This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of 'Triphala' on drug modulating enzymes to assess its safety through its potential to interact with co-administered drugs.
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We evaluated the preventive effects of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract on oxidative and antioxidative status in liver and kidney of aged rats compared to young albino rats. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin (LF), protein carbonyls (PCO), activities of xantione oxidase (XO), manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), levels of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E were used as biomarkers. In the liver and kidney of aged animals, enhanced oxidative stress was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of aqueous extract of T. cheubla effectively modulated oxidative stress and enhanced antioxidant status in the liver and kidney of aged rats. The results of the present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of T. cheubla inhibits the development of age-induced damages by protecting against oxidative stress.
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Triphala (TP) is composed of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia belerica. The present study was undertaken to evaluate its anticataract potential in vitro and in vivo in a selenite-induced experimental model of cataract. In vitro enucleated rat lenses were maintained in organ culture containing Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium alone or with the addition of 100μM selenite. These served as the normal and control groups, respectively. In the test group, the medium was supplemented with selenite and different concentrations of TP aqueous extract. The lenses were incubated for 24 h at 37°C. After incubation, the lenses were processed to estimate reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation product, and antioxidant enzymes. In vivo selenite cataract was induced in 9-day-old rat pups by subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (25 μmole/kg body weight). The test groups received 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg of TP intraperitoneally 4 h before the selenite challenge. At the end of the study period, the rats' eyes were examined by slit-lamp. TP significantly (P < 0.01) restored GSH and decreased malondialdehyde levels. A significant restoration in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05), catalase (P < 0.05), glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), and glutathione-s-transferase (P < 0.005) was observed in the TP-supplemented group compared to controls. In vivo TF 25mg/kg developed only 20% nuclear cataract as compared to 100% in control. TP prevents or retards experimental selenite-induced cataract. This effect may be due to antioxidant activity. Further studies are warranted to explore its role in human cataract.
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Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) family Combretaceae is an important plant used traditionally for medicinal purposes. It is component of the classic Ayurvedic combination called "Triphala". Hyperlipidemia was induced by treated orally with atherogemc diet. In atherogenic diet induced hyperlipidemic model, the rats receiving treatment with Haritaki showed significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein and elevation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Haritaki was found to possess significant hypolipidemic activity. The results also suggest that Haritaki at 1.05 and 2.10 mg/kg b.wt. concentrations are an excellent lipid-lowering agent.
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Despite the antibacterial functions of these herbal agents, there was increase in the biofilm formation caused by Streptococcus mutans to orthodontic bands, which had occurred most likely through upregulation of glucosyl transferase expression. These extracts may thus play an important role in increased bacterial attachment to orthodontic wires. Thus, this study was corroborative of an amalgamation of Ayurvedic therapy and Orthodontic treatment.
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To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of five herbal extracts, i.e., Propolis, AI, Triphala, C. longa, and MC with that of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis.
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Various concentrations of the formulation and its individual components showed significantly less inhibitory activity (p<0.001) on individual isoforms when compared with the positive control. Assessment on the in vitro effect of 'triphala' on drug modulating enzymes has important implications for predicting the likelihood of herb-drug interactions if these are administered concomitantly.
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Development of standardized, synergistic, safe and effective traditional herbal formulations with robust scientific evidence can offer faster and more economical alternatives for the treatment of disease. The main objective was to develop a method of preparation of guggulkalpa tablets so that the tablets meet the criteria of efficacy, stability, and safety.
The triphala mouthwash (herbal) is an effective antiplaque agent like 0.2% chlorhexidine. It is significantly useful in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, thereby controlling periodontal diseases in every patient. It is also cost effective, easily available, and well tolerable with no reported side effects.
Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties.
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The study spanned over 7 months and was conducted in Malappuram district of Kerala. A simple questionnaire having closed-ended questions was prepared and circulated among the physicians in the area. Demographic and other relevant details were obtained from the patients and the medicine system relied on was scrutinized.
Aim of the study was to determine protective effect of triphala on radiation-induced rectal mucosal damage. Male Sprague Dawley rats (30) were divided into 5 groups. Rats in group A were sham irradiated and rats in group B underwent only irradiation. Rats in group C were administered triphala 1 g/kg/day orally for 5 consecutive days before irradiation. Rats in group D and E were administered triphala 1 and 1.5 g/kg/day orally for 10 consecutive days, respectively. Rectal mucosal damage was induced by a single fraction of 12.5Gy gamma irradiation (Ir-192) on 5th day. All the rats were autopsied on 11th day and histological changes in surface epithelium, glands, and lamina propria were assessed. Proctitis showed significant improvement in surface epithelium (P < 0.024), glands (P < 0.000) and lamina propria (P < 0.002) in group E compared to group B. Rats in group E showed significantly less change in glands (P < 0.000) compared to rats in group D, All histological variables (surface epithelium, P < 0.001; glands, P < 0.000; lamina propria, P < 0.003) compared to rats in group C. In a Tukey-b test, group E had a significantly recovered grade for glands (P < 0.000) compared to groups B, C and D. Results of the present study showed that high-dose triphala improved radiation-induced damage of glands.
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Modern pharmaceutical processing can very well be adapted for Guggulu preparations.
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The preparations such as triphala which has great efficacy in treatment has to be further studied to establish the pathways and mechanism through which it acts. A collaborative effort between government, modern medicine and alternate medicine system can be highly effective in reducing the outbreaks of such epidemics through proper preventive and therapeutic strategies.
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Triphalaguggulkalpa tablet, described in sharangdharsanhita and containing guggul and triphala powder, was used as a model drug. Preliminary experiments on marketed triphalaguggulkalpa tablets exhibited delayed in vitro disintegration that indicated probable delayed in vivo disintegration. The study involved preparation of triphalaguggulkalpa tablets by Ayurvedic text methods and by wet granulation, dry granulation, and direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for loss on drying, volatile oil content, % solubility, and steroidal content. The tablets were evaluated for performance tests like weight variation, disintegration, and hardness.
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Terminalia actinophylla has been used for anti-diarrheic and haemostatic purposes in Brazil. The fly spot data obtained after exposure of marker-heterozygous Drosophila melanogaster larvae to T. actinophylla ethanolic extract (TAE) in the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses revealed that TAE did not induce any statistically significant increment in any spot categories. Differences between the two crosses are related to cytochrome P450 (CYPs) levels. In this sense, our data pointed out the absence of TAE-direct and indirect mutagenic and recombinagenic action in the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART). When the anti-genotoxicity of TAE was analyzed, neither mitomycin C (MMC) nor ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) genotoxicity was modified by the post-exposure to TAE, which suggests that TAE has no effect on the mechanisms involved in the processing of the lesions induced by both genotoxins. In the mwh/flr(3) genotype, co-treatment with TAE may lead to a significant protection against the genotoxicity of MMC and a weak but significant effect in the toxic genetic action of EMS. The overall findings suggested that the favorable modulations by TAE could be, at least in part, due to its antioxidative potential.
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To evaluate TG tablets to meet modern pharmaceutical approaches and also standardization processes.
Stress is one of the basic factors in the etiology of number of diseases. Cold-stress occurs when the surrounding temperature drops below 18 degrees C, the body may not be able to warm itself, and hence serious cold-related illnesses, permanent tissue damage and death may results. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis) against the cold stress-induced alterations in the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in four different groups (saline control, Triphala, cold-stress and Triphala with cold-stress) of Wistar strain albino rats. In this study cold-stress (8 degrees C for 16 h/d/15 days) was applied and the oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the changes in corticosterone levels. Upon exposure to the cold-stress, a significant (P<0.05) increase in immobilization with decrease in rearing, grooming, and ambulation behavior was seen in open field. Following cold-exposure, significant increase in the LPO and corticosterone levels was observed. Oral administration of Triphala (1 g/kg/animal body weight) for 48 days significantly prevented these cold stress-induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in albino rats. The results of this study suggest that Triphala supplementation can be regarded as a protective drug against stress.
The present study was carried out to investigate the protective role of Triphala (a combination in equal proportions by weight of fruit powder of Terminalia belerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis) against 1,2-dimethylhydrazinedihydrochloride (DMH) induced Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) in mouse liver. An oral dose of 3 mg/kg body wt in drinking water for 5 weeks significantly (P < 0.001) increased the levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin thus suggesting damage to mouse liver and biliary dysfunction. The DMH administration invariably led to increase in the liver microsomal proteins of molecular weight of about 29 (ERp29) and 53 kDa (ERp53) and decrease in the protein of molecular weight of 36 kDa (ERp36) thereby suggesting the interference of DMH and its metabolites with normal protein biosynthesis and folding, in the reticular membranes of the liver cells thus developing ER stress. Histological studies show necrosis, large sized hepatocytes with increased N:C ratio, aberrant mitotic figures and prominent nucleoli in the liver of DMH treated mice. In animals fed 5% Triphala in diet (w/w) during DMH administration, there was significant decrease in the above changes in the liver suggesting the suppression of DMH induced ER stress in liver. Triphala significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lipid peroxidation and also the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in mouse liver. It simultaneously increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) thereby suggesting that it prevents peroxidative damage and also diverts the active metabolites (electrophiles) of DMH from their interactions with critical cellular bio-molecules which could be responsible for its protective action against DMH.
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The research team obtained 42 fertile, male, Swiss albino mice, weighing 20 g each, and housed them individually in an approved small-animal facility, in a pathogen-free environment. The team generated DIO mice by feeding them a HFD.
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It is a randomized, retrospective, open-ended study. A total of 32 patients presenting with raised alanine transaminase (>1.5 times normal levels) combined with sonological evidence of fatty liver in the absence of any other detectable cause of liver disease were included in the study. The recruited patients were randomly divided into two groups - The patients in Group-A (n = 21) were given a combination of herbomineral drugs Ārogyavardhinī vaṭi and Triphalā Guggulu along with prescription of pathya (Ayurvedic dietary regime and physical exercise); the patients in Group-B (n = 11) were advised only pathya.
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"Triphala", the Ayurvedic wonder is used traditionally for the treatment of different types of diseases since antiquity. The hydroalcoholic extracts of the three components of Triphala powder demonstrated varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant uropathogenic bacteria. Terminalia chebula fruit extract was active against all the test isolates followed by Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. There was a close association between antibacterial activity and total phenolic content of Triphala components.The test plant extracts were also found to be non-toxic on human erythrocyte membrane at recommended and even higher doses. The preliminary results of the present study may help in developing effective and safe antimicrobial agents from Triphala components for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.
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The nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activities of traditional polyherbal drugs like abana, chyavanaprasha, geriforte, septilin, mentat and triphala were examined using sodium nitroprusside as a NO donor in vitro. All the drugs tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and were superior to Gingko biloba, which was used as a positive control. The extracts of various polyherbal drugs exhibited dose-dependent NO scavenging activities and the potency was in the following order: abana > chyavanaprasha > triphala > geriforte > septilin > mentat > Gingko biloba. The present results suggest that the traditional Indian polyherbal crude drugs may be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO, and thereby inhibit the pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite. These findings may also help to explain, at least in part, the pharmacological activities like rejuvenating, adaptogenic, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and neuroprotective activities of these traditional, clinically used non toxic drugs.
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were extracted from gingival tissue samples from 10 patients (six males, four females) with chronic periodontitis. Tissue extracts were treated with the drug solutions, the inhibition was analyzed by gelatin zymography, and the percentage of inhibition was determined by a gel documentation system.
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The present study gives an evidence of the protective role of Triphala extract against paracetamol-induced hepato-renal toxicity and validates its traditional claim in the Ayurveda system.
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A study to evaluate an antimutagenic potential of water, chloroform and acetone extracts of Triphala has been made in an Ames histidine reversion assay using TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium against the direct-acting mutagens, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD) and sodium azide, and the indirect-acting promutagen, 2-aminofluorene (2AF), in the presence of phenobarbitone-induced rat hepatic S9. A combination drug 'Triphala' - a composite mixture of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula and Emblica officinalis, has been used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of many malaises, such as heart ailments and hepatic diseases. The drug was sequentially extracted with water, acetone and chloroform at room temperature. The study revealed that water extract was ineffective in reducing the revertants induced by the mutagens. The results with chloroform and acetone extracts showed inhibition of mutagenicity induced by both direct and S9-dependent mutagens. A significant inhibition of 98.7% was observed with acetone extract against the revertants induced by S9-dependent mutagen, 2AF, in co-incubation mode of treatment. Various spectroscopic techniques, namely 1H-NMR, normal 13C-NMR, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT-90 and DEPT-135), UV and IR, are under way to identify the polyphenolic compounds from an acetone extract.
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Extracted human mandibular premolars sectioned below the cemento-enamel junction were placed in the tissue culture wells exposing the crown surface to S. mutans to form a biofilm. At the end of 3 rd and 7 th day, all groups were treated for 10 min with the test solutions and control and were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively.
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Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia.
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The colitis rats treated with higher dose of Triphala (300 mg/kg) exhibited normal parameters similar to normal control group animals, which is on par with standard drug mesalzine effect.
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Asthma mouse models were generated through intraperitoneal (IP) injections of ovalbumin (OVA)/2 weeks followed by repeated intranasal OVA challenges. Mice were then treated with normal saline (OVA/NS) or Triphala (OVA/TRP). Data were compared with mice treated with inhaled budesonide. All groups were assessed for allergen-induced hyperreactivity; lymphocytes from lungs, livers and spleens were analyzed for OVA-induced proliferation and their alterations were determined by flow cytometry. Oxidative reactivity using chemiluminescence, serum anti-OVA antibodies level and lung histology were assessed.