Efavirenz treatment has been associated with increases in HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and the circulating levels of the drug have been related to the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR-1) C3435T polymorphism. The changes in the measured lipid parameters were evaluated in 59 HIV-infected patients initiating efavirenz-based treatment at baseline and at 12 months of follow-up. Efavirenz treatment increased HDL-cholesterol. The changes in concentrations appeared to be influenced by the MDR-1 gene polymorphism, in which CC > CT > TT.
Unbound drug is the pharmacodynamically relevant concentration. This study aimed to determine if chronologic age or markers of biologic aging, such as the frailty phenotype and p16(INK4a) gene expression, altered unbound pharmacokinetics (PKs) of efavirenz (EFV) and atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/RTV). Sixty human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected participants receiving EFV and 31 receiving ATV/RTV provided 1 to 11 samples to quantify total and unbound plasma concentrations. Population PK models with total and unbound concentrations simultaneously described are developed for each drug. The unbound fractions for EFV, ATV, and RTV are 0.65%, 5.67%, and 0.63%, respectively. Covariate analysis suggests RTV unbound PK is sensitive to body size; unbound fraction of RTV is 34% lower with body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m(2) . No alterations in drug clearance or unbound fraction with age, frailty, or p16(INK4a) expression were observed. Assessing functional and physiologic aging markers to inform potential PK changes is necessary to determine if drug/dosing changes are warranted in the aging population.
Primary costimulated CD4(+) T-cells or macrophages were infected with a luciferase-bearing HIV reporter virus, permitting sensitive detection of viral gene expression under different drug treatment conditions. Relevant antiretroviral agents were added at various pre- or post-infection time points.
There were 926 HIV-infected patients undertaking ART in the hospital during the study period. Among them, 23.2% of patients undergoing lopinavir-based regimen, 8.4% efavirenz-based regimen, 4.2% darunavir-based regimen, 3.3% nevirapine-based regimen, 2.4% raltegravir-based regimen and 2.3% atazanavir-based regimen developed dyslipidemia. There were 76 patients (8.2%) who needed management of dyslipidemia (Table 1). Among them, 97% received lipid-lowering agents, and 17% switched to lipid-friendly ART (atazanavir, boosted atazanavir, boosted darunavir, nevirapine or raltegravir) despite statins or fibrates used. Mean values (mg/dL) of TC/ TG/LDL were, respectively, 279/422/139 before enrolment, 209/270/114 at 4-12 weeks and 206/250/121 at 48 weeks (p<0.05 for baseline compared to 4-12 weeks and 1 year, respectively). No obvious changes in HDL were noted. In Cox proportional hazard model, patients who received lopinavir (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.293; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.110-0.784; p=0.015) or efavirenz (aHR, 0.185; 95% CI, 0.072-0.447; p=0.005) were less likely to achieve normalization of TC (<200 mg/dL) and TG (<200 mg/dL). Modification of ART (aHR, 1.807; 95% CI, 0.828-3.944; p=0.137) did not change the outcome (Figure 1).
Hair concentrations are a noninvasive measure of cumulative antiretroviral exposure and the strongest predictor of viral suppression in large cohorts of nonpregnant patients. We examined hair concentrations of antiretrovirals in relation to virologic outcomes in pregnant and breastfeeding women for the first time.
The study confirms the higher level (60%) of exposure to HBV in HIV patients in Limpopo Province, as well as the high (20%) prevalence of HBsAg positivity and occult hepatitis B (33.7%). However, further studies are warranted to corroborate the benefit of lamivudine-containing HAART regimens, as HIV/HBV co-infected patients have a higher liver-related mortality if hepatitis B is not treated.
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Efavirenz (EFV) has been associated with reductions in vitamin D (25[OH]D) and tenofovir (TDF) with increased bone turnover, reductions in bone mineral density (BMD) and renal tubular dysfunction. We hypothesized that switching from fixed-dose TDF/emtricitabine (FTC)/EFV to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy (DRV/r) might increase 25(OH)D and BMD, and improve renal tubular function.
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Patients from 67 study centres on five continents were enrolled between Sept 14, 2006, and June 5, 2008. Eligible patients were infected with HIV-1, had viral RNA (vRNA) concentration of more than 5000 copies per mL, and no baseline resistance to efavirenz, tenofovir, or emtricitabine. Patients were randomly allocated by interactive voice response system in a 1:1 ratio (double-blind) to receive 400 mg oral raltegravir twice daily or 600 mg oral efavirenz once daily, in combination with tenofovir and emtricitabine. The primary efficacy endpoint was achievement of a vRNA concentration of less than 50 copies per mL at week 48. The primary analysis was per protocol. The margin of non-inferiority was 12%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00369941.
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The second in a series reviewing the HIV/AIDS antiretroviral drugs. This review summarizes the non-protease inhibitor antiretrovirals: nucleoside and nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and cell membrane fusion inhibitors. In an overview format for primary care physicians and psychiatrists, this review presents the mechanism of action, side effects, toxicities, and drug interactions of these agents.
The occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and hepatitis C is common in injection drug users, most of whom are opioid dependent. Methadone pharmacotherapy has been the most widely used treatment for opioid addiction in this population. Methadone has significant, adverse drug-drug interactions with many antiretroviral therapeutic agents that can contribute to nonadherence and poor clinical outcomes in this high-risk population. The present article summarizes current knowledge about interactions between methadone and antiretroviral medications. Buprenorphine is the newest agent available for the treatment of opioid dependence and may have fewer adverse interactions with antiretroviral agents. Buprenorphine has a significant pharmacokinetic interaction with efavirenz but no pharmacodynamic interaction; therefore, simultaneous administration of these drugs is not associated with opioid withdrawal, as has been observed with methadone. This promising finding may simplify the treatment of opioid-dependent patients with HIV disease and should also improve clinical outcomes for persons coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus.
The 4-benzyl and 4-benzoyl-3-dimethylaminopyridinones 13 and 14 are representatives of a new class of highly potent non nucleoside type inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. To conduct SAR studies on these two lead compounds, 102 new analogues were prepared. Thirty-three compounds displayed nanomolar range activity in vitro against wild-type HIV-1, and among these, 18 were active against the 103N, Y181C, and Y188L mutant strains with IC50 values inferior to 1 microM. Evaluation of this group of analogues against an additional eight single [100I, 101E, 106A, 138K, 179E, 190A, 190S, 227C] and four double HIV mutant strains [100I + 103N, 101E + 103N, 103N + 181C, and 227L + 106A], which are often present in HIV infected patients, permitted the selection of eight compounds, 17x, 18b, 18c, 18f, 18g, 27, 30, and 42, which are globally more active than the lead molecules 13/14, emivirine and the currently used NNRTI, nevirapine. Further comparison of the 3'-CN-substituted benzoylpyridinone compound 18c, and the corresponding 3'-acrylonitrile-substituted analogue 30, to efavirenz, the reference molecule in anti-HIV therapy today, revealed that the pyridinone analogues displayed a superior inhibition profile in the in vitro cellular assay system. These results form a solid basis for continued optimization of the pyridinone series.
All articles identified from the data sources and published in English were reviewed. Of these, studies and reports addressing voriconazole pharmacokinetics or interactions with antiretroviral agents were evaluated.
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Along with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have gained a definitive and important place in the treatment of HIV-1 infections, and are in rapid development. These compounds can be grouped into two classes: the first generation NNRTIs, mainly discovered by random screening, and the second generation NNRTIs, developed as a result of comprehensive strategies involving molecular modelling, rationale-based drug synthesis, biological and pharmacokinetic evaluations. The recent boom of NNRTIs is mainly due to their antiviral potency, high specificity and low toxicity. The rapid emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 strains induced by the first generation drugs is a disadvantage bypassed, in part, by the broad spectrum second generation NNRTIs. Starting from the first generation, this review will focus on the second generation NNRTIs dealing with the recent and most interesting published results, highlighting the guidelines for the development of a third generation of NNRTIs.
A Medline review of Phase II and III trials involving EVG as well as a review of abstracts from major HIV and infectious disease conferences from 2010 to 2011 was conducted. EVG produces rapid and durable virologic suppression when combined with active background therapy. Trials investigating the efficacy of once-daily co-formulated elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF) demonstrate a high rate of virologic suppression with fewer CNS and psychiatric adverse events compared with co-formulated efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir. The resistance profile for EVG is similar to raltegravir.
Clinic site and calendar year were important determinants of choice of drug at ART initiation, whereas clinical and demographic characteristics were more important in influencing the CD4 cell count at initiation of ART.
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Etravirine (ETV) is a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NNRTI) introduced recently for salvage antiretroviral treatment after the emergence of NNRTI-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Following its introduction, two naturally occurring mutations in HIV-1 RT, V106I and V179D, were listed as ETV resistance-associated mutations. However, the effect of these mutations on the development of NNRTI resistance has not been analyzed yet. To select highly NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 in vitro, monoclonal HIV-1 strains harboring V106I and V179D (HIV-1(V106I) and HIV-1(V179D)) were propagated in the presence of increasing concentrations of efavirenz (EFV). Interestingly, V179D emerged in one of three selection experiments from HIV-1(V106I) and V106I emerged in two of three experiments from HIV-1(V179D). Analysis of recombinant HIV-1 clones showed that the combination of V106I and V179D conferred significant resistance to EFV and nevirapine (NVP) but not to ETV. Structural analysis indicated that ETV can overcome the repulsive interactions caused by the combination of V106I and V179D through fine-tuning of its binding module to RT facilitated by its plastic structure, whereas EFV and NVP cannot because of their rigid structures. Analysis of clinical isolates showed comparable drug susceptibilities, and the same combination of mutations was found in some database patients who experienced virologic NNRTI-based treatment failure. The combination of V106I and V179D is a newly identified NNRTI resistance pattern of mutations. The combination of polymorphic and minor resistance-associated mutations should be interpreted carefully.
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Faldaprevir is a potent, once-daily hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor. STARTVerso4 assessed the efficacy and safety of faldaprevir and response-guided pegylated interferon α-2a/ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in individuals with HCV/HIV co-infection.
A total of 19 cases of SJS were documented. Eighty-four percent of cases were attributed to nevirapine (NVP) exposure whereas the remaining cases were caused by cotrimoxazole (11%) and efavirenz (5%). Median symptom onset was 22 days after initiation of the offending medication (interquartile range = 14-25 days). At time of SJS, 84% had advanced or severe immunosuppression. Forty-two percent of patients required hospitalization, and no SJS-associated deaths were known to occur. Use of efavirenz was attempted in 8 NVP-associated cases after SJS resolution and was successful in all except 1.
In the SHCS, patients are followed twice a year and scored by the treating physician as having 'fat accumulation', 'fat loss', or neither. Treatments, and reasons for change thereof, are recorded. Our study sample included all patients treated with cART between 2003 and 2006 and, in addition, all patients who started cART between 2000 and 2003.
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There was a trend toward association of the CYP2B6 polymorphism and plasma EFV concentrations in this study. Reduced EFV dose should be considered in CYPB6 *6/*6 carrier to keep the drug concentration in therapeutic range.
A dyslipidemic pattern was associated with HIV infection itself, was more severe in users of PI-containing HAART, but was not present in women taking non-PI HAART.