vantin 400 mg
6 healthy dogs.
Oral administration at a dosage of 10 mg/kg every 6 to 12 hours would appear appropriate for the treatment of equine neonates with bacterial infections.
In a prospective, comparative, double blind, randomized, multicenter trial we compared cefpodoxime-proxetil, 8 mg/kg/day in two divided doses for 10 days, with an identical 5-day regimen followed by a 5-day placebo period.
vantin 100mg tablets
Linezolid has good activity against gram-positive bacteria, particularly multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus (including GISA), Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis (including VRE). In controlled clinical trials, linezolid was as effective as vancomycin in eradicating infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. and has demonstrated efficacy against infections caused by VRE. As the level of resistance to vancomycin increases among S. aureus and enterococci, linezolid is poised to play an important role in the management of serious gram-positive infections.
vantin max dose
Cefpodoxime proxetil, a third-generation cephalosporin for oral administration, was synthesized by a method based on the following sequence of reactions: acylation of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) with S-benzothiazol-2-yl(2-amino-4-thiazolyl)(methoxyimino)thioacetate (MAEM), chloroacetylation of the cefotaxime formed with chloroacetyl chloride, esterification of the acid function with 1-iodoethyl isopropyl carbonate and final cleavage of chloroacetamide protective group by treatment with thiourea in N,N-dimethylacetamide. The developed procedure allows us to obtain better yields of cefpodoxime proxetil and to eliminate the final purification step by column chromatography, necessary during the synthesis of this antibiotic by the previously reported methods.
cost of vantin
twenty patients were selected, based on clinical assessment, to be converted from intravenous ceftriaxone to oral cefpodoxime proxetil. Twenty other comparable patients who would have been appropriate for step-down therapy, did not receive pharmacy intervention and were used as a control group.
vantin drug classification
A sensitive and selective electrochemical method for Cefpodoxime Proxetil (CP) determination has been developed by incorporating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto the poly-1,5-diaminonapthalene layer (p-DAN) coated pyrolytic graphite. The modified sensor was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The sensor exhibited an effective catalytic response towards oxidation of CP with excellent reproducibility and stability. The peak current of CP was found to be linear in the range of 0.1-12 μM and detection limit and sensitivity of 39 nM (S/N=3) and 4.621 μA μM(-1), respectively, were observed. The method was successfully applied for the determination of CP in pharmaceutical formulations and human urine samples. The common metabolites present in human urine such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine did not interfere in the determination. A comparison of the results obtained by using developed method with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated a good agreement. The method is simple, sensitive, rapid and precise and is useful for the routine determination of CP in pharmaceutical dosages and biological samples.
vantin 500 mg
Cefpodoxime proxetil (CS-807) is an orally active prodrug of an oxime-type cephem antibiotic. The MIC60 values of cefpodoxime (R-3746) the active form of CS-807, were 3.13, 6.25, 0.05, 0.38, 0.2, 0.1, 3.13, 3.13, 6.25, 6.25, 0.1 and 12.5 micrograms/ml against S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, S. pneumoniae, E. coli carrying R plasmids, P. vulgaris, P. rettgeri, C. freundii, S. marcescens, A. calcoaceticus, P. cepacia, ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae and B. fragilis, respectively. Its activity was stronger than that of cefaclor and ampicillin. R-3746 manifested little activity against P. aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and Enterococcus spp. R-3746 showed stronger binding affinity than cefaclor with the PBP2 of S. aureus, PBPs 1a, 1bs, 2 and 3 of E. coli, PBPs 1b, 1c and 3 of P. rettgeri, and the PBP3 of P. aeruginosa than cefaclor. Synergy of the bactericidal effect between R-3746 and serum complement was moderate, although the cells of E. coli NIHJ-JC2 and S. aureus 209P were well engulfed and rapidly digested by mouse-cultured macrophages in the presence of greater than 1/8 MIC of R-3746. Good clinical efficacy can be expected of CS-807 provided its pharmacokinetics prove to be good.
vantin 200mg generic
Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) is the most common bacterial cause of acute pharyngitis. Although children infected with GABHS will recover clinically without antibiotics, treatment is recommended in order to prevent acute rheumatic fever and probably suppurative complications, hasten resolution of clinical signs and symptoms, and prevent transmission to close contacts. Streptococcal pharyngitis usually cannot be reliably distinguished from other etiologies on the basis of epidemiologic or physical findings, and therefore a throat culture or a rapid antigen detection test is generally necessary to confirm the diagnosis. All isolates of GABHS are sensitive to penicillins and cephalosporins, whereas resistance to macrolides has been identified in some geographic regions. The recommended first-line therapy for streptococcal pharyngitis is a 10-day course of penicillin V, usually given 2 or 3 times per day. A number of alternatives to penicillin V are available, including other penicillins, macrolides, and cephalosporins. As a class, the cephalosporins are noteworthy because they may provide somewhat higher bacteriologic eradication rates than penicillin V. Many cephalosporins can be administered twice daily, but they also must be given for 10 days. Two third-generation cephalosporins, cefdinir and cefpodoxime proxetil, are approved for use in a more convenient 5-day dosing schedule, thus possibly increasing the likelihood of adherence to the full course of therapy. Palatability is also an important consideration when prescribing antibiotics to children. In a series of studies, children preferred the pleasant strawberry-cream taste of cefdinir to that of amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefprozil, and azithromycin. Cefdinir may offer an alternative to penicillin V for children with streptococcal pharyngitis, particularly when compliance is a clinical concern.
vantin oral suspension
In order to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of cefatrizine (Cefaperos) and cefpodoxime proxetil (Orelox) in the treatment of secondarily infected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults, a multicentre, randomized, open study was conducted by 60 general practitioners in two parallel groups of patient suffering from COPD complicated by an acute episode of superinfection (Anthoniesen stages 2 and 3). After verification of the eligibility criteria, written consent and randomization, the patients received, for 10 days, either cefatrizine at the dose of 1 g/day or cefpodoxime proxetil at the dose of 400 mg/day. A self-assessment form was given to the patient. A telephone visit was planned for D3. The final visit on D11 +/- 1 evaluated clinical efficacy (success or failure) and safety. The study population was composed of 250 patients with a mean age of 59.9 +/- 15.9 years (sex ratio M/F = 1.5). The principal etiology of COPD was chronic bronchitis in 67.5% of patients, longstanding asthma in 24.5% and emphysema in 6.8%. The mean history of the disease was 13.0 +/- 10.8 years. The Anthoniesen score was equal to 2 in 73.6% of patients, 3 in 8.8% of patients and 1 in 17.6% of patients. No significant difference concerning these criteria was observed between the two study groups. The clinical success rate was equivalent in the two groups. The time to regression of clinical signs tended to be shorter, up until the sixth day (mainly between D4 and D6) for patients treated with cefatrizine (p = 0.09; NS). The clinical safety was considered to be good and was comparable in the two study groups. This study concluded on the equivalent clinical efficacy of cefatrizine and cefpodoxime proxetil in the treatment of superinfections of COPD in general practice (97.5% and 99%, respectively), with a satisfactory and comparable safety, but with a much lower cost of treatment for cefatrizine. This conclusion is particularly important in the context of opposable medical references, as, although the treatment of superinfections of COPD by second and third generation cephalosporins is frequently proposed, the prescription of a less expensive cephalosporin appears to be more relevant.
Thirteen oral cephems (cefprozil, loracarbef, cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefetamet pivoxil, cefixime, cefdinir, cefadroxil, cephradine, cephalexin, cefatrizine, and cefroxadine), the cephalosporin class representative cephalothin, cefazolin, and the macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were compared for their antibacterial activities against 790 recent clinical isolates. These oral agents differed in their spectra and antibacterial potencies against community-acquired pathogens.
Cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR) is an oral cephalosporin antibiotic with poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability. Effect of beta-cyclodextrin on aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of cefpodoxime proxetil was evaluated by the formation of solid inclusion complexes in 1:2 molar ratio of drug: cyclodextrin. Phase solubility study was carried out whereby a typical B's type curve was obtained thus, indicating a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio for optimum complex formation. Solid inclusion complexes in 1:2 molar ratios were prepared by using methods such as physical mixture, solvent evaporation and freeze drying. Prepared complexes were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of in vitro studies appraised of an increased solubility and dissolution rate of cefpodoxime proxetil on complexation with beta- cyclodextrin (P < 0.05) as compared to CPDX-PR alone. Amongst the complexes prepared by different methods, the complex prepared by freeze drying showed the highest dissolution rate (P< 0.01). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of cefpodoxime proxetil and its freeze dried complex (1:2) was studied against both antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The freeze dried complex (1:2) inhibited all penicillin-susceptible strains and penicillinase-producing strains at 0.015 microg/ml concentration. Chromosomally resistant strains which were not responsive to penicillin were inhibited by the complex at 0.125 microg/ml concentration. The study revealed that complexation of cefpodoxime proxetil with beta-cyclodextrin effectively enhanced the aqueous solubility and in vitro antibacterial activity.
buy vantin online
In order to evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerance of cefpodoxime proxetil, compared with that of amoxicillin in the treatment of acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis, a randomized, double-blind, parallel group comparative study was performed. A total of 286 adults patients were included at 12 centres, each treatment group consisting of 143 patients. Each patient was treated for 10 days and observed before and after treatment. The observations included clinical, roentgenological, bacteriological and laboratory examinations. At inclusion, the most common pathogens were Haemophilus influenzae (24%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (17%). In the per protocol analysis, 117 patients in the cefpodoxime group and 113 in the amoxicillin group were evaluable for clinical efficacy. The clinical response rates were 96% and 91%, respectively. The corresponding figures in the intent-to-treat analysis were 130 and 128 patients, with clinical response rates of 93% and 88%, respectively. Cefpodoxime proxetil proved clinically as effective as amoxicillin in the treatment of acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis. It was more effective in eradicating H. influenzae and was more efficient in improving the radiological score. Adverse events were reported in 20% of cefpodoxime cases and in 16% of amoxicillin cases. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups.
vantin 200mg tab
Primary pediatric clinic.
vantin generic name
Cefpodoxime, the active de-esterified molecule of the orally absorbable cephalosporin cefpodoxime proxetil, inhibits streptococci, Neisseria spp., and most Enterobacteriaceae, with MIC50 and/or MIC90 values of less than or equal to 2 mg/L; with regard to the latter family of bacteria, the MIC50 and/or MIC90 values of cefpodoxime are consistently greater than or equal to 4 mg/L for only Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens, and Morganella morganii. The MIC50 of cedpodoxime for coagulase-negative staphylococci is greater than 2 mg/L, while the MIC for Staphylococcus aureus strains is 4 mg/L. In comparison with other orally absorbable cephalosporins, cefpodoxime is slightly less active than cefixime, cefetamet, and cefotiam against Gram-negative bacteria, but more active than cefuroxime, cefaclor, and cefalexin. Against staphylococci, the activity of cefpodoxime is comparable to that of cefotiam and cefuroxime, and superior to that of cefaclor, while cefixime and cefetamet have insufficient activity against these species. In common with other cephalosporins, cefpodoxime has no activity against enterococci. In vitro models simulating human serum cefpodoxime concentrations demonstrate that a dosage regimen of 200mg is probably sufficient to treat most infections. However, further study is needed to clarify whether infections due to bacteria such as S. aureus, with higher cefpodoxime MICs, can be treated with this dose regimen.
We studied the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) isolated from skin infections in 1992. For S. aureus, we measured the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the following 10 drugs: methicillin (DMPPC), cefaclor (CCL), gentamicin (GM), erythromycin (EM), clindamycin (CLDM), minocycline (MINO), vancomycin (VAN), fusidic acid (FA), ofloxacin (OFLX) and nadifloxacin (NDFX); for S. pyogenes, we determined the MICs of the following 9 drugs: ampicillin (ABPC), amoxicillin (AMPC), cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR), erythromycin (EM), clindamycin (CLDM), minocycline (MINO), norfloxacin (NFLX), of loxacin (OFLX) and nadifloxacin (NDFX). These drugs are frequently used to treat skin infections, either systemically or topically. NDFX is a new synthetic fluoroquinolone, recently developed for use as a topical acne medication in Japan. It is used NDFX for acne, but not for skin infections. There were no strains of S. aureus resistant to NDFX, VAN or FA. The resistance (> or = 12.5 micrograms/ml) of S. aureus was highest to GM and lowest to OFLX. Four strains of methicillin-resistant (> or = 12.5 micrograms/ml) S. aureus (MRSA) were found. In contrast, no resistant strains of S. pyogenes were found except to MINO. Only two strains of S. pyogenes were susceptible to MINO. The sensitivity of S. pyogenes to ABPC, AMPC, CPDX-PR, EM and CLDM was very good. All the strains were susceptible at a MIC below > or = 0.05 microgram/ml. However, the S. pyogenes strains were not very sensitive to the new quinolones, especially NFLX. We concluded that penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides are still effective against streptococcal infections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
In this study, a selective and sensitive LC/MS/MS method for the determination of trace amounts of cefmetazole (CMZ) and cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDXPR) contaminants in manufacturing environments was developed. The necessary sensitivity of this method was estimated based on the detection limit for Penicillin G required by the FDA and the total surface area and volume of the manufacturing facility. The detection limits of this method were estimated to be 10 pg/ml for CMZ and 5 pg/ml for CPDXPR from the signal to noise ratio and as a result satisfactory sensitivity was achieved. The method was linear in a concentration range from 0.20 to 3.20 ng/ml. The accuracy and precision were verified by the determination of the amount of CMZ and CPDXPR added to the sampling materials, a glass plate and a silica fiber filter. The mean recoveries of nine replicated determinations from the glass plate were 99.1% with 5.58%R.S.D. for CMZ and 97.1% with 3.80%R.S.D. for CPDXPR, and those from the silica fiber filter were 100.7% with 4.50%R.S.D. for CMZ and 95.4% with 2.85%R.S.D. for CPDXPR. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of CMZ and CPDXPR contaminants in samples collected from an actual manufacturing environment.
vantin drug interactions
Immediate antimicrobial therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nitrofurantoin, or fosfomycin is indicated for acute cystitis in adult women. Increasing resistance rates among uropathogens have complicated treatment of acute cystitis. Individualized assessment of risk factors for resistance and regimen tolerability is needed to choose the optimum empirical regimen.
vantin uti dosing
Cefpodoxime is an oral third-generation cephalosporin used for the treatment of acute upper-respiratory tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria in children. Although not indicated for the treatment of bacterial meningitis, it is used to treat other infections produced by organisms associated with meningitis and may obscure the result of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures in children who develop meningitis while receiving oral antibiotics if sufficient concentrations are achieved in the CSF. This study evaluated the disposition of cefpodoxime and penetration into CSF in piglets. Fifteen Landacre-Camborough cross piglets (10-20 days old) received cefpodoxime proxetil oral suspension (10 mg/kg). Repeated plasma and CSF samples were collected over 24 hours for quantitation of cefpodoxime by HPLC. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on both plasma and CSF data. The plasma concentration versus time data for cefpodoxime were best characterized using a one-compartment model with first-order absorption. The mean (+/- SD) pharmacokinetic parameters for Cmax, tmax, and AUC0-infinity were 23.3 +/- 12.9 mg/L, 3.9 +/- 1.4 h, and 237 +/- 129 mg/L.h, respectively. CSF/plasma ratios for AUC0-infinity demonstrated a mean cefpodoxime penetration of approximately 5%. CSF penetration of cefpodoxime was evident following a single oral dose of cefpodoxime proxetil suspension. Despite the small percentage of total cefpodoxime dose distributing into the CSF, the resultant concentrations approached or exceeded the MIC90 for many bacterial pathogens considered susceptible to cefpodoxime. Accordingly, clinicians should use caution in the interpretation of CSF cultures in patients who develop clinical signs and symptoms consistent with meningitis and who have been previously treated with cefpodoxime.
generic vantin 100mg
To compare bacteriologic and clinical efficacy and safety of 10 vs 5 days of cefpodoxime proxetil vs 10 days of penicillin V potassium for the treatment of acute group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children.
vantin tabs 200mg
An effective procedure for decontamination of beta-lactam antibiotic residues or contaminants in the pharmaceutical manufacturing environment was investigated. Decontamination with solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxylamine as agents for degradation was assessed. According to the results, the beta-lactam antibiotics were significantly degraded with sodium hydroxide and hydroxylamine. From the structural analysis of the degradation products of a cephem antibiotic, cefpodoxime proxetil, it was found that hydroxylamine degraded the beta-lactam structure under mild conditions, while sodium hydroxide did not. Therefore, hydroxylamine was considered an appropriate decontamination agent for beta-lactam antibiotics.
vantin antibiotic medication
The in vitro activity of the compound RU-51746, the sodium salt of cefpodoxime (which is administered orally as the ester cefpodoxime proxetil) was compared with that of other commonly used oral antibiotics against a selection of clinical isolates of common bacteria from patients with urinary tract, soft tissue and respiratory tract infections. RU-51746 was found to inhibit 90% of Enterobacteriaceae at less than 1 mg/l; pneumococci, pyogenic streptococci (Lancefield groups A, C and G) and Streptococcus agalactiae were almost all inhibited by concentrations of less than 0.06 mg/l; Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase producers) were inhibited by less than 1 mg/l; 90% of Branhamella catarrhalis were inhibited at less than 2 mg/l. Activity against Acinetobacter spp. and staphylococci was variable and enterococci were all resistant.
Absolute bioavailability of cefpodoxime proxetil is both limited by its low solubility in aqueous solution and its intraluminal hydrolysis. The oil-in-water submicron emulsion was proven to be effective in protecting the prodrug from the enzymatic attack in rabbit intestinal washings. The aim of the study was to perform a pharmacokinetic study in conscious rats to confirm o/w submicron superiority in comparison to other oral formulations (hydro-alcoholic solution, suspension and coarse emulsion). The pharmacokinetic study was performed in conscious rats implanted with permanent aortic catheters. A parenteral solution of cefpodoxime was injected via this catheter, and oral formulations were administered orally. The cefpodoxime plasma level was performed by a HPLC validated method. The pharmacokinetic parameters, t1/2, Cmax, tmax, AUC and absolute bioavailability (F) were determined with a non-compartmental analysis. The results show a significant increase of F for submicron emulsion (97.4%) between the other oral formulations. No significant difference of F was found between the other oral formulations, even with the coarse o/w emulsion. The o/w submicron emulsion made the enhancement of the absolute bioavailability of cefpodoxime proxetil possible. This benefit could be explained by the low droplet size of the submicron emulsion which improve the absorption process of the prodrug.
The proposed method was validated statistically and by performing a recovery study for determination of CEFPO and AMBRO in human plasma.
vantin renal dose
Pharmacokinetics of cefpodoxime, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin, were determined for eight noninfected patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and eight healthy volunteers. Subjects were matched for sex, age (+/- 6 years), and body weight (+/- 10 kg, except for one pair) and received a single 200-mg (cefpodoxime equivalents) oral dose of the prodrug cefpodoxime proxetil in an open-label, paired-design fashion. Dialysate (CAPD group only), plasma, and urine samples were collected and assayed for cefpodoxime by a microbiologic method. In addition, mean bactericidal titers of the effluent dialysate against selected bacterial strains often associated with CAPD-related peritonitis were determined at 6 and 24 h after the dose. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in all pharmacokinetic parameters between healthy and CAPD subjects, except for lag time to absorption. The mean peak plasma cefpodoxime concentration of 1.88 +/- 0.6 micrograms/ml occurred at 2.44 +/- 0.5 h for healthy volunteers, while the peak concentration of 3.25 +/- 1.4 micrograms/ml occurred at 12.0 +/- 4.2 h for patients on CAPD. The average elimination half-life in CAPD patients was approximately 12 times greater than that seen in healthy volunteers. Peritoneal dialysis had a minimal effect on cefpodoxime clearance. In healthy volunteers, 24.2% +/- 13% of the dose was recovered from the urine, in contrast to only 5.59% +/- 6.9% for CAPD patients. The mean bactericidal titers for all CAPD patients, at 6 and 24 h, were mostly less than 1:2 and did not exceed 1:4 for any of the isolates. Because of the decreased renal clearance and negligible dialysate clearance of cefpodoxime, and delayed drug absorption, the dosage interval for cefpodoxime proxetil may need to be extended in CAPD patients.
vantin drug class
Cefdinir (FK482), a new oral cephalosporin, displayed potent oral activity versus induced infections in mice. In studies using beta-lactamase-nonproducing (beta LAC-) and -producing (beta LAC+) Staphylococcus aureus strains, respective PD50s (in mg/kg) were 11 and 24 for preventing subcutaneous abscess and 2.7 and 2.3 for preventing lethal systemic infection. In studies using beta LAC- and beta LAC+ Haemophilus influenzae, respective PD50s were 5.8 and 3.1 for preventing lethal systemic infection. Time-kill studies versus H. influenzae showed that 6- to 12-mg/kg dosing was effective in reducing viable counts of these strains in blood by > or = 100-fold by 24 h after challenge. This in vivo performance was comparable to or exceeded values generated by cefaclor, cefpodoxime proxetil, and ampicillin.
vantin antibiotic dosage
The taste and acceptability of the oral suspension form of azithromycin vs. cefixime, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefprozil, clarithromycin or loracarbef were rated by children during blinded taste tests and with acceptability/ preference questionnaires.