Thirty four subjects were simultaneously assessed by two raters yielding two independent scores.
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DSM-5 moved OCD out from under the Anxiety Disorder section, into a new category: Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders and added two new specifiers. Specifically a modification of one specifier (insight) and the addition of a new tic specifier. DSM-5 redefined obsessions and recognizes the importance of avoidance and thought stopping beyond compulsions as other strategies to deal with obsessions. OCD related disorders include: Trichotillomania, Hoarding Disorder, Skin Picking Disorder, and Body Dysmorphic Disorder.
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Retrospective, observational, monocentre study. Medical records of patients treated between 2001 and 2008 were reviewed. Patients received a standardised Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus+Dermatophagoides farinae extract (300 IR/ml) manufactured by Stallergenes (Staloral(®) 300). Patients were evaluated before SLIT initiation and at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months. Global assessment of SLIT efficacy was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a rhinitis medication consumption score (RMCS). A global asthma score was used to estimate the clinical course of asthma severity.
Communicating and interpreting genetic evidence in the administration of justice is currently a matter of great concern, due to the theoretical and technical complexity of the evaluative reporting and large difference in expertise between forensic experts and law professionals. A large number of initiatives have been taken trying to bridge this gap, contributing to the education of both parties. Results however have not been very encouraging, as most of these initiatives try to cope globally with the problem, addressing simultaneously theoretical and technical approaches which are in a quite heterogeneous state of development and validation. In consequence, the extension and complexity of the resulting documents disheartens their study by professionals (both jurists and geneticists) and makes a consensus very hard to reach even among the genetic experts' community. Here we propose a 'back-to-basics', example-driven approach, in which a model report for the two most common situations faced by forensic laboratories is presented. We do hope that this strategy will provide a solid basis for a stepwise generalisation.
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Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis.
This article summarizes the Court's ruling regarding the constitutionality of the Official Norm "NOM-046-SSA2-2005". Jalisco's Governor challenged the validity of the referred norm arguing that it was against articles 4, 5, 14, 16, 20, 21, 29, 31-V, 49, 73, 74, 89-I, 123, 124 y 133 of the Federal Constitution. The Supreme Court disregarded Governor's claim and determined that the members of the National Health System are obliged to offer and give the "day after pill" to sexual violation victims. According to article 5 of General Health Law, the National Health System includes private and public hospitals, whether they are local or federal. This means that all these health institutions have the obligation to observe the dispositions contained in the appealed Official Norm Given the significance of the Court's ruling in the medical sphere, in this article the most relevant issues of the Court decision and its implications are analyzed.
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En el artículo se definen algunos de los términos más relevantes en bioética clínica. Los términos se han escogido con base en tres criterios: repercusión en los problemas más importantes en bioética clínica, dificultad en su comprensión y necesidad de aclarar su significado. Para su mejor comprensión, los términos se han agrupado en 5 áreas temáticas: conceptos generales (conflicto de valores, deliberación, conflicto de intereses, objeción de conciencia); justicia (justicia, justicia distributiva, modelos de justicia, triage); relación clínica (información, competencia, capacidad, consentimiento informado, menor maduro, coacción, intimidad, privacidad, confidencialidad, secreto profesional); final de la vida (instrucciones previas, limitación de los esfuerzos terapéuticos, obstinación profesional, futilidad, cuidados paliativos, sedación paliativa, principio del doble efecto, eutanasia, suicidio asistido, estado vegetativo persistente, estado de mínima conciencia, síndrome de enclaustramiento, muerte encefálica), e inicio de la vida (reproducción asistida, consejo genético, diagnóstico genético preimplantacional).
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The analgesic activity of plant extract was evaluated against thermal and chemical stimulus induced by Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid respectively in mice. Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rats and TAB vaccine induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rabbits.
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Jp has antiasthmatic properties in an experimental model that reproduces tracheal hyper-reactivity.
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Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear.
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Stat3, a member of the family of cytoplasmic signal transducers and activators of transcription, was found in the rat brain in vivo under physiological conditions and was stimulated following transient focal cerebral ischaemia. A transient episode of middle cerebral artery occlusion induced a strong microglial response in the areas undergoing neural cell death from 4 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion. This was accompanied by increased expression of Stat3 in the ipsilateral cortex and striatum, as revealed by Western blotting of tissue extracts. Immunohistochemistry showed strong induction of Stat3 in reactive microglial cells 4, 7 and 15 days after cerebral ischaemia. Stat3 was seen in the microglia cytoplasm, but in many microglial cells immunoreactivity was also distributed within the nucleus. These results suggest that Stat3 mediates signal transduction and activates transcription in reactive microglia in vivo following brain ischaemia.
This study showed in vivo induction of Hsp-70 gene expression in ischaemic brain using reporter mice. The fluorescence signal showed in vivo the induction of Hsp-70 in penumbra neurons and in the vasculature within the ischaemic core.
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The presence of arsenic (As) in agricultural food products is a matter of concern because it can cause adverse health effects at low concentrations. Agricultural-product intake constitutes a principal source for As exposure in humans. In this study, the contribution of the chemical-soil parameters in As accumulation and translocation in the maize crop from a mining area of San Luis Potosi was evaluated. The total arsenic concentration and arsenic speciation were determined by HG-AFS and IC-HG-AFS, respectively. The data analysis was conducted by cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The soil pH presented a negative correlation with the accumulated As in each maize plant part, and parameters such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) presented a higher correlation with the As translocation in maize. Thus, the metabolic stress in maize may induce organic acid exudation leading a higher As bioavailability. A high As inorganic/organic ratio in edible maize plant tissues suggests a substantial risk of poisoning by this metalloid. Careful attention to the chemical changes in the rhizosphere of the agricultural zones that can affect As transfer through the food chain could reduce the As-intoxication risk of maize consumers.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic non-communicable disease with high prevalence in the North American and Caribbean region. Diabetic Foot Syndrome which is an associated complication can lead to the development of wounds and ulcers which can become infected. Justicia secunda, a plant known locally in Barbados as Bloodroot used in folklore for wound healing, was selected to test its ability to aid diabetic wound healing by antimicrobial activity. It was therefore tested against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Enterococcus feacalis (clincal strain) which are commonly found in diabetic wounds.
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In this study, a multisyringe chromatography system (MSC) using a C18 monolithic column was proposed for the on-line monitoring of the photocatalytic degradation of isoniazid (INH, 10 mg L(-1)) and pyrazinamide (PYRA, 5mgL(-1)) mixtures in aqueous solution using a small sample volume (200 μL) with an on-line filtration device in a fully automated approach. During the photocatalytic oxidation using TiO2 or ZnO semiconductor materials, total organic carbon (TOC) and the formed intermediates were analyzed off-line using ion chromatography, ion exclusion HPLC, and ESI-MS/MS. The results showed that TiO2 exhibits a better photocatalytic activity than ZnO under UV irradiation (365 nm) for the degradation of INH and PYRA mixtures, generating 97% and 92% degradation, respectively. The optimal oxidation conditions were identified as pH 7 and 1.0 g L(-1) of TiO2 as catalyst. The mineralization of the initial organic compounds was confirmed by the regular decrease in TOC, which indicated 63% mineralization, and the quantitative release of nitrate and nitrite ions, which represent 33% of the nitrogen in these compounds. The major intermediates of INH degradation included isonicotinamide, isonicotinic acid, and pyridine, while the ESI-MS/MS analysis of PYRA aqueous solution after photocatalytic treatment showed the formation of pyrazin-2-ylmethanol, pyrazin-2-ol, and pyrazine. Three low-molecular weight compounds, acetamide, acetic acid and formic acid, were detected during INH and PYRA decomposition. PYRA was more resistant to photocatalytic degradation due to the presence of the pyrazine ring, which provides greater stability against OH attack.
Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.
Four experiments examined the role of meaning frequency (dominance) and associative strength (measured by associative norms) in the processing of ambiguous words in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to targets words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph prime. The first two experiments investigated the role of associative strength at long SOAs (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) (750 ms.), showing that meaning is facilitated by the targets' associative strength and not by their dominance. The last two experiments traced the role associative strength at short SOAs (250 ms), showing that the manipulation of the associative strength has no effect in the semantic priming. The conclusions are: on the one hand, semantic priming for homographs is due to associative strength manipulations at long SOAs. On the other hand, the manipulation of the associative strength has no effect when automatic processes (short SOAs) are engaged for homographs.
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A mild, highly regio- and stereoselective method for the crotylation of aldehydes and ketones mediated/catalyzed by titanocene(III) is described. Optimized conditions permit the selective generation of γ-adducts in high yields together with high stereoselectivity, with a predominance of anti stereoisomers.
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Egyptians recognized the healing power of herbs and used them in their medicinal formulations. Nowadays, "Attarin" drug shops and the public use mainly the Unani medicinal system for treatment of their health problems including improvement of memory and old age related diseases. Numerous medicinal plants have been described in old literature of Arabic traditional medicine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (or to strengthen memory).
The final multiple linear regression models explained between 11-41% of the variance in BTA scores. Although men had higher scores on the BTA in Honduras, there were no other significant gender differences, and this one effect size was small. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated.
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In a prospective observational study, the tolerance of 611 patients with seasonal respiratory diseases who were receiving cluster immunotherapy was monitored and all systemic reactions were recorded. Associations between potential prognostic factors (sex, age, respiratory disease, severity, duration of disease, previous immunotherapy, nonseasonal symptoms, skin prick test, total immunoglobulin (Ig) E, specific IgE, treatment schedule, allergenic composition, batch, date of treatment, habitat, place of residence) and systemic reactions were estimated. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to build a predictive clinical model and estimate the probability of systemic reactions to cluster immunotherapy.
The present study confirms the notion of selecting endophytic fungi of medicinal plant Justicia for the bioassay-guided isolation of its bioactive compounds, and demonstrates that endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 could be a potential source of bioactive metabolites.
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The safety of patients and the risk of malpractice claims are overriding concerns in medicine and psychiatry.
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A high lethal dose (LD50) of 14.35 g/kg obtained in acute toxicity implies the extract is not toxic. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, and anthocyanins. JH showed a significant protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea as evidenced by a decrease in the number of defecation and wet stool. JH (100-500 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a non-significant dose-dependent decrease in castor oil-induced intestinal transit in the preventive study. In the curative and in healthy mice study, the decrease was only significant at 500 mg/kg. JH possessed a radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of 9.93 mg/ml compared to 4.90 mg/ml for catechin. JH FRAP of 2703.77 ± 0 mg/g (catechin equiv) and phenolic concentration of 14 169.99 ± 612.39 mg/g (catechin equiv) were also obtained.
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Clustered regimens with IR-standardized extracts are an alternative to classic immunotherapy thanks to their low incidence of SRs compared with other rapid regimens during the induction phase. The ideal clustered regimen should start at an initial dose no greater than 0.35 IR to minimize the incidence of SRs.
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A new amide of threo-gamma-hydroxyglutamic acid, justiciamide, was isolated from Justicia ghiesbreghtiana and shown to be (-)-N-(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-(2 S,4 S)-gamma-hydroxyglutamic acid. Justiciamide is the first amide of an uncommon amino acid found in this genus.