up-regulating the GABAergic system and impairing glutamatergic function, therefore interfering the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Chronic alcohol consumption, meanwhile, in order to restore equilibrium leads to neuroadaptive changes caus- ing both decreased GABAergic and increased glutamatergic activity. Also function of other neurotransmitters and modulators is modified by the presence of alcohol, including glycine, adenosine, serotonin and dopamine. Moreover, a significant impact of alcohol on the endogenous opioid system, nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the endocannabinoids system has been also established. At present, only four medications are approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence in Europe, that is naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram and the most recent nalmefene. Among other promising strategies the following drugs are mentioned: baclofen, topiramate, ondansetron, aripiprazole, rimonabant and varenicline. Additionally, the role of appetite-regulating hormones, neuroimmune modulators or the body's stress-response system modulators in reducing alcohol consumption is currently of great interest, however, further investigations are needed.

zofran normal dose 2017-11-09

Thirty-two patients receiving initial cisplatin (greater than or equal to 100 mg/m2) were given intravenous lorazepam, 1.5 mg/m2 (maximum dose, 3 mg), one dose 45 minutes before cisplatin; metoclopramide, 3 mg/kg 40 minutes before Nolvadex 10mg Tab and 90 minutes after cisplatin; ondansetron, 0.3 mg/kg 25 minutes before and 3.5 hours after cisplatin; and dexamethasone, 20 mg, one dose 10 minutes before cisplatin. Patients were followed for 24 hours after cisplatin administration.