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Viagra is one of the best-known treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is caused by insufficient blood flow to the penis, resulting in the inability to maintain an erection. Viagra can dramatically enhance the quality of an erection by increasing blood flow to the penis. Its effect lasts for 4-6 hours. Viagra is widely known to treat PAH (pulmonary arterial hypertension).

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Sildenafil Citrate.

Description

Viagra is an anti-impotence drug which enables men to achieve and sustain an erection.

The active ingredient of Viagra is Sildenafil Citrate (PDE-5 inhibitor). In response to sexual arousal, Sildenafil Citrate stimulates the release of nitric oxide (NO) in the corpus cavernosum. Nitric oxide activates the lyase enzyme which is followed by increasing levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). This cyclic nucleotide relaxes smooth muscles in blood vessels of the corpus cavernosum, increasing blood flow and thus inducing an erection.

Along with the treatment of erectile disorders, Viagra effectively prolongs sexual performance, preventing premature ejaculation (PE).

Sildenafil Citrate is also used in the treatment of PAH (pulmonary arterial hypertension).

Viagra is also known as Aphrodil, Caverta, Kamagra, Suhagra, Edegra, Erasmo, Penegra, Revatio, Supra, Silagra, Zwagra.

Viagra does not protect you or your partner from sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV) or from pregnancy.

Dosage

Take one Viagra pill orally with a full glass of water, 30-60 minutes before sex.

The dosage depends on the overall health of the patient. Do not take more than one pill per day.

Take Viagra on an empty stomach, as fatty meals, grapefruit juice and alcohol can interfere with the effectiveness of the medication.

Overdose

If you take an overdose of Viagra, you should seek emergency medical attention or contact your healthcare provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) and away from excess moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Viagra are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Viagra if you are allergic to any of Viagra’s components.

Do not take Viagra if you are also using organic nitrates, nitrate drugs for chest pain or heart condition (e.g., nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide mononitrate), nitrates as amyl nitrate or nitrite ("poppers").

Do not take Viagra if you take other medications to treat erectile dysfunction or pulmonary arterial hypertension, such as riociguat (Adempas).

Do not take Viagra if you are taking erythromycin, alpha-blockers, ketoconazole, itraconazole (Sporanox or Nizoral), ritonavir (Norvir) or indinavir (Crixivan).

Do not consume alcohol while using Viagra, as it can lower your blood pressure, causing dizziness and rapid heart rate (tachycardia).

Do not drive or operate machinery while taking the medication.

Contact you doctor or health care professional right away if your erection lasts longer than 4 hours or if it becomes painful.

Viagra does not protect you or your partner from sexually transmitted diseases or pregnancy.

Viagra can be dangerous for children and women.

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Collectively, our results emphasize substantial differences in tumor-induced alteration of myelopoiesis and sensitivity to modulators of the arginine metabolism between a transplantable and a spontaneous model of PC. They also suggest that perturbation of the arginine metabolism is dispensable for PC progression and the associated T-cell tolerance.

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Sildenafil citrate tablets (VIAGRA; Pfizer Inc) have been used since 1998 as an oral therapy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, in some cases, patients may have difficulty in swallowing tablets, and the need to use water to aid in the oral administration of the tablets has the potential to interrupt the sexual encounter, reduce spontaneity, and therefore decrease the quality of the experience. Two oral soluble film (OSF) formulations of sildenafil were developed using MonoSol Rx's proprietary PharmFilm technology. Both films were formulated to dissolve rapidly on the tongue, thereby releasing the drug into the oral cavity, whereupon it is swallowed without the use of water. From a patient perspective, it is anticipated that the film formulations of sildenafil citrate will provide a more compliant and discreet dosage form. The purpose of this clinical study was to compare the bioequivalence of the 2 sildenafil OSF 100 mg formulations (MonoSol Rx, LLC) with the sildenafil citrate 100 mg tablets. The design was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 3-period, 6-sequence, 3-treatment, single-center, crossover study conducted in 18 healthy, nonsmoking male volunteers under fasting conditions, with each treatment period separated by a 7-day washout period. Plasma sildenafil concentrations were measured predose and then periodically to 24 hours after dosing. The 90% confidence intervals for plasma sildenafil AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Cmax for both sildenafil OSF formulations as compared with sildenafil citrate tablets were all within the 80%-125% range, indicating bioequivalence of both film formulations to sildenafil citrate tablets. Overall, the demonstrated bioequivalence coupled with the performance advantages of an OSF dosage form (ie, rapid dissolution in the mouth, can be taken without water, and can be dosed discreetly) suggest that the sildenafil OSF may provide an attractive alternative to sildenafil citrate oral tablets.

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The study is designed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Efficacy was assessed by using the self-administered International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), a 15-question validated measure of ED, and a global efficacy question (Did the treatment improve your erection?).

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Erectile dysfunction frequently coexists with coronary artery disease and has been proposed as a potential marker for silent coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we comparatively assessed the structural and functional changes of both penile arteries (PAs) and coronary arteries (CAs) from a prediabetic animal model. PAs and CAs from 17- to 18-wk-old obese Zucker rats (OZRs) and from their control counterparts [lean Zucker rats (LZRs)] were mounted in microvascular myographs to evaluate vascular function, and stained arteries were subjected to morphometric analysis. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) protein expression was also assessed. The internal diameter was reduced and the wall-to-lumen ratio was increased in PAs from OZRs, but structure was preserved in CAs. ACh-elicited relaxations were severely impaired in PAs but not in CAs from OZRs, although eNOS expression was unaltered. Contractions to norepinephrine and 5-HT were significantly enhanced in both PAs and CAs, respectively, from OZRs. Blockade of NOS abolished endothelium-dependent relaxations in PAs and CAs and potentiated norepinephrine and 5-HT contractions in arteries from LZRs but not from OZRs. The vasodilator response to the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil was reduced in both PAs and CAs from OZRs. Pretreatment with SOD reduced the enhanced vasoconstriction in both PAs and CAs from OZRs but did not restore ACh-induced relaxations in PAs. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate vascular inward remodeling in PAs and a differential impairment of endothelial relaxant responses in PAs and CAs from insulin-resistant OZRs. Enhanced superoxide production and reduced basal NO activity seem to underlie the augmented vasoconstriction in both PAs and CAs. The severity of the structural and functional abnormalities in PAs might anticipate the vascular dysfunction of the more preserved coronary vascular bed.

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PDE5i use was not associated with BCR after radical prostatectomy (odds ratio [OR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59-1.03) or radiation therapy (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.49-1.97) after adjusting for marital status, education, income, prostate-specific antigen, clinical stage, Gleason score, and proportion of positive biopsies. Results were similar after additional adjustment for surgical pathology (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.64-1.16). Men whose cumulative number of PDE5i pills was above the median had a slightly lower BCR risk after prostatectomy in the clinical model, and no difference in BCR risk after adjustment for pathologic tumor features.

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The administration of the extract resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) in mount frequency, intromission frequency, ejaculation frequency, ejaculation latency and serum hormone concentrations. The computed indices of sexual behaviour such as erection, quick flips, long flips and total penile reflexes were also increased. However, the mount latency, intromission latency and post ejaculation interval were significantly decreased throughout the experimental period. The administration of 300 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract produced the best effects in all the parameters.

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An original high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) procedure was developed for the determination of sildenafil in biological fluids. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed by chloroform/2-propanol/n-heptane (25:10:65, v/v) at pH 9.5 with 300 ng of buprenorphine-d4 as the internal standard (IS). After agitation (10 min) and centrifugation (3500 x g, 10 min), the organic phase was evaporated and the dry extract resuspended in 25 microL methanol, from which 2 microL was injected onto a NovaPak C18 (Waters) HPLC column. Separation was carried out by a gradient of (acetonitrile + 10 microg/mL trimethylamine) in 2mM NH4COOH pH 3.0 buffer (35-70% in 9 min). Detection was done by a PerkinElmer Sciex API-100 single-quadrupole mass analyzer with an ionspray interface operated in positive-ion mode. MS data were collected as either TIC or SIM at m/z (475 + 534) or (475 + 283) for sildenafil, depending on the potential applied at the ion sampling orifice (0 V or + 100 V). The retention times of sildenafil and the IS were 4.20 and 5.07 min, respectively. Extraction recoveries were always > 87%. LOD and LOQ were 0.2 and 0.5 ng/mL whatever the biological fluid tested. The method appears specific, extremely sensitive, and relatively simple in both equipment and sample preparation. As an example, we present the results of a preliminary study on the salivary excretion of sildenafil following the oral intake (T0) of 25 mg Viagra in a 38-year-old volunteer. Sildenafil was detectable in oral fluid at T0 + 0.5 h (1.2 ng/mL) and peaked at T0 + 1.5 h (8.3 ng/mL), whereas at the same time its plasma concentration was 72.4 ng/mL. Salivary concentrations then rapidly decreased, and the last detectable value (0.9 ng/mL) was at T0 + 5.5 h. It is suggested that the salivary excretion pattern of sildenafil resembles that of benzodiazepines (high plasma protein binding, low saliva-to-plasma ratio).

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Sildenafil increases MBF and PVP and induces systemic hypotension. The effects are less pronounced in cirrhosis, suggesting vascular hyporesponsiveness to sildenafil. Although the rise in PVP in cirrhotic animals is smaller than in controls, it may present a risk for haemorrhagic complications. Further studies are necessary before prescribing sildenafil to patients with cirrhosis.

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Forty-three sexually active patients had a NSRP; at 7-14 days after surgery they had a Rigiscan (Dacomed Corporation, Minneapolis, MN, USA) measurement of nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR). To support the recovery of spontaneous erectile function, 23 patients with preserved nocturnal erections received sildenafil 25 mg/day at night. A control group of 18 patients were then followed but had no phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 questionnaire was completed 6, 12, 24, 36 and 52 weeks after NSRP.

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Erectile dysfunction is highly prevalent in type II diabetes mellitus. Low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy improves erectile function in patients with erectile dysfunction of vasculogenic origin, including diabetes. However, its mode of action remains unknown. We investigated the effects of low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy compared to or combined with sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in a type II diabetes mellitus model. Our purpose was to test our hypothesis of a mode of action targeting the cavernous nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway.

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Using MEDLINE, Medscape and Lexis-Nexis search engines we reviewed pertinent materials from January 1996 to July 1999 focusing on the keywords Viagra, prescription and Internet. The review included press releases, law review articles, case law, medical literature, pending litigation, proposed legislation, and federal and state statutes.

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Pregnant and non-pregnant Wistar rats exposed to chronic administration of sildenafil.

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Previous studies have shown that long-term oral daily PDE 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) counteract fibrosis, cell loss, and the resulting dysfunction in tissues of various rat organs and that implantation of skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC) exerts some of these effects. PDE5i and stem cells in combination were found to be more effective in non-MI cardiac repair than each treatment separately. We have now investigated whether sildenafil at lower doses and MDSC, alone or in combination are effective to attenuate LV remodeling after MI in rats.

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The development of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) subsequent to precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PHT) was prevented by acting on the major signalling pathways (endothelin, nitric oxide, vasoactive intestine peptide (VIP) and prostacyclin) involved in the control of the pulmonary vascular and bronchial tones.

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A retrospective chart review of 25 patients with recalcitrant pulmonary sarcoidosis being evaluated for lung transplantation at our centre. Haemodynamics were evaluated by right heart catheterisation in 24 patients of whom 19 had PH. Eight of the 19 patients received vasodilator challenge with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO).

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Twenty-five patients were evaluated in our study with a variable amount of information available on each patient. Fifteen patients (88%) experienced the event within 24 hours of taking a PDE-5 inhibitor. Eight patients (32%) had associated vertigo concurrently with their hearing loss. Ninety-six percent of reported cases were unilateral. Complete resolution of hearing was noted in five patients (20%), whereas three other patients (12%) had at least partial improvement. Therefore, eight patients (32%) had documented improvement in their hearing from initial presentation.

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To retrospectively analyze the efficacy and safety of sildenafil (Sf) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SS).

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Assuming that Viagra is used twice a week and that it costs $10 per pill, the utility of life with impotence would have to be less than 0.98 (compared with quality of life without impotence) for Viagra to meet the conventional criterion for cost-effectiveness. For patients using Viagra once or three times per week, the corresponding threshold utilities for impotence were 0.99 and 0.97, respectively.

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Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a cardiopulmonary disorder characterized by systemic arterial hypoxemia secondary to elevated pulmonary vascular resistance with resultant shunting of pulmonary blood flow to the systemic circulation. PPHN is a serious illness that becomes progressively worse and is sometimes fatal. Management of the disease includes treatment of underlying causes, sedation and analgesia, maintenance of adequate systemic blood pressure, and ventilator and pharmacologic measures to increase pulmonary vasodilatation, decrease pulmonary vascular resistance, increase blood and tissue oxygenation, and normalize blood pH. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been one of the latest measures to successfully treat PPHN. If all other treatments fail, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used. Recently, preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the utility of the selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), sildenafil, in decreasing pulmonary hypertension (HP). Sildenafil was first employed to offset rebound pulmonary hypertension in infants upon withdrawal of NO treatment. Later, several case reports demonstrated the effectiveness of sildenafil in the treatment of PPHN. Two randomized blinded studies with sildenafil in infants with PPHN were published in 2006. In both studies, the patients treated with sildenafil showed a steady improvement in pulse oxygen saturation over time. Likewise, the frequency death was lower in the groups treated with sildenafil. Recent evidence shows the utility of sildenafil in the treatment of PPHN. However, since existing data are limited there is an urgent need for multicenter blinded, placebo controlled, randomized trials.

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In men with ED from 5 different nations, sildenafil produced substantial improvements in self-esteem, confidence, and sexual relationship satisfaction. Improvements in these psychosocial factors were observed crossculturally and correlated significantly and tangibly with improvements in erectile function.

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A total of 100,000 enrolled members were included in the study.

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viagra type pills 2015-02-28

In this short review, we present an overview of the current treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension and describe a case report with primary pulmonary hypertension. A male patient with NYHA functional class IV and showing no response to calcium buy viagra channel blockers and prostacyclin exhibited significantly improved exercise tolerance and hemodynamics and long-term survival for more than 2.5 years after receiving an oral combination therapy of a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil), phosphodiesterase type 3 inhibitor (pimobendan), and nicorandil.

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Taken together, this model represents a novel approach for predicting antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in rats, which parallels the pattern of reports of sexual dysfunction in the clinic associated with different antidepressant treatments and the ability of adjunct treatment to buy viagra reverse the sexual impairments produced by antidepressants.

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Sildenafil is a selective Phosphodiesterase-5 buy viagra inhibitor that has been reported to be a potent pulmonary vasodilator. We evaluated the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of oral Sildenafil in a case series of children with pulmonary hypertension.

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To investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate (SC) on skeletal muscle buy viagra ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats.

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Turnera diffusa Wild has been used in folk medicine by its aphrodisiac buy viagra and tranquilizing properties. Previously we experimentally showed the aphrodisiac effect of a chemically characterized aqueous extract of Turnera diffusa in male rats. However, the mechanism of action underlying such effects has not been studied.

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The metabolic pathways of sildenafil N-demethylation were studied using human liver microsomes, as well as microsomes expressing individual human CYP enzymes. Further studies to identify the individual buy viagra enzymes were performed at 2.5 and 250 microM sildenafil, and employed a combination of chemical inhibition, correlation analysis, and metabolism by expressed recombinant CYP enzymes. In addition, the effect of sildenafil on the activity of the six major drug metabolizing enzymes was investigated.

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Sildenafil, the first drug for erectile dysfunction, has cardiopulmonary protective actions. A recent study has reported that sildenafil given intraperitoneally (i.p.) attenuated cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity. Here, we evaluated whether sildenafil, given by two different routes and at two different doses, can attenuate CP-induced nephrotoxicity and would also affect renal haemodynamics in CP-treated rats. Six groups of rats were treated with saline (controls), CP [5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) once], sildenafil (0.4 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 5 days), sildenafil (0.4 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days) plus CP (5 mg/kg, i.p., once), sildenafil [10 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous (s.c.) for 5 days] or sildenafil (10 mg/kg/day, s.c. for 5 days) plus CP (5 mg/kg, i.p. once). Five days after the end of the treatments, urine was collected from all rats, which were then anaesthetized for blood pressure and renal blood flow monitoring. This was followed by intravenous (i.v.) injection of norepinephrine for the measurement of renal vasoconstrictor responses. Thereafter, blood and kidneys were collected for measurement of several biochemical, functional and structural parameters. CP reduced body-weight and renal blood flow but did not affect norepinephrine-induced renal vasoconstriction. It increased the plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, and reduced creatinine clearance. CP caused extensive renal tubular necrosis, increased urine volume and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity. When sildenafil (0.4 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 5 days) was combined with cisplatin, there was a dramatic buy viagra improvement in renal histopathology, reduction in N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and increase in renal blood flow. However, sildenafil (10 mg/kg/day, s.c. for 5 days) did not affect CP nephrotoxicity, suggesting the importance of dose and route selection of sildenafil as a nephroprotectant.

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To explore the protective effect of the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, on lung ischemia-reperfusion injury, 30 rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10: a sham-operated group A, a lung ischemia-reperfusion injury group B, and a sildenafil preconditioned group C. A 0.1% sildenafil solution was administrated orally 2 h before establishing an in-vivo lung ischemia-reperfusion model in group C; 0.9% normal saline solution was used in the controls. The lung wet-to-dry ratio, malondialdehyde content, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide synthase activity in groups B and C were significant higher than those in group A, while the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood and cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate content in groups B and C were significant lower than those in group A. Compared to group B, lung wet/dry ratio, malondialdehyde content, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide synthase activity in group C were significantly lower, while arterial O(2) and cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate content in group C were significantly higher. The expected histological and cytological changes were significantly alleviated in group C. Oral preconditioning with sildenafil prevented rat lung ischemia-reperfusion injury and improved pulmonary function. The mechanisms of this effect might be prevention of cyclic guanosine monophosphate buy viagra degradation and inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity.

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No head-to-head studies have been conducted with the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors to date. Results of noncomparative studies, however, suggest that tadalafil and vardenafil hydrochloride are at least as effective as sildenafil citrate in improving erections and increasing the number of successful intercourse attempts in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) at all levels of severity. By facilitating a sexual response, PDE5 inhibitors lend naturalness to sexual activity and may permit couples to return to their previous sexual lifestyle. By providing a broader window of opportunity, a longer-acting buy viagra PDE5 inhibitor such as tadalafil adds to the variety of options currently available in managing ED with PDE5 inhibitors. This option offers increased flexibility by minimizing the need to plan sexual activity; allowing more time for intimacy or romance before sexual intercourse; and reducing the pressure on the patient to perform.

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Macroscopic and microscopic seminal parameters were measured and motility studies performed. Various acrosome buy viagra reaction studies and sperm-zona pellucida binding studies were also done.

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Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, offers potential to treat pulmonary hypertension associated with a variety of conditions. We assessed the early impact of sildenafil on a cohort of patients referred to our unit who had severe pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic thromboembolic disease which was not amenable to pulmonary thromboendarterectomy and who also had coexisting left ventricular dysfunction. Six patients were studied. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolic disease was made by ventilation perfusion scanning and buy viagra /or CT pulmonary angiography. All patients were anticoagulated with oral coumarin derivatives and none were considered suitable for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed by right heart catheterisation and each patient had Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea score and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class noted and 2D echocardiography prior to commencement of sildenafil 50 mg three times a day. After 6 weeks of sildenafil therapy, right heart catheterisation and 2D echocardiography were repeated, and MRC dyspnoea score, NYHA class and exercise capacity were recorded. All patients demonstrated an improvement in mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, MRC dyspnoea score, NYHA class and gas transfer. No adverse effects of sildenafil were noted. Our data suggests that sildenafil is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for patients with severe pulmonary hypertension associated with pulmonary thromboembolic disease and impaired left ventricular function, producing beneficial effects as early as 6 weeks.

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Sildenafil inhibited the contractions in both portions of vas deferens, as did suramin. We buy viagra have suggested that purinergic system has a role in this antagonism and it seems to be mediated by an ATP-dependent mechanism instead of a receptor interaction.

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The objective of the study was to investigate the safety and reliability of internet websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes for Viagra. Using keywords 'Herbal' and 'Viagra', websites selling and providing medical information regarding herbal substitutes were identified. The top 50 sequential sites were assessed for safety and reliability against the Health on the Net (HON) criteria. Medically trained staff provided information in only 21% of the sites yet just 24% stated that the information was not a replacement for medical buy viagra advice. No sites warned patients about erectile dysfunction (ED)-associated cardiovascular disease. In all, 88 and 70% of sites indicated drug efficacy and ingredients but only 36 and 21% provided contraindications and side effects, respectively. All sites fell short of the HON requirements. In conclusion, acquiring medical information and herbal substitutes for ED from the internet is convenient and easy. However, patients should be cautious as safety and reliability of this approach is poor.

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We compared the activity of a new phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5i) avanafil with sildenafil and tadalafil in human and rat corpus cavernosum (CC) tissues. The effect of avanafil with several inhibitors and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was evaluated on CC after pre-contraction with phenylephrine. With the PDE5i, sildenafil and tadalafil, concentration-response curves were obtained and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were measured in tissues. Avanafil induced relaxation with Celebrex Dosage 200mg maximum response of 74 ± 5% in human CC. This response was attenuated by NOS inhibitor and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. Avanafil potentiated relaxation responses to acetylcholine and EFS in human CC and enhanced SNP-induced relaxation and showed 3-fold increase in cGMP levels. When compared with sildenafil, avanafil and tadalafil were effective at lower concentrations in human CC. In addition, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent in vivo intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements. Avanafil increased ICP/MAP that was enhanced by SNP and cavernous nerve (CN) stimulation in rat CC tissues. Also avanafil showed maximum relaxation response of 83 ± 7% in rat CC with 3-fold increase in cGMP concentration. Taken together, these results of our in vivo and in vitro studies in human and rat suggest that avanafil promotes the CC relaxation and penile erection via NO-cGMP pathway.

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Sildenafil had no clinically significant effects on exercise-induced changes in hemodynamic parameters in cardiac patients and only slight, clinically insignificant effects in noncardiac patients. ECG showed sildenafil did not affect incidence of ventricular arrhythmias Noroxin Drug Interactions .

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Sildenafil significantly reduced rectal Avapro Dosing Information tone in healthy subjects (intrabag volume predrug: 145.5 +/- 18.7 ml vs postdrug: 164.4 +/- 16.9 ml, p = 0.01) and IBS (111.3 +/- 25.2 ml vs 136.5 +/- 33.3 ml; p = 0.01) but did not alter rectal compliance (healthy subjects: 5.8 +/- 0.4 vs 6.3 +/- 0.6 ml/mm Hg, p > 0.05; IBS subjects: 6.1 +/- 0.6 vs 7.1 +/- 1.0 ml/mm Hg, p > 0.05). Intrabag pressure and rectal wall tension to reach perception thresholds for initial sensation, sensation of stool, and urgency were not altered by sildenafil. However, intrabag volumes to reach these thresholds were significantly increased by sildenafil both in healthy subjects and in patients with IBS. Viscerosomatic referral was unchanged.

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To investigate the time course of the hypotensive interaction between sildenafil and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Cytoxan Mg

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Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil, tadalafil and vardenafil are first line treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). These PDE5 inhibitors are known to increase cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations in the smooth muscle cells of the corpora cavernosa penis by inhibiting PDE5, leading to smooth muscle relaxation. This mode of action is also believed to result in prostatic smooth muscle relaxation and to improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS Triphala Guggulu Reviews ). Randomized controlled trials have shown beneficial effects on LUTS and on objective parameters such as maximum urinary flow rate (tadalafil). Based on these data tadalafil was recently approved for treatment of patients with male LUTS; however, the mechanisms leading to improvement of symptoms are still under debate.

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Sildenafil treatment for ED in men with MS was effective and well tolerated, and resulted Zyrtec Drug Class in significant improvements in both general and disease specific QoL variables.

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Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, could be useful for treating pulmonary hypertension (PH) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, vasodilators may inhibit hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and impair gas exchange in this Persantine And Alcohol condition.

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The systolic blood pressure decreased significantly at 60 min after dosing compared with the placebo control. The heart rate decreased at 120 min after dosing compared with the placebo control but that decrease was not significant. The brachial/ankle pulse wave velocity transiently decreased Cefixime Dosage 200mg at 30 or 60 min after dosing compared with the placebo control, but the decrease was not significant; however, the systolic blood pressure-derived brachial/ankle pulse wave velocity decreased significantly. In those patients with risk factors for arteriosclerosis, the pulse wave velocity decreased significantly.

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The acute, short-term effects of oral sildenafil on blood pressure and heart rate in men with erectile dysfunction were small and not likely to be clinically significant in those taking concomitant antihypertensive medication.

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Sildenafil is a safe and effective treatment for ED in men with New York Heart Association classes II and III CHF and provides relief of depressive symptoms, explaining an improvement in the perception of quality of life.

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Sildenafil improved 6MWD and PAP in patients with severe COPD.

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There is no cure for pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD), but the rationale for using sildenafil to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has been supported by short-term studies. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of sildenafil for PH-LHD with HFrEF. A systematic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was conducted from inception through October 2014 for randomized trials and for observational studies with control groups, evaluating the effectiveness of sildenafil to treat PH-LHD with HFrEF. Sildenafil therapy decreased pulmonary arterial systolic pressure both at the acute phase and at the 6-month follow-up (weighted mean difference (WMD): -6.03 mm Hg, P=0.02; WMD: -11.47 mm Hg, P<0.00001, respectively). Sildenafil was found to reduce mean pulmonary artery pressure (WMD: -3 mm Hg, P=0.0004) and pulmonary vascular resistance (WMD: -60.0 dynes cm(-5), P=0.01) at the 3-month follow-up. Oxygen consumption at peak significantly increased to 3.66 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (P<0.00001), 3.36 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (P<0.00001) and 2.60 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (P=0.03) at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. There were significant reductions in ventilation to CO2 production slope of -2.00, -4.68 and -7.12 at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively (P<0.00001). Sildenafil was superior to placebo regarding left ventricular ejection fraction at the 6-month follow-up (WMD: 4.35, P<0.00001), and it significantly improved quality of life. Sildenafil therapy could effectively improve pulmonary hemodynamics and cardiopulmonary exercise testing measurements of PH-LHD with HFrEF, regardless of acute or chronic treatment.

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Phosphodiesterase-5 is an enzyme that inactivates cyclic guanosine monophosphate and regulates the balance of nitric oxide (NO). NO is an important molecule synthesized during wound repair. An in vivo study was conducted to evaluate the effect of sildenafil, known to have a role in regulating the effect of NO in perfusion, on the wound healing process under ischemic conditions in rats. Reepithelialization, neovascularization, inflammatory cells, and amount and maturation of granulation tissue were scored on a scale of 0-3 (none, partial, complete but immature/thin, complete and mature, respectively). Data were analyzed using ANOVA one-way test, with statistical significance determined at P < 0.05. Forty-two (42) Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, wounded with H-shaped flaps, and randomized into 2 groups: 1 group received 10 mg/kg sildenafil (dissolved in 1 mL distilled water) orally via orogastric tubes and the other group received a 0.9% NaCl solution via intraperitoneal injection (0.1 mL). On days 3, 5, and 10, 7 rats from each group were sacrificed. Blinded investigators analyzed skin samples for the wound healing evaluating criteria using from hematoxylin/eosin staining under an optical microscope at 10X and 40X magnification. Histopathological analysis showed sildenafil significantly reduced reepithelialization, neovascularization, amount of granulation tissue, and number of inflammatory cells on day 3 and increased inflammatory cells on day 10 (P < 0.05). Further research is needed to clarify the potential role of oral or topically applied different doses of sildenafil for ischemic wound healing as well to evaluate its safety and efficacy when administered alone or in combination with other therapies.