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Ventolin (Albuterol)

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Ventolin is a high-effective medication which is indicated for the relief and prevention of airway obstruction (bronchospasm) in patients with asthma and in patients with exercise-induced asthma. Ventolin can also be used in treating patients with emphysema and chronic bronchitis when their symptoms are related to reversible airway obstruction.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Albuterol.


Ventolin belongs to a class of drugs known as bronchodilators. Ventolin is indicated for the relief and prevention of airway obstruction (bronchospasm) in patients with asthma and in patients with exercise-induced asthma. Ventolin can also be used in treating patients with emphysema and chronic bronchitis when their symptoms are related to reversible airway obstruction.

Albuterol, the active ingredient in Ventolin is a selective beta-adrenergic bronchodilator used to treat severe acute asthma and chronic bronchospasm caused by other pulmonary obstructive disorders that have not responded to other forms of therapy.

Generic names of Ventolin are Albuterol, Salbutamol.

Ventolin is also known as Albuterol, Salbutamol, Ventorlin, Asthalin, Proventil, ProAir, Salamol, Aerolin.


Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Ventolin exactly as directed.

Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor.

Do not crush or chew it. Swallow the pill whole. Crushing or chewing Ventolin will negate the delayed release mechanism of the medication.

-The usual effective dose is 4mg, three or four times per day.

-If adequate bronchodilation is not obtained, each single dose may be gradually increased to as much as 8mg.

-Some patients obtain adequate relief with 2 mg three or four times daily.

2 - 6 years: The minimum starting dose is 1mg three times daily. This may be increased to 2mg (1 tablet), three or four times daily.

6 - 12 years: The minimum starting dose is 2mg three times daily. This may be increased to four times daily.

Over 12 years: The minimum starting dose is 2mg three times daily. This may be increased to 4mg (2 tablets), three or four times daily.

In elderly patients or in those known to be usually sensitive to beta-adrenergic stimulant drugs, it is advisable to initiate treatment with 2 mg salbutamol three or four times per day.


If you overdose Ventolin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at a room temperature not exceeding 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Ventolin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Ventolin if you are allergic to Ventolin components.

It is not known whether Ventolin will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Be careful with Ventolin if you have diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure (hypertension), hyperthyroidism, irregular heart beats (arrhythmias).

Ventolin may make you dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do any activity that requires alertness until you are sure you can perform such activities safely.

Do not stop treatment, even if you are feeling better, unless your doctor tells you to. It may take 2 weeks or longer before you feel the full benefit of the medication.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Ventolin suddenly.

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Patients were eligible if they (1) were intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in participating ICUs; (2) were within 72 hours of onset of ARDS; (3) fulfilled American-European Consensus Conference definition for ARDS {acute-onset, severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure [partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen ≤ 26.7 kPa (200 mmHg)] and bilateral infiltrates on the chest radiograph in the absence of clinical evidence of left atrial hypertension}; and (4) were aged ≥ 16 years.

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The average serum theophylline level was 15.0 +/- 5.5 micrograms/mL during treatment. On the whole, without inhalation of bronchodilators, FEV1 was 0.93 +/- 0.42 L during the placebo period and 1.00 +/- 0.43 L (significantly different from placebo; p < 0.01) during the theophylline period. At 15 and 60 min after inhalation of salbutamol, 400 micrograms, and ipratropium, 80 micrograms, the FEV1 with placebo was 1.12 +/- 0.43 L and 1.14 +/- 0.46 L, respectively, and the FEV1 with theophylline was 1.18 +/- 0.45 L (p < 0.01) and 1.20 +/- 0.47 L (p < 0.01), respectively. Daily peak expiratory flow rate also improved. Daily symptom scores were not significantly different between theophylline and placebo periods. Nevertheless, eight patients reported a subjective benefit during the theophylline administration period, and they were thus considered subjective responders. While FEV1 after inhalation was significantly improved during the theophylline periods in subjective responders (change in FEV1 between theophylline and placebo treatment 15 min after inhalation, 3.1 %pred; 60 min, 3.5 %pred), postbronchodilator FEV1 was not significantly different between the placebo and theophylline periods in subjective nonresponders (15 min, 1.7 %pred; 60 min, 1.6 %pred).

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Freeze dried mannitol demonstrated superior DPI performance with a fine particle fraction believed to be highest so far reported in literature for salbutamol sulphate under similar protocols (FPF = 46.9%). To lesser extent, spray dried mannitol produced better aerosolization performance than commercial mannitol. Freeze dried mannitol demonstrated elongated morphology, α-+β-+δ- polymorphic forms, and poor flowability whereas spray dried mannitol demonstrated spherical morphology, α-+β- polymorphic forms, and excellent flowability. Commercial mannitol demonstrated angular morphology, β- polymorphic form, and good flowability. Freeze dried mannitol demonstrated smoother surface than spray dried mannitol which in turn demonstrated smoother surface than commercial mannitol. FPF of SS increased as mannitol powder porosity increase.

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Randomized, controlled trials reported in any language that compared inhaled corticosteroids plus salmeterol (administered as fluticasone propionate/salmeterol by means of a single device or concomitant administration of inhaled corticosteroids and salmeterol) versus inhaled corticosteroids alone in participants with asthma.

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We did two 24-week, replicate, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, active-comparator trials at 233 sites in 14 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18-75 years with symptomatic asthma and a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 60-90% predicted despite use of medium-dose inhaled corticosteroids, and had never smoked or were ex-smokers for 1 year or more with 10 pack-years or less. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1), with computer-generated pseudorandom numbers, to receive once-daily tiotropium 5 μg or 2·5 μg, twice-daily salmeterol 50 μg, or placebo, while maintaining inhaled corticosteroids. Patients and study investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Prespecified co-primary endpoints, assessed at week 24 in the full analysis set, were peak FEV1 response, measured within the first 3 h after evening dosing; trough FEV1 response; and responder rate assessed according to the seven-question Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-7). These studies are registered with, numbers NCT01172808 and NCT01172821.

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Recent studies suggest that thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue has an important role in the regulation of energy balance. Thermogenesis is effected by noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerve endings; the noradrenaline stimulates beta-adrenoceptors, causing lipolysis, and the released fatty acids then promote the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from electron transport. It has been widely accepted that mammalian beta-adrenoceptors exist as two subtypes, beta 1 and beta 2, and rat brown adipocyte beta-adrenoceptors have been classed as beta 1 or as a mixed beta 1/beta 2 population. The beta 1 subtype predominates in atria, whereas the beta 2 subtype predominates in trachea. However, we have now found a novel group of beta-adrenoceptor agonists that selectively stimulate lipolysis in brown adipocytes. In contrast, isoprenaline, fenoterol and salbutamol are less potent as stimulants of lipolysis than as stimulants of atrial rate or tracheal relaxation. Therefore, beta-adrenoceptors in rat brown adipocytes are of neither the beta 1 nor beta 2 subtypes. Compounds that selectively stimulate brown adipocyte beta-adrenoceptors should have potential as thermogenic anti-obesity agents and this has been demonstrated with BRL 26830A , BRL 33725A and BRL 35135A .

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Prospective, randomized, controlled, blinded study.

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Salmeterol xinafoate is a potent and a long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist. It is prescribed for the treatment of severe persistent asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Different methods were used to prepare (R)-(-)-salmeterol such as: mixing a sample of 4-benzyloxy-3-hydroxymethyl-ω-bromoacetophenone with sodium lauryl sulfate and the mixture was added to the microbial culture of Rhodotorula rubra, treatment of p-hydroxyacetophenone with Eschenmoser's salt and carbonate exchange resin followed by a sequence of supported reagents and scavenging agents or via Rh-catalyzed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation. The enantioselective synthesis of (S)-salmeterol was achieved via asymmetric reduction of the azidoketone 4 by Pichia angusta yeast. Physical characteristics of salmeterol xinafoate were confirmed via: X-ray powder diffraction pattern, thermal analysis and UV, vibrational, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopical data. Initial improvement in asthma control may occur within 30 min following oral inhalation of salmeterol in fixed combination with fluticasone propionate. Clinically important improvements are maintained for up to 12 h in most patients. It is extensively metabolized in the liver by hydroxylation, thus increased plasma concentrations may occur in patients with hepatic impairment.

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Subchronic (5 mg/kg SC, twice daily for 14 days) but not acute administration of the beta-2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol to rats caused a significant increase in the accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan in the limbic forebrain, the corpus striatum and the cerebral cortex when measured during 30 min after inhibition of L-amino acid decarboxylase by NSD 1015 (100 mg/kg IP). Simultaneously assayed tryptophan concentrations in the same brain regions were not affected. These results indicate an increase in the in vivo rate of tryptophan hydroxylation in the brain, produced by subchronic salbutamol administration. The effect of salbutamol treatment on brain catecholamine(CA) utilization was estimated by studying the disappearance of CA in the brain after inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by alpha-methyltyrosine methyl ester (H 44/68), 250 mg/kg IP, 3.5 h before sacrifice. Subchronically but not acutely administered salbutamol caused both a significant increase in endogenous noradrenaline (NA) levels and an increase NA utilization. Dopamine levels and turnover were, however, not altered by either acute or subchronic treatment. The activation, probably centrally elicited, of brain NA and 5-hydroxytryptamine systems by the subchronic salbutamol regimen supports the concept of beta-adrenoceptor mediated regulation of brain monoamine systems, and could contribute to the clinically reported antidepressant activity of beta-2-adrenoceptor agonists.

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The introduction of long-acting beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists such as salmeterol and formoterol has opened new perspectives for the treatment of asthma and, possibly, also COPD. These drugs are particularly useful in bronchial asthma and meet the requirements of several treatment guidelines to combine long-acting bronchodilator therapy with inhaled corticosteroids in patients with persistent asthma. The role of long-acting beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists for management of COPD is less clear. While effects on lung function will be small, parameters of improved quality of life and exercise tolerance may verify the clinical role of long-acting beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists for COPD treatment in the future.

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While asthmatics are known to have a greater response to bronchodilators than patients of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whether the pattern of response also differs has not been explored. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1) were measured before and 20 minutes after inhalation of 200 microg salbutamol in patients of bronchial asthma (n=133) and (COPD) (n=116). Three types of responses (defined as > or = 12% and 200 ml increase in FEV1 or FVC) were identified: increase in (i) only FVC (FVC response), (ii) only FEV1 (FEV1 response), and, (iii) both FVC and FEV1 (double response). The mean +/- SEM absolute increase in FEV1 was significantly greater in asthmatics (307+/-17ml) as compared to 120+/-12 ml in COPD patients (p<0.0001). On the other hand, the increase in FVC was not different in the two groups (296+/-22 ml and 230+/-24 ml, respectively, p>0.05). The proportion of subjects showing a > or = 200 ml increase in FEV1 was greater among asthmatics as compared to COPD (p<0.0001) but the proportions showing a > or = 200 ml in FVC were similar (p>0.05). All the three types of responses were observed in asthmatics with a double response being the commonest. In COPD, an FVC response was the predominant response while the FEV1 response was rare. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that younger subjects (below 45 years) were more likely to have a double or exclusive FEV1 response. Greater severity of obstruction was associated with higher odds for each of the three responses, the odds being especially very high for an exclusive FEV1 response. The odds for a double response and an exclusive FEV1 response were significantly increased in asthmatics as compared to COPD. For FVC response, age category and disease were not significant determinants. It was concluded that bronchodilator responsiveness in asthma and COPD differs not only quantitatively but also in the pattern.

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The combination of an inhaled corticosteroid and a long acting beta-2 agonist is indicated for the regular treatment of persistent moderate-to-severe asthmatics whose asthma is not controlled by inhaled corticosteroids and the occasional use of a short acting beta-2 agonist. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the rationale of combining formoterol and fluticasone and to analyze the clinical data concerning a new fixed combination of fluticasone and formoterol in a pressurised metered-dose inhaler with a dose counter (Flutiform(®)) that was approved for the treatment of asthma in France in 2013. The clinical studies provide evidence that combined fluticasone/formoterol is more efficacious than fluticasone or formoterol given alone, and provides similar improvements in lung function to fluticasone (Flixotide(®)) and formoterol (Foradil(®)) administered concurrently. The combination of fluticasone/formoterol gave a more rapid bronchodilatation than the combination fluticasone/salmeterol. As a whole, the combination of fluticasone/formoterol had similar efficacy and tolerability profiles to the combinations of either budesonide/formoterol or fluticasone/salmeterol.

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Ionic detergents reduce electrostatic charge on plastic spacers, thereby improving in vitro drug delivery. The aim of this study was to gain practical information on the use of detergents and to evaluate the relevance of this information on in vivo drug deposition. Measurement of electrostatic charge and salbutamol particle size distribution was carried out on detergent-coated and noncoated plastic spacers. The efficiency of four household detergents was compared, and the influence of dilution and the duration of the antistatic effect were studied. In addition, the level of radiolabelled salbutamol deposition in the lungs of eight healthy adults was compared after inhalation through a new versus a detergent-coated spacer. In vitro, all tested detergents reduced the electrostatic charge on the spacer surface. This resulted in a mean increase of 37.4% (range 33.5-41.2) in small particle (<6.8 microm) salbutamol output compared with water-rinsed/drip-dried spacers. Dilution had no influence on the results and the effect lasted for at least four weeks. In vivo, the mean lung deposition of radiolabelled salbutamol in healthy subjects was 45.6% (range 43.4-49.5) through a detergent-coated spacer compared to 11.5% (range 7.6-17.9) through a static spacer (p<0.001). In conclusion, household detergents offer a simple and practical solution to the problem of static on plastic spacers and significantly improve both in vitro and in vivo delivery of salbutamol.

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A recent study showed that the novel pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)-27 analogue [Arg15,20,21,Leu17]-PACAP-27-Gly-Lys-Arg-NH2 causes sustained airway smooth muscle relaxation in vitro. This study examined whether this analogue also has bronchoprotective effects, by inhibiting muscarinic airway responsiveness in vivo. Total lung resistance was measured in anaesthetized, tracheostomized and ventilated guinea-pigs. Increasing doses of acetylcholine were given i.v. once before and thereafter repeatedly each hour after intratracheal instillation of either the PACAP-27 analogue or the clinical beta2-agonist bronchodilator salbutamol. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was monitored to detect cardiovascular side-effects. Both the PACAP-27 analogue and salbutamol significantly attenuated the airway responsiveness to acetylcholine. The total inhibitory effect of the PACAP-27 analogue (350 nmol) corresponded to that of salbutamol (35 nmol). The inhibitory effect of salbutamol (35 nmol) peaked during the second hour and disappeared prior to 5 h after administration. In contrast, the corresponding effect of the analogue (350 nmol) gradually increased and peaked during the fifth hour after administration, whereas it did not fade during the observation period. Both the PACAP-27 analogue (350 nmol) and salbutamol (35 nmol) produced a transient decrease in MAP within 6 min after administration. In conclusion, the novel pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-27 analogue has bronchoprotective properties, by decreasing muscarinic airway responsiveness in guinea pigs in vivo. The time course of its effect is compatible with a more sustained duration of action compared with salbutamol.

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Patients with severe refractory asthma treated with bronchial thermoplasty (BT), a bronchoscopic procedure that improves asthma control by reducing excess airway smooth muscle, were followed up for 5 years to evaluate long-term safety of this procedure.

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The main objective of this study was to develop a novel aerosolized liposome formulation for pulmonary delivery of anti-asthmatic medication and to explore the relationship between the bioavailability and anti-asthmatic efficacy of such a formulation. Asthma treatment usually requires frequent administration of medication for sustained bronchodilating response. Liposomes are known for their capability for sustained drug release and thus would be a suitable delivery system for anti-asthmatic medication for prolonged therapeutic effect. Salbutamol sulfate (SBS) was chosen as the model drug in this study because of its high water solubility and fast absorption after administration.

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The effect of salbutamol inhalations on transcutaneous blood gases was investigated in 23 children (aged 11 months-2.5 years) with asthmatic symptoms. After one salbutamol inhalation there was a mean increase in transcutaneous PO2 (tcPO2) of 0.5 kPa (P less than 0.01); after a second dose given 30 minutes later, the mean increase was 1.2 kPa (P less than 0.001). The increase in tcPO2 after only one dose of salbutamol was significantly correlated to age (P less than 0.01). No such correlation was observed after a second dose. The overall increase in tcPO2 after two salbutamol inhalations showed a negative correlation to the duration of the current symptomatic period (P less than 0.05). We conclude that salbutamol inhalations have beneficial effects in young children with acute asthmatic symptoms, even below the age of 18 months, provided that an adequate dose reaches the lung and preferably at an early stage of obstruction.

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Twenty-two pediatric patients, between the ages of 7 months and 13 years, who were mechanically ventilated for less than 5 days were studied in a prospective randomized nonblinded study at a multidisciplinary pediatric intensive care unit. Immediately after extubation all patients received supplemental oxygen, administered via mask or nasal cannulae, at a flow rate or concentration sufficient to maintain the pulse oximetric arterial oxygen saturations > 95%; arterial blood gas analyses were performed at 30 minutes after extubation. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of two protocols. Protocol A (our standard management) consisted of (1) three nebulized albuterol treatments administered 1 hour apart, and (2) a chest radiograph obtained within 60 minutes of extubation. Protocol B included one nebulized albuterol treatment administered immediately after extubation. We measured the heart rate, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure immediately after and at 60, 120, and 180 minutes following extubation. The following data were also recorded: arterial blood gas analysis results and continuous pulse oximetric arterial oxygen saturation levels. Any significant complications, such as stridor, respiratory distress, or requirement for reintubation, were noted if they occurred within 24 hours of extubation. Patient charge costs were calculated after obtaining the prevailing hospital and physician charges at the time of the study.

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Mean change from baseline in asthma quality-of-life scores was significantly greater (p < or = 0.006) after 12 weeks of treatment with salmeterol compared with placebo ("as-needed" albuterol) in global scores (1.08 vs 0.61) and individual domains (activity limitations, 0.91 vs 0.54; asthma symptoms, 1.28 vs 0.71; emotional function, 1.17 vs 0.65; and environmental exposure, 0.84 vs 0.47). Patients treated with salmeterol experienced significantly greater improvements from baseline to week 12 compared with placebo in FEV1 (0.42 L vs 0.15 L, p < 0.001), morning peak expiratory flow (47 L/min vs 14 L/min, p < 0.001), evening peak expiratory flow (29 L/min vs 11 L/min, p < 0.001), and asthma symptom scores (daytime scores reduced by 0.55 vs 0.30, p < 0.001). Patients treated with salmeterol used significantly less supplemental albuterol (reduced by 3 puffs/day vs 1 puff/day, p < 0.001).

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These results confirm that, at least in part, the bronchodilator response to inhaled ANP is modulated by NEP. Analogues of ANP which are stable to NEP may have greater bronchodilator activity than ANP in the treatment of asthma.

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A case of apparent overdose of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors requiring hemodialysis is reported.

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A total of 100 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 3 months. On the first day of treatment, the mean clinical severity score at baseline were 5.38 ± 2.62 in group-1 and 4.68 ± 2.2 in group-2. At day 3 and 5, it was 2.9 ± 1.48 and 3.30 ± 1.77 in group-1 and 0.88 ± 1.08 and 1.90 ± 1.32 in group-2 respectively. The clinical severity score after N-acetylcysteine inhalation therapy was better in group-1 on the third but more so on fifth day after hospital admission. The mean duration of hospitalization was 4.67 ± 2.2 days for the whole population and it differed between the 2 groups: 4.36 ± 1.66 days in group-1 versus 4.98 ± 2.6 days in group-2.

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In this phase 2b study, both tralokinumab regimens had an acceptable safety and tolerability profile but did not significantly reduce asthma exacerbation rates in patients with severe uncontrolled asthma. Improvement in FEV1 with tralokinumab given every 2 weeks and results of post-hoc subgroup analyses suggested a possible treatment effect in a defined population of patients with severe uncontrolled asthma. This effect is being further investigated in ongoing phase 3 trials, along with the potential utility of DPP-4 and periostin as biomarkers of interleukin-13 pathway activation.

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There was a reduction in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) during SI without exercise (mean maximum reduction vs baseline, 4.0% at 10 min; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 7.1; p = 0.02) and during SI 30 min following exercise (mean maximum reduction vs baseline, 5.2% at 8 min; 95% CI, 1.0 to 7.5; p < or = 0.01); however, there was no difference between the PEFR reductions during SI without or following exercise challenge. The best predictor of reduction in PEFR during SI was the preprocedure FEV(1), while the severity of EIB was not associated with bronchoconstriction during SI.

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Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study.

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ventolin y alcohol 2017-10-30

We randomly assigned 48 subjects with asthma to one of four inhalation challenge protocols involving a series of three challenges with one type of inhaled agent presented at 48-hour intervals. The two active challenges were with either a dust-mite allergen (which causes bronchoconstriction and eosinophilic buy ventolin inflammation) or methacholine (which causes bronchoconstriction without eosinophilic inflammation); the two control challenges (neither of which causes bronchoconstriction) were either saline alone or albuterol followed by methacholine (to control for nonbronchoconstrictor effects of methacholine). Bronchial-biopsy specimens were obtained before and 4 days after completion of the challenges.

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Two hundred forty-one patients (66%) had "positive" results for bronchodilation test; FEF(25%-75%) was abnormal in 78 patients (21.4%), and 76 patients (20.8%) had severe BHR. An FEF(25%-75%) cutoff value of less than 58.5% of predicted may optimally ( buy ventolin AUC 0.97) discriminate patients with both severe BHR and reversibility.

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That specific immunotherapy (SIT) can slow the march of allergy has been confirmed in controlled clinical trials. However, an assessment of its effects in everyday life, in a buy ventolin large cohort of patients, might provide further useful information.

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We carried out a survey study of all members of the American Academy of Pediatrics Section of Emergency Medicine and the Washington State American College of Emergency Physicians. We identified current therapeutic interventions for croup, asthma, bronchiolitis, seizures, febrile buy ventolin infant, conscious sedation, head trauma, and coin ingestion, and compared the practice patterns of GEMs and PEMs.

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When a nebulizer is evaluated by the Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI), the flow rate is generally maintained at 28.3 L/min, as recommended by the manufacturer. However, the nebulizer flow rate that a patient inhales is only around 18 L/min. Because the drive flow of a nebulizer is approximately 6-8 L/min, the nebulized drug is mixed with outside air when delivered. Evaluating impactor performance at the 28.3 L/min flow rate is less than ideal because an additional 10 L/min of outside air is mixed with the drug, thereby affecting the drug size distribution and dose before inhalation and deposition in the human lung. In this study we operated the buy ventolin ACI at an 18.0 L/min flow rate to test whether the effect of the changing ambient humidity was being exaggerated by the 28.3 L/min flow rate. The study was carried out at three different relative humidity levels and two different impactor flow rates with four commercially available nebulizers. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the droplets were found to increase when the impactor was operated at a flow rate of 18 L/min compared to that of 28.3 L/min. The higher MMAD and GSD could cause the patient to inhale less of the drug than expected if the nebulizer was evaluated by the ACI at the operating flow rate of 28.3 L/min.

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Subjects inhaled 100 microg of salmeterol or placebo (t = -30 mins) followed by 100 microg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or normal saline (t = 0 mins; n buy ventolin = 8 per group).

ventolin inhaler online 2015-07-07

For IV injections of nonionic iodinated contrast media between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2005, contrast reaction reports and buy ventolin medical records of patients in whom contrast reactions occurred were reviewed. Data collected included patient sex and age, symptoms, reaction manifestations, treatment, and long-term sequelae. The appropriateness and efficacy of patient management were assessed.

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Using an automated method of calculating airways resistance in the body plethysmograph, we have investigated changes occurring immediately after inhalation of cigarette smoke. Decreases in specific conductance occurred by the time of the first measurement seven or eight seconds after exposure to single inhalations of cigarette smoke in 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers. Less than half of the initial change was present 40 seconds after the inhalation. Initial responses were greater in the non-smokers. Responses recurred buy ventolin with repeated inhalations in smokers and non-smokers. Prior administration of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide significantly inhibited the response and this inhibition appeared to be greater in non-smokers. Sodium cromoglycate inhaled as a dry powder had no effect on the response.

ventolin dose 2015-09-23

Recommendation and informational faxes were overall helpful to health care professionals in making clinical decisions. Respondents found buy ventolin the two types of faxed interventions as equally helpful, suggesting that pharmaceutical care initiated by community pharmacists is helpful to prescribers.

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676 patients with moderate to very severe stable COPD (mean FEV(1)=39% of predicted) maintained on ipratropium/albuterol were randomized to buy ventolin receive over an 84 day period either tiotropium (18 mcg) each morning, or continue with ipratropium (26 mcg)/albuterol (206 mcg), 2 actuations 4 times daily, using a parallel group, double-blind, double-dummy design. Six-hour spirometry was assessed on study days 1, 22, and 84, along with safety assessments and other efficacy measures.

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The buy ventolin effects of salmeterol-fluticasone and fluticasone were comparable, although lung function improvement was better with salmeterol-fluticasone than with fluticasone alone. There is no obvious benefit in initiation therapy with salmeterol-fluticasone rather than fluticasone alone in the treatment of steroid-naive children with multiple-trigger wheeze.

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Intravenous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4), as an adjunctive medication to the standard buy ventolin treatment of acute asthma, improves admission rate or severity score in acute severe asthma patients.

ventolin daily dose 2016-01-26

Intracellular Ca++ ([Ca++]i) is one of the most important second messengers of extracellular signals that induce cellular responses. In epidermal keratinocytes, both extracellular and intracellular Ca++ are reported to be important to cell differentiation and proliferation. Several mechanisms that increase [Ca++]i have been elicited in various tissues; however, in epidermal keratinocytes they remain unknown. Thus, we investigated the [Ca++]i modulation in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and the stimulation that increases the concentration. The [Ca++]i concentration of keratinocytes was increased immediately and transiently by epinephrine. Methoxamine hydrochloride and clonidine (alpha-1- and 2-adrenergic agonists) did not induce an increase in [Ca++]i. The beta-antagonist, propranolol, inhibited the [Ca++]i increase induced by epinephrine and salbutamol (a beta-2-agonist). These results reveal that the beta-adrenergic stimulation induces an immediate and transient [Ca++]i increase in human keratinocytes. Beta-adrenergic stimulation is known buy ventolin to induce adenylate cyclase activation, which results in cyclic AMP accumulation through stimulatory guanosine 5-triphosphate (GTP) binding proteins in the keratinocytes. Also, epinephrine is reported to inhibit cultured epidermal cell proliferation. The effect of epinephrine has been demonstrated by cyclic AMP accumulation; however, beta-adrenergic stimulation revealed a [Ca++]i increase in keratinocytes in our study. One of epinephrine's regulatory effects on epidermal cell proliferation is assumed to occur through the [Ca++]i increase as well.

ventolin brand name 2016-07-17

The posterior hypothalamus of cats was superfused through a push-pull cannula and the release of endogenous catecholamines was determined in the superfusate. Superfusion with yohimbine, isoprenaline, salbutamol or tazolol increased, while superfusion with propranolol decreased, the release of all three catecholamines Motilium Buy Canada . Transection of the brain caudal to the hypothalamus inhibited 'resting' and drug-induced release. It is concluded that alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors of the hypothalamus are involved in the regulation of the release of catecholamines.

ventolin 90 mg 2016-06-04

In children with asthma, twice daily administration of salmeterol 25 micrograms, salmeterol 50 micrograms and salbutamol 200 micrograms were compared in two, 3-month, double-blind, parallel group studies, one using metered dose inhalers (MDIs), the other using dry powder inhalers (Diskhaler, DPIs). Both studies were continued for a further 9 months during which time exacerbation rates, lung function at the clinic and adverse events were monitored. Similarities in design and methodology of the two studies justified a combined analysis. Eight hundred and forty-seven asthmatic children aged between 4 and 16 (mean 10.1) years, requiring inhaled beta 2-agonist treatment were randomised to treatment. After a 2 week run-in when all bronchodilator therapy was withdrawn, 279 patients received salmeterol 25 micrograms bd, 290 patients salmeterol 50 micrograms bd and 278 patients salbutamol 200 micrograms bd. After 3 months' treatment the change from baseline in daily morning and evening peak expiratory flow (PEF) was significantly greater with salmeterol 50 micrograms bd than with salbutamol 200 micrograms bd (P < 0.001). Salmeterol 50 micrograms bd was also significantly better than salmeterol 25 micrograms bd at improving mean morning PEF (P = 0.017) but both treatments had a similar effect on evening PEF. Analysis of variance showed an interaction between baseline PEF less than 100% predicted normal value and treatment outcome. Analysis of this sub-set of patients with lower lung function revealed similar results to the total population although the improvements in PEF from baseline were greater. Data from both studies, showed that the improvement in lung function was maintained throughout 12 months' treatment. Patients receiving salmeterol 50 micrograms bd had significantly more symptom-free nights (P < 0.01) and a higher percentage of rescue bronchodilator-free days (P = 0.01). The incidence of asthma exacerbations was evenly distributed between the three treatment groups and there was no evidence of any change in the rate of Minipress 1mg Tablet occurrence of exacerbations over the 12 month period. Adverse events were no different across treatment groups or across age groups and were primarily related to the patients' disease state.

ventolin nebulizer medication 2017-09-17

Patients were at least 40 Feldene Gel Prices years of age, diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and current or exsmokers.

ventolin tablets 2016-07-10

To compare the efficacy of nebulised salbutamol alone Cialis Daily Tabs and in combination with ipratropium bromide in acute severe asthma in children.

ventolin nebulization dosage 2015-01-21

Nebulised or inhaled salbutamol, or IV insulin-and-glucose are the first-line therapies for the management of emergency hyperkalaemia that are best supported by the evidence. Their combination may be more effective than Duphaston Brand Name either alone, and should be considered when hyperkalaemia is severe. When arrhythmias are present, a wealth of anecdotal and animal data suggests that IV calcium is effective in treating arrhythmia. Further studies of the optimal use of combination treatments and of the adverse effects of treatments are needed.

ventolin 4 mg 2016-08-23

Retrospective cohort Cialis 40mg Online study.

ventolin pills 2016-05-20

The tocolytic effects of ritodrine and salmeterol (10(-10)- Zoloft Yellow Pill 10(-5) M) on spontaneous rhythmic contractions were investigated cumulatively, alone, or in the presence of the K(ATP) channel blocker glibenclamide (10(-6) M) and the K(ATP) channel opener pinacidil (10(-9)-10(-7) M) after 5-min preincubation.

ventolin and alcohol 2016-05-24

An increase in asthma mortality in 1960s noted by British authors stirred a debate about the use of beta-adrenergic therapy that Bactrim Oral Medication has persisted in the medical literature. The cause appears to be isoproterenol and fenoterol overuse. A second debate evolved around the possible deleterious, pro-inflammatory effects, of the albuterol distomer. Most clinical studies showed improved bronchodilatation, but limited benefits from using levalbuterol. Recently, genotyping has uncovered a single nucleotide polymorphism at codon 16 that appears to affect the long term response to both regular and as needed use of albuterol, calling for a new genotype based therapeutic approach in asthma.

ventolin medication 2017-02-27

Animals in group 1 (n = 7) were paralyzed with intravenous pancuronium Antidote Coumadin Overdose , and ventilated at a rate of 30 breaths/ min. The animals in group 2 (n = 6) were ventilated at a rate of 10 breaths/min under light anesthesia without paralysis. In this latter group, spontaneous respiration continued at a rate of 40 to 50 breaths/min. Both groups were maintained at PaCO2 of 35 to 40 torr (4.7 to 5.3 kPa), and other ventilatory settings were identical.

ventolin buy online 2016-02-02

A gradient of increased vascular risk exists across the African diaspora. We hypothesised that increased insulin resistance with environmental transition contributes Sporanox Pills to this risk.

ventolin cost 2016-02-20

In patients with COPD, maintenance SVN therapy with Prilosec Missed Dose IB and ALB provides better bronchodilation than either therapy alone without increasing side effects.

ventolin dosage 2016-09-29

The HEC system uses an impinger to produce a particle cloud of cornstarch isolated from Zithromax 250mg Dosage powdered latex gloves. The particles are air driven into a face shield and hood to simultaneously challenge the subject's conjunctiva, nose, and lungs during 3 minutes of normal tidal breathing. A cloud of respirable latex allergen-associated cornstarch particles (LACs) is consistently produced in the HEC during challenges. Twenty-three subjects with latex allergy (history and positive skin test response, positive serologic test response, or both) and 3 atopic control subjects not allergic to latex (history and negative skin test response, negative serologic test response, or both) were sequentially exposed to air, control cornstarch, and then progressive 2-fold increments of LACs in a single-masked fashion. A positive challenge result was defined as (1) a peak expiratory flow rate decline of 15% or greater from baseline; (2) a peak expiratory flow rate decline of 10% or greater and an increase of either the rhinoconjunctivitis or chest symptom score scale of 3 or more points from baseline; or (3) an increase of either the rhinoconjunctivitis or chest symptom score scale of 6 or more points from baseline.

ventolin expectorant capsule 2015-05-08

To determine the effect of the addition of helium/oxygen mixtures (heliox) to standard medical care during ventilated and nonventilated acute exacerbations of COPD.

ventolin tablet 2mg 2017-12-25

To determine if a sustained infusion of intravenous salbutamol (albuterol) would accelerate the resolution of alveolar edema in adult patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

ventolin inhaler dosage 2016-10-15

In the present study, the effect of 200 microg salbutamol compared to placebo was evaluated on lung function parameters of 37 healthy children aged 7-14 years. Salbutamol or placebo were administered, using a single blind study design, and spirometry was performed before and after 10 min of inhalation. At the time of the study, all children were symptom-free and had not suffered from any respiratory infection during the previous 4 weeks. The administration of salbutamol resulted in a significant increase of mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (111%-115%, P<0.05), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (101%-110%, P<0.05) and maximal expiratory flow at 25 % of forced vital capacity (96%-115%, P<0.05). The administration of placebo resulted in no significant change in lung function parameters.

ventolin buy 2015-02-28

The FEV(1) was measured before and 1 hour after dosing, followed by performance of a methacholine challenge. Statistical analysis was performed by the 2-sample regression method for crossover studies. The dose-response curve for bronchodilatation was flat; the mean ± SD increase in FEV(1) after formoterol 12 and 24 μg was 14 ± 5% and 14 ± 8%, respectively (p>0.05). In contrast, the geometric mean PC20 (95% confidence interval) was 7 mg/ml (2-22 mg/ml) after the 12-μg dose and 16 mg/ml (5-45 mg/ml) after the 24-μg dose (p<0.001).