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Stromectol

Generic Stromectol is a high-calls medication which is used to treat infections caused by certain parasites. Generic Stromectol is an anti-parasite medication. It causes the death of certain parasitic organisms in the body. Generic Stromectol may also be used for other purposes.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Imidazothiazole, Benzimidazole

 

Also known as:  Ivermectin.

Description

Generic Stromectol is developed by qualified medical scientists for treating infections caused by certain parasites. Generic Stromectol is an anti-parasite medication. It causes the death of certain parasitic organisms in the body. Generic Stromectol may also be used for other purposes.

Dosage

Take Generic Stromectol orally with a full glass of water.

Take Generic Stromectol on an empty stomach, at least 30 minutes before or 2 hours after food. Do not take with food.

Take GenericGeneric Stromectol at regular intervals. Do not take it more often than directed.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Stromectol suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Stromectol and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at a room temperature between 4 and 30 degrees C (39 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Stromectol are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Stromectol if you are allergic to Generic Stromectol components or to other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives.

Be careful with Generic Stromectol if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

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P2X4 is an ATP-gated nonselective cation channel highly permeable to calcium. There is increasing evidence that this homomeric purinoceptor, which is expressed in several neuronal and immune cell types, is involved in chronic pain and inflammation. The current paucity of unambiguous pharmacological tools available to interrogate or modulate P2X4 function led us to pursue the search for selective antagonists. In the high-throughput screen of a compound library, we identified the phenylurea BX430 (1-(2,6-dibromo-4-isopropyl-phenyl)-3-(3-pyridyl)urea, molecular weight = 413), with antagonist properties on human P2X4-mediated calcium uptake. Patch-clamp electrophysiology confirmed direct inhibition of P2X4 currents by extracellular BX430, with submicromolar potency (IC50 = 0.54 µM). BX430 is highly selective, having virtually no functional impact on all other P2X subtypes, namely, P2X1-P2X3, P2X5, and P2X7, at 10-100 times its IC50. Unexpected species differences were noticed, as BX430 is a potent antagonist of zebrafish P2X4 but has no effect on rat and mouse P2X4 orthologs. The concentration-response curve for ATP on human P2X4 in the presence of BX430 shows an insurmountable blockade, indicating a noncompetitive allosteric mechanism of action. Using a fluorescent dye uptake assay, we observed that BX430 also effectively suppresses ATP-evoked and ivermectin-potentiated membrane permeabilization induced by P2X4 pore dilation. Finally, in single-cell calcium imaging, we validated its selective inhibitory effects on native P2X4 channels at the surface of human THP-1 cells that were differentiated into macrophages. In summary, this ligand provides a novel molecular probe to assess the specific role of P2X4 in inflammatory and neuropathic conditions, where ATP signaling has been shown to be dysfunctional.

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The antiparasitic ivermectin is of particular concern to regulatory agencies. Ivermectin can reach the environment through the direct emission of dung from livestock on pasture and via manure application on agricultural lands.

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In autumn, ivermectin treatment was efficient against peritonitis and in midsummer had a slight negative impact on the degree of peritonitis and positive on the fat layer, but deltamethrin had none. Ivermectin was efficient against adult S. tundra and its smf. All the reindeer herding cooperatives answered the questionnaire and it appeared that antiparasitic treatment of reindeer population was intense during the study period, when 64-90% of the animals were treated. In the southern part of the Finnish reindeer husbandry area, oral administration of ivermectin was commonly used.

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Larger livestock units, a decline in the farm labor force, animal welfare concerns, and a trend toward more selective use of drugs have increased the focus on animal handling, time management, convenience, and compliance in administering veterinary therapeutics. This study was undertaken to quantify and compare the time needed to treat commercial beef cattle with three fluke and worm combination products with different administration profiles. Young beef cattle (n = 270) weighing approximately 400 kg were allocated to batches of five, which were randomly assigned to receive ivermectin + clorsulon injection, ivermectin + closantel injection, or levamisole + triclabendazole oral drench. The mean time needed to administer ivermectin + clorsulon (single injection) to five cattle was 31 seconds, which was significantly less than the 100 seconds needed for ivermectin + closantel (two injections) and the 126 seconds needed for levamisole + triclabendazole (P < .001). Such quantitative data can allow for better planning and selection of parasiticide treatment approaches at the farm level.

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Clinical manifestations of subcutaneous filariasis in a yellow-collared macaw (Ara auricollis) included lameness induced by subcutaneous nodule formation, which was attributed to the presence of the filarial parasite Pelecitus sp. Following anthelmintic and corticosteroid therapeutic failure, the problem was resolved by surgically removing the adult worms.

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MDR1 (ABCB1) P-glycoprotein exerts a protective function in the blood-brain barrier thereby limiting the entry of many drugs and other xenobiotics to the central nervous system. A nonsense mutation has been described for Collies and related dog breeds which abolishes this function and is associated with increased susceptibility to neurotoxic side effects of several drugs including ivermectin, moxidectin and loperamide. In order to evaluate the occurrence and frequency of this nt230 (del4) MDR1 mutation in Germany, we screened 1500 dogs. Frequency of the homozygous mutated genotype was highest for Collies (33.0%), followed by Australian Shepherd (6.9%) and Shetland Sheepdog (5.7%). Thirty-seven percent of the Wäller dogs and 12.5% of the Old English Sheepdogs were heterozygous for the mutant MDR1 (-) allele. Considering the predominant role of MDR1 P-glycoprotein in drug disposition and in particular for blood-brain barrier protection, MDR1 genotype-based breeding programs are recommended for improving the safety of drug therapy in these canine breeds.

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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical administration of selamectin in rabbits naturally infested with Psoroptes cuniculi.

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Two premix products containing the endectocide ivermectin were compared for pharmacokinetic profiles and bioequivalence in young pigs. Test and reference articles were administered to individual pigs in-feed at 12-h intervals for a total of 14 doses. Plasma concentration-time profiles were compared after provision of the final doses of medicated feed, by which time steady-state concentrations of ivermectin had been achieved. The pharmacokinetic variables monitored were peak concentration (Cmax ), area under the curve (AUC)0-last , elimination half-life of the terminal phase (T1/2 λz) and average steady-state concentration (Css ), determined by noncompartmental analysis. Logarithmic transformation of the variables was carried out when appropriate. Analysis of data by the Classic Method yielded confidence intervals of 80.59-114.47 (for AUC0-last ), 90.38-119.68 (for Cmax ) and 84.70-111.96 (for Css ). It was concluded that the two articles were bioequivalent for ivermectin.

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Treatments for papulopustular rosacea (PPR) are limited.

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A total of 40 naturally fasciolosis infected goats having egg per gram more than 100 were randomly divided into four groups. Goats of Group I-III were treated with three different anthelmintics, whereas, goats of Group-IV were kept as control or untreated. Whole blood, serum, and fecal samples were collected on 0, 7(th), and 30(th) day of treatment.

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Since its introduction approximately seven years ago, selamectin (Stronghold/Revolution, Pfizer Inc.) has been used off-label to treat a number of ecto- and endoparasite conditions in dogs and cats. It has been used as a successful prophylactic against Dirofilaria repens and as a treatment for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in cats. It has also been used to treat notoedric mange, infestation with the nasal mite Pneumonyssoides caninum, Cheyletiella spp. and Neotrombicula autumnalis infestations and larval Cordylobia anthropophaga infection. However, to date attempts to treat generalised canine demodicosis have not been successful. In all cases, treatment was apparently well tolerated by the host.

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Citing earlier advances in the treatment of lymphatic filariasis [particularly the effectiveness of single-dose diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in reducing microfilaraemia and its enhanced effectiveness when co-administered with single-dose ivermectin], Eric Ottesen, Mahroof Ismail and John Horton consider recent studies on the antifilarial activity of albendazole that have led to the current recommendations for its use in single-dose regimens in conjunction with either DEC or ivermectin for large-scale control/elimination programmes. Furthermore, the potential of albendazole as a macrofilaricide for treating individual patients with lymphatic filarial infections is emphasized as one of a number of important research questions that remain to be explored.

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Prospective study of immigrant patients with eosinophilia (> 500 Eo/μL) attended in a reference Tropical Medicine Unit and evaluated through the implementation of a specific protocol structured in different levels meant to be accomplished depending on the findings of each previous level.

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An analytical method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the following endectocide drugs in milk: ivermectin, abamectin, doramectin, moxidectin, eprinomectin, emamectin and nemadectin. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, purified with solid-phase extraction on a reversed phase C(8), derivatised with N-methylimidazole, trifluoroacetic anhydride and acetic acid to a stable fluorescent derivative, and were further analysed by gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on an endcapped reversed phase Supelcosil LC-8-DB. The derivatisation step was mathematically optimised and the method was validated according to the requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, using fortified raw bovine milk. Mean recovery was between 78 and 98%. The repeatability (CV(r)) and within-laboratory reproducibility (CV(W)) ranged from 4.6 to 13.4% and from 6.6 to 14.5%, respectively. Decision limits (CCalpha) for analytes with MRL values, namely eprinomectin and moxidectin, were determined to be 24.8 and 50.6 microg kg(-1), respectively. CCalpha values for unauthorised endectocides ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 microg kg(-1). Due to high acceptability regarding the required criteria and applicability to ovine and caprine milk, giving similar results, this multi-analyte method has been successfully implemented in pharmacokinetic research studies as well as statutory residue monitoring in Slovenia.

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Ivermectine, MECTIZAN patented, is a new anti-parasitic product with wide spectrum, is an efficient microfiliar destructive, and is well tolerated by human being struck down by onchocercosis (filariasis which affects badly local populations in the endemic centres). The launching of a therapeutic mass campaign in North Cameroon in 1987, at an onchocercosis centre located in Sahel savanna (Vina Valley) provides more precise methodology to be used in the field and provides the analysis of the results already obtained; these results seem to be favourable both on parasitologic and ophthalmologic point of view. A new epoch begins, that way, mainly for ophthalmologists and also for all practitioners desirous to fight against onchocercosis which is both a gruesome scourge and a health problem in Black Africa.

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Onchocerciasis is endemic in a number of tropical countries in Africa and South America, and it is occasionally diagnosed as an imported disease in non-endemic areas.

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The studies reported here were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of doramectin, given intramuscularly at the rate of 300 micrograms kg-1 of bodyweight, in the treatment of naturally acquired porcine nematodosis and acariasis. Twenty pigs demonstrated to be naturally infected with pulmonary and gastrointestinal nematodes were used in one control study, and 22 pigs demonstrated to be naturally parasitized with Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis were used in a second study. In both studies, animals were evenly divided between doramectin plus vehicle and vehicle-treated groups by restricted randomization. In the anthelmintic study, all pigs were necropsied for parasite collection on post-treatment Days 14 and 15. The acaricidal evaluation study was 28 days in duration after treatment, with mite population quantifications on the day of treatment and on post-treatment Days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Doramectin proved 100% effective in the removal of Metastrongylus salmi, M. elongatus, M. pudendotectus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. Levels of Hyostrongylus rubidus, Ascarops strongylina and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, as observed at necropsy in the doramectin-treated pigs, were reduced by 99.2%, 99.5% and 62.1%, respectively, as compared with levels seen in the control pigs. In regard to Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis, no live mites were recovered from doramectin-treated pigs during the 7-28 day post-treatment period. In conclusion, doramectin proved highly effective in the treatment of naturally acquired porcine nematodosis and Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis infestation. In addition, all treatments were safe and well tolerated, with no adverse reactions noted in any trial animals.

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A reduction in efficacy of abamectin and/or ivermectin against field isolates of H. contortus was identified from two farms in the New England region of New South Wales. The persistent effect of moxidectin was reduced against both isolates.

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Young male pigs (25-40 kg bw) were treated experimentally with a single 0.4 mg/kg bw, s.c. dose of ivermectin (Ivomec vet. inj., MSD). The disappearance of the drug from the edible tissues 7-21 days after treatment was studied using a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The highest residue levels were found at the injection site (up to 59 and 2.6 mg/kg 7 and 14 days post-injection, respectively). Among the other tissues studied, the residue levels 7 days post-injection showed the following order: liver (less than or equal to 50 micrograms/kg) greater than kidney (less than or equal to 25 micrograms/kg) greater than muscle (less than or equal to 20 micrograms/kg). After 21 days only traces of ivermectin (less than or equal to 2 micrograms/kg) could be detected in the muscle and other edible tissues, including the injection site. Similar residue concentrations were found in slaughterhouse material from sows therapeutically treated with ivermectin for parasite infestation. An ordinary culinary preparation of the minced beef muscle from a bull treated with ivermectin resulted in a 45% (boiling) or 50% (frying) decrease in the drug residue. Based on the known toxic effects of the drug and the results of the present and other residue studies, the suggested withdrawal time for Ivomec in edible tissues of swine and cattle is 21 and 28 days, respectively.

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The authors investigated a nosocomial scabies outbreak in a close psychiatric ward. The index case was a man with steroid-induced localized crusted scabies. Twenty-six patients were diagnosed with scabies, 4 of them had relapse of scabies, while no staff was infested. Despite frequent surveillance and treatment of symptomatic patients with 1% gamma-benzenehexachloride (gamma-BHC: Lindane), new cases were observed. Thus, all 69 patients in the ward were treated with ivermectin (200 microg/kg) simultaneously on day 105 of the outbreak (the mass treatment). Patients who had scabies were compared with patients who had no scabies in terms of age, body weight, diabetes, physical functions, topical administration of corticosteroid, proximity to the index patient, and problematic behavior.

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Reported adverse events were mild and managed at the subdistrict level with no cases of hospitalization; intensive health education will, however, be required to improve coverage.

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Oral ivermectin may prove to be a time- and labor-saving alternative to topical scabicide treatments, especially in the institutional setting where labor shortages make the management of scabies outbreaks a true challenge. However, the use of this agent does not change the need to decontaminate the environment (clothing, bedding, bed clothes, and, in selected cases, floors and walls) in order to truncate an outbreak and prevent reinfestation.

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Data from a survey of endemicity of human onchocerciasis and subsequent mass distribution of ivermectin to control this disease in 9 villages of the Nzerem-Ikpem community in the Imo River basin of Nigeria are presented. Of the 1126 persons examined, 46.2% were positive for skin microfilarial, 29.2% for leopard skin, 34.2% for palpable subcutaneous nodules and 14.8% for various types of onchodermatitis. Ivermectin was distributed to a total of 1934 persons living in 233 households. The treatment coverage rate was 51%. 12.8% of those treated reported various mild reactions to the microfilaricide. Implications for community participation and long term sustenance of mass distribution programs are discussed.

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A female neutered Jack Russell Terrier was examined for acute onset of apparent blindness after being exposed to ivermectin the previous day. The dog appeared to be blind during initial examination. Pupillary light reflex, menace response, and dazzle reflex were not present in either eye. Fundic examination revealed small areas of linear retinal edema. Electroretinography (ERG) showed diminished activity in both eyes. Ivermectin was present in the serum on toxicological assay. Approximately 20 hours after exposure, IVL was infused. Within 30 minutes of initiating the infusion, the pupillary light reflexes returned in both eyes, and by the end of the infusion the patient behaved as if sighted. Fundic examination and ERG were unchanged at this time. The dog was tested for the multidrug resistance gene mutation and was unaffected.

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Twenty-one greyhound bitches were bred (Day 0) and housed throughout their pregnancies on three greyhound breeding farms in Kansas. These dogs were assigned randomly to one of four treatment groups. Group A dogs (6) were given ivermectin subcutaneously (300 microg/kg) on Day 0 (the first day the dogs were bred), and Days 30 and 60 of gestation. Group B dogs (6) were given ivermectin (300 microg/kg SQ) on Day 42. Group C dogs (3) were given ivermectin (300 microg/kg SQ) on Days 0, 30, and 60 plus 10 days after whelping. Group D dogs (6) served as controls and received no anthelmintic. Bitches and puppies were moved to the university on the day after birth and were maintained inside for 28 days. Weekly quantitative fecal exams were done on the bitches during this time. The puppies were euthanized humanely at 28 days of age. Intestinal parasites were recovered, identified, counted, sexed, and preserved in either 10% formalin or frozen at -70 degrees C. The geometric mean numbers of adult Toxocara canis in the small intestines for Group A puppies (n = 40) were 2.8, 8.5 for Group B puppies (n = 39), and 29.7 for Group D puppies (n = 28). No adults were found in the Group C puppies (n = 15). The geometric mean eggs per gram of feces from the pups in group A, B, and D were 1.3, 704, and 27, 134, respectively. No eggs were recovered from the Group C pups. The strategic use of ivermectin at 300 microg/kg in greyhound bitches on Days 0, 30, and 60 of gestation reduced the worm burden carried by the puppies by 90% and the actual number of eggs passed into the environment by 99.8%. The same dose on day 42 reduced the worm burden by 71.4% and the number of eggs passed into the environment by 97.4%. This dose given on days 0, 30, and 60 plus 10 days postwhelping, reduced the worm burden by 100%, and no eggs were passed into the environment.

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Two controlled slaughter trials were undertaken. In the first, 30 sheep on pasture were randomly allocated on the basis of faecal egg count to 1 of 3 groups, comprising an untreated control group and 2 treatment groups. One treatment group was given a single oral dose of ivermectin and the other a single oral dose of moxidectin, both at the manufacturer's recommended dose rates of 0.2 mg/kg liveweight. Six days after treatment, all animals were slaughtered and their abomasa recovered for worm counting. The second trial, which involved 47 animals, was essentially the same as the first except that, as well as involving the slaughter of 30 sheep from all 3 groups, 6 days after treatment, it also included a further 8 untreated control animals and 9 moxidectin treated animals which were slaughtered 27 days after treatment.

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stromectol pediatric dosage 2016-01-05

Case series is presented. Serum buy stromectol ivermectin concentrations were evaluated in the 6 hospitalized horses. The remnants of the tubes of ivermectin paste were analyzed for ivermectin concentration. The hay fed to the affected horses was analyzed for the presence of toxic plants.

stromectol ivermectin dose 2016-06-20

Little is buy stromectol known about how cells assemble as systems during corticogenesis to generate collective functions. We built a neurobiology platform that consists of fetal rat cerebral cortical cells grown within 3D silk scaffolds (SF). Ivermectin (Ivm), a glycine receptor (GLR) agonist, was used to modulate cell resting membrane potential (Vmem) according to methods described in a previous work that implicated Ivm in the arrangement and connectivity of cortical cell assemblies. The cells developed into distinct populations of neuroglial stem/progenitor cells, mature neurons or epithelial-mesenchymal cells. Importantly, the synchronized electrical activity in the newly developed cortical assemblies could be recorded as local field potential (LFP) measurements. This study therefore describes the first example of the development of a biologically relevant cortical plate assembly outside of the body. This model provides i) a preclinical basis for engineering cerebral cortex tissue autografts and ii) a biofidelic 3D culture model for investigating biologically relevant processes during the functional development of cerebral cortical cellular systems.

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For many years, hypodermosis control - which started in the 1920's - was unsatisfactory, partly due to a lack of efficacy or a too high toxicity of the available products. An improved control became possible with the introduction (1957) of the organophosphate Metrifonate (Neguvon®, Bayer AG). Subsequent large-scale campaigns according to the Federal Ordinance on epizootic diseases (1967) quite reduced hypodermosis in Switzerland. However, due to a limited use of the product (only young and alpine-grazing cattle were allowed to be treated, administratively indicated maximum dose, side-effects) and its incomplete efficacy, a full control was not possible. The decision to maintain hypodermosis as a "notifiable" disease then allowed further epidemiological studies. In 2000/2001 a concerted action in close cooperation with the cantonal veterinarians allowed a consequent buy stromectol and systematic treatment of all cattle in all endemic areas by the large-scale use of Eprinomectin (Eprinex®, Merial Inc.) for dairy cattle and of Ivermectin (Merial Inc.) as microdose "off-label" for young cattle has led to a rapid and sustainable success.

stromectol lice dosing 2016-05-24

Because lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination efforts are hampered by a dearth of buy stromectol economic information about the cost of mass drug administration (MDA) programs (using either albendazole with diethylcarbamazine [DEC] or albendazole with ivermectin), a multicenter study was undertaken to determine the costs of MDA programs to interrupt transmission of infection with LF. Such results are particularly important because LF programs have the necessary diagnostic and treatment tools to eliminate the disease as a public health problem globally, and already by 2006, the Global Programme to Eliminate LF had initiated treatment programs covering over 400 million of the 1.3 billion people at risk.

stromectol scabies dosage 2017-04-02

Twenty first-season Holstein crossbred calves were used in a study conducted to investigate the efficacy of two strategic treatments with doramectin (s.c. 200 micrograms kg-1 bodyweight). They were allocated in two equal groups: Group D was treated with doramectin at turn-out and 8 weeks later and Group C served as control group. Tracers were used at turn-out, in August and before housing. At monthly intervals all principal animals were weighed, and their faeces were sampled for faecal egg counts and cultured for larval identification. Serum samples were collected for determination of pepsinogen. Animals were slaughtered for worm counts 3 weeks after housing. Clinical signs of parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE) in Group C necessitated a salvage treatment with pyrantel citrate. No signs of PGE were seen in Group D. The faecal egg output remained very low (less buy stromectol than 50 eggs g-1) in Group D, whereas in Group C a mean geometric maximum of 352 eggs g-1 was observed. Pepsinogen levels were below 2000 mU tyrosine in Group D, compared with maximum levels of 4190 mU tyrosine in Group C. The worm counts of the tracers at housing showed an overall reduction of 94% in the total number of gastrointestinal nematodes present on the D pasture, compared with the C pasture. Worm counts of the principal animals showed an 87.8% reduction in the total worm burden. The present results show clearly that doramectin given at turn-out and at Week 8 controls PGE in calves during the first grazing season.

stromectol dosage 2016-10-01

Simple acyl thioesters are used as precursors for both the initiation and elongation steps in polyketide biosynthetic processes. Several structurally related polyketide products are sometimes made in these processes. These analogs are typically generated by a combination of two factors: availability of structurally similar biosynthetic precursors, and biosynthetic enzymes unable to effectively discriminate between them. Often, only one polyketide product is desired from a fermentation process, requiring a method to control the ratio of these different analogs. Preferential production of one desired analog is accomplished using random mutagenesis and manipulation of fermentation conditions. A genetic enzymatic understanding of polyketide biosynthesis, as well as the pathways buy stromectol that provide the relevant precursors, allows for a rational and more contemporary approach for control of analogs produced in fermentation processes. This approach involves genetic manipulation of either the pathways that provide pools of the acyl CoA thioester precursors, or the function/specificity of the appropriate biosynthetic enzymes. Reviewed herein are three such examples where these approaches have been carried out successfully with polyketide biosynthetic processes.

stromectol with alcohol 2017-10-19

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are parasitic nematode infections that are responsible for a major disease burden in the African continent. Disease symptoms are induced by the immune reactions of the host, with lymphoedema and hydrocoele in LF, and dermatitis and ocular inflammation in onchocerciasis. Wuchereria bancrofti and Onchocerca volvulus, the species causing LF and onchocerciasis in Africa, live in mutual symbiosis with Wolbachia endobacteria, which cause a major part of the inflammation leading to symptoms and buy stromectol are antibiotic targets for treatment. The standard microfilaricidal drugs ivermectin and albendazole are used in mass drug administration programmes, with the aim of interrupting transmission, with a consequent reduction in the burden of infection and, in some situations, leading to regional elimination of LF and onchocerciasis. Co-endemicity of Loa loa with W. bancrofti or O. volvulus is an impediment to mass drug administration with ivermectin and albendazole, owing to the risk of encephalopathy being encountered upon administration of ivermectin. Research into new treatment options is exploring several improved delivery strategies for the classic drugs or new antibiotic treatment regimens for anti-wolbachial chemotherapy.

stromectol medicine costs 2017-04-29

An experiment was carried out to study the effect of topical application of eprinomectin at early patency on the build up of infection and development of protection against Dictyocaulus viviparus in young cattle. Three groups of six calves were used and parasitological and blood variables were monitored at weekly intervals throughout the trial. At the start of the experiment calves in groups A and B were experimentally inoculated with 100 D. viviparus infective third-stage larvae (L3) for five consecutive days, whereas calves in group C served as uninfected controls. The calves in group A were buy stromectol each treated with eprinomectin (0.5mg/kg bodyweight) in a pour-on formulation at early patency at day 24 post the first inoculation, whereas the calves in groups B and C were left untreated. Seven weeks following anthelmintic treatment all groups were challenged with 1500 L3. Another 4 weeks later the animals were sacrificed and established worms in the lungs were counted. Moderate transient signs of lungworm disease occurred both in groups A and B. However, group B calves were found to be about 8 times more resistant than those in group A, whereas the naive infection controls in Group C was found to be about 35 times more susceptible to infection. Also the ELISA values showed that the course of infection was different between experimental groups. The eosinophil counts prior to and at the time of slaughter indicate that immunity was involved in the protection and the response was correlated with previous exposure and worm load. Weight gains differed significantly, but only between groups A and C and between groups B and C that on an average were approximately 13kg heavier at the termination of the experiment. It was concluded that eprinomectin was effective against established adult lungworms. However, the untreated calves (group B) developed a more marked resistance to lungworms compared to those that were subjected to anthelmintic treatment at early patency (group A). On the other hand, the cumulative number of excreted larvae was on an average 43 times higher in group B as compared to group A. Consequently, infected calves that remain out on pasture should be treated. This will restrain transmission of the parasite despite the fact that immunity is deteriorated.

stromectol online uk 2016-07-20

The authors used 14 New Zealand rabbits (5 naturally infested rabbits and 9 in-contact rabbits) for Sarcoptes scabiei treatment in this study. Signs, such as itchy ears, eyes, tail buy stromectol and abdominal skin, alopecia and pyoderma, were considered to be the cause of these disorders. Infested rabbits were grouped according to the intensity of S. scabiei infestation (low, medium and high). Each group was then divided into two subgroups; in one subgroup the rabbits received ivermectin (1%) and, in the other, doramectin (1%). All subgroups received a subcutaneous injection at a dosage of 400 microg/kg body weight every 80 h on three occasions. On day 28 after commencing the treatment, all the rabbits in the first two groups had recovered completely. Although both drugs were applied at the same time and at the same dose, the third group (high degree of infestation), revealed, both microscopically and macroscopically, that ivermectin has more rapid effect than doramectin. Treatment was effective in all groups.

stromectol 6mg tablet 2016-11-04

A primary in vitro screen was developed to screen for drug activity against isolated Onchocerca gibsoni. The assay estimates variation in motility through the use of a motility meter. Of the seven compounds tested in the screen; ivermectin, CGP 6140, CGP20376, Mel W and furapyrimidone gave MI50 concentrations (the concentration at which the motility was reduced to 50% of the control value at 72 hours) below 10(-4) M, whereas suramin gave variable results depending on the varying susceptibility of individual worms and levamisole at 10(-4) M had no significant effect on the worms. The effects of these drugs were not reversible as removal buy stromectol of the worms into drug-free medium caused no increase in motility. Thus the reduction in motility is regarded as indicating significant metabolic damage. The results compared favourably with reported in vivo tertiary screens for activity against Onchocerca species. This is a quantitative, inexpensive and reproducible method for assessing the effectiveness of drugs against Onchocerca and could be included into the primary screens for activity against filarial worms.

stromectol overdose 2015-08-30

Forty-nine sheep artificially exposed to a thiabendazole (TBZ) resistant isolate of Haemonchus contortus were assigned to 7 groups of 7 animals each and used to conduct a controlled anthelmintic buy stromectol trial. One group of sheep served as untreated infected controls and 6 groups were treated as follows: closantel, 5.0 mg kg-1; ivermectin, 0.2 mg kg-1; oxfendazole, 5.0 mg kg-1; thiophanate, 50 mg kg-1, levamisole, 7.5 mgkg-1 and thiabendazole, 66 mg kg-1. Eggs per gram of faeces were determined on days 21, 24 and day 34 (10 days post-treatment) after infection and all animals were necropsied for residual worm counts. The calculated efficacies of the treatments against H. contortus as indicated by worm reduction were closantel (100%), ivermectin (99.3%), oxfendazole (35.2%), thiophanate (56.7%), levamisole (98.6%) and thiabendazole (24.3%). The data therefore indicate that the TBZ-resistant isolate of H. contortus used was highly resistant to the 2 benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics, oxfendazole and thiophanate. This is the first report in Kenya of a field strain of H. contortus resistant to thiophanate.

stromectol cost 2016-11-04

A series of 10 dose confirmation studies was conducted to evaluate the persistent activity of an extended-release injectable (ERI) formulation of eprinomectin against single point challenge infections of gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes of cattle. The formulation, selected based on the optimal combination of high nematode efficacy, appropriate plasma profile, and satisfactory tissue residue levels, includes 5% poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic)acid (PLGA) and is designed to deliver eprinomectin at a dose of 1.0mg/kg bodyweight. Individual studies, included 16-30 cattle blocked based on pre-treatment bodyweight and randomly allocated to treatment with either ERI vehicle or saline (control), or the selected Eprinomectin ERI formulation. Treatments were administered once at a dose volume of 1 mL/50 buy stromectol kg bodyweight by subcutaneous injection in front of the shoulder. In each study, cattle were challenged with a combination of infective stages of gastrointestinal and/or pulmonary nematodes 100, 120 or 150 days after treatment and were processed for parasite recovery according to standard techniques 25-30 days after challenge. Based on parasite counts, Eprinomectin ERI (1mg eprinomectin/kg bodyweight) provided >90% efficacy (p<0.05) against challenge with Cooperia oncophora and Cooperia surnabada at 100 days after treatment; against challenge with Ostertagia ostertagi, Ostertagia lyrata, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Ostertagia circumcincta, Ostertagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus axei, and Cooperia punctata at 120 days after treatment; and against challenge with Haemonchus contortus, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Oesophagostomum radiatum and Dictyocaulus viviparus at 150 days after treatment. Results of a study to evaluate eprinomectin plasma levels in cattle treated with the Eprinomectin ERI formulation reveal a characteristic second plasma concentration peak and a profile commensurate with the duration of efficacy. These results confirm that the Eprinomectin ERI formulation can provide high levels of parasite control against a range of nematodes of cattle for up to 5 months following a single treatment.

buy stromectol 6mg 2015-03-13

A total of 459 charts were identified, with 428 meeting inclusion criteria. Demographic data, diagnostic method, treatment choice, misdiagnosis rate, treatment failure, and itching after scabies are also reported Hytrin Overdose . Children were the largest age group diagnosed with scabies, at 38%. Males (54%) were diagnosed with scabies more than females. The majority of diagnoses were made by visualizing ova, feces, or mites on light microscopy (58%). At the time of diagnosis, 45% of patients had been misdiagnosed by another provider. Topical permethrin was the most common treatment used (69%), followed by a combination of topical permethrin and oral ivermectin (23%), oral ivermectin (7%), and other treatments (1%).

stromectol 6 mg 2016-04-29

Twenty five patients Zoloft 100 Mg and fourteen healthy volunteers.

stromectol medicine 2017-01-30

Macrolide endectocides (abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin) are used to treat animals against a variety of parasites. They are approved for use Depakote 3000 Mg with food animals, but require long withdrawal times. Two compounds, eprinomectin and moxidectin, are approved for use with lactating cattle and have established maximum residue limit values of 20 and 40 microg/kg, respectively. The remaining compounds may appear in milk if there is off-label or accidental use. This method is capable of quantitating and confirming the presence of six of the macrolide endectocides over the concentration range 1-60 microg/kg (parts per billion). Selamectin is used as the internal standard. The compounds are extracted with C18 solid-phase extraction under basic conditions and quantitated by negative ion LC-MS/MS using one selected reaction monitoring transition, with a second transition used for verification. The limits of detection were determined from between-day experiments as 0.14, 0.14, 0.18, 0.24, 0.25, and 0.25 microg/kg for abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin, respectively. The detection capability CCbeta for eprinomectin was measured as 28.5 microg/kg, and 50.0 microg/kg for moxidectin using five milk matrices.

stromectol scabies reviews 2016-09-03

We aimed Tofranil 25mg Tab to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin in the treatment of scabies in an institutional environment.

stromectol 12mg online 2017-09-02

Quill mites ( Artane Drug Wikipedia Gabucinia bicaudata) and lice (Struthiolipeurus struthionis) may infest ostrich feathers, resulting in skin damage, pruritus and excessive feather preening and loss. Four different feather types (prime white, femina extra wide, femina class 1, and femina short; n = 10) were collected. The quill mites and lice were removed with fine forceps, studied using a photographic optical microscope and counted microscopically at x 100 magnification following collection by sedimentation. They were placed in separate Petri dishes containing lactophenol solution and examined (x40 magnification). Anatomical features are described. The density of quill mites in all feather types of both wings was higher than that of the lice. There was no significant difference between the counts of both arthropods on the left wing and the right wing, respectively, except for the femina class 1 quill mites (P = 0.01). The femina extra wide feathers were a preferred habitat in both wings. Large standard deviations (quill mites left wing: 73 +/- 8; quill mites right wing: 69 +/- 7) suggested variations in the degree of migration between feather shafts or as a response to escape preening. It is recommended that ostriches be treated with an oral preparation of Ivermectin administered per os at a dosage rate of 0.2 mg/kg at 30-day intervals for quill mites, and with a 1-5 % Malathion dust at 14-day intervals for lice.

stromectol recommended dosage 2015-01-26

The presence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been described previously. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome (SHS) that usually develops in patients under immunosuppressive therapy may affect a variety of organs, Geodon 800 Mg but the presentation with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is rare with only a few cases described in the literature. We present the case of a 36-year-old Hispanic female with a past medical history relevant for SLE and a recent diagnosis of lupus nephritis and hypertension. The patient who developed sudden and progressive abdominal pain and respiratory distress, with the presence of bilateral crackles and severe hypoxemia, is currently under treatment with steroids and cyclophosphamide for worsening of lupus nephritis. The patient underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, and computed tomography showed the presence of bilateral pulmonary infiltrates suggestive of DAH. Bronchoalveolar lavage was done and showed the presence of filariform larvae, morphologically consistent with Strongyloides stercoralis. Treatment with ivermectin was started and patient responded to treatment with improvement of clinical status. In conclusion, the development of SHS in patients with lupus, especially when receiving immunosuppressive therapy, is a severe and potentially fatal complication. Early detection and treatment may decrease mortality.

stromectol dose gale 2016-11-12

Startect(®) is a novel anthelmintic combination of derquantel and abamectin. It is hypothesized that derquantel and abamectin interact pharmacologically. We investigated the effects of derquantel, abamectin and their combination on somatic muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and pharyngeal muscle glutamate gated chloride receptor channels of Ascaris suum. We used muscle-strips to test the effects of abamectin, derquantel, and abamectin+derquantel together on the contraction responses to different concentrations of acetylcholine. We found that abamectin reduced the response to acetylcholine, as did derquantel. In combination (abamectin+derquantel), inhibition of the higher acetylcholine concentration response was greater than the predicted additive effect. A two-micropipette current-clamp technique was used to study electrophysiological effects of the anthelmintics on: (1) acetylcholine responses in somatic muscle and; (2) on l-glutamate responses in pharyngeal preparations. On somatic muscle, derquantel (0.1-30μM) produced a potent (IC50 0.22, CI 0.18-0.28μM) reversible antagonism of acetylcholine depolarizations. Abamectin (0.3μM) produced a slow onset inhibition of acetylcholine depolarizations. We compared effects of abamectin and derquantel on muscle preparations pretreated for 30min with these drugs. The effect of the combination was significantly greater than the predicted additive effect of both drugs at higher acetylcholine concentrations. On the pharynx, application of derquantel produced no significant effect by itself or on responses to abamectin and l-glutamate. Abamectin increased the input conductance of the pharynx (EC50 0.42, CI Naprosyn 325 Mg 0.13-1.36μM). Our study demonstrates that abamectin and derquantel interact at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the somatic muscle and suggested synergism can occur.

stromectol 5 mg 2015-01-29

On the basis of history, physical examination findings, and fecal examination Augmentin Xr Dosage results, affected animals were determined to have Dictyocaulus viviparus (lungworm) infestation. The disease history suggested that the herd contained cows with subclinical patent lungworm infestations; after introduction of susceptible heifers, the pastures had become heavily infested with D viviparus and clinical problems subsequently developed in both newly introduced and resident cows.

stromectol 3 mg 2015-08-09

Levamisole, morantel, fenbendazole, or ivermectin was administered at 2-week intervals from May 1 through Sept 14, 1985, to breeding ewes (20 ewes/drug) infected with various gastrointestinal nematodes. All ewes had fewer gastrointestinal nematode eggs per gram of feces (epg) after 2 treatments, compared with pretreatment epg counts. Ewes administered ivermectin continued to have a low mean epg (0 to 3) throughout the study. The mean epg counts of ewes treated with levamisole increased from 3 to 483 during the study. This increase was similar to that of ewes treated with morantel (7 to 485 epg). The mean epg count of fenbendazole-treated ewes increased from 4 to 192 during the study. By the end of the study, the mean epg counts when expressed as a percentage of the pretreatment epg counts were 4% (ivermectin), 249% (fenbendazole), 627% (levamisole), and 630% (morantel). With the exception of the ivermectin-treated ewes, the epg count increased almost linearly in the ewes after the 2nd anthelmintic treatment. These data indicate that the gastrointestinal nematodes (including Haemonchus contortus) may have developed more resistance Bystolic Drug Information to levamisole and morantel than to fenbendazole. On the basis of the epg counts, resistance to ivermectin did not develop during the 4.5-month treatment period. The percentage of ewes shedding eggs after 2, 4, and 6 anthelmintic treatments was lowest for ewes treated with ivermectin (20%) and was similar (40%) for ewes treated with 1 of the other 3 anthelmintics. At the conclusion of the study, most of the ewes (90%) were shedding at least a small number of eggs, regardless of the anthelmintic treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

stromectol online kaufen 2015-05-22

From baseline epidemiological data, four communities (Amuro, Aku, Nzerem Ikpem and Awuchinimo) were randomly chosen as the study sites. A total of 324 adults (hitherto had onchocercal nodules), aged > or = 20 years from these communities were Cardura Xl Prices enlisted in the study. After clinical examination, each of the villager was interviewed with structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Also personal and focus group discussion was held.

ivermectin stromectol buy 2017-08-27

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ovine gastro-intestinal nematodes has been reported to affect the health and productivity of sheep globally. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used oral drenches in sheep in France, Greece and Italy. In each country, 10 farms were selected. On each farm, 50 animals were blocked based on the pre-treatment faecal egg count (FEC). Within each block, animals were randomly allocated to one of 5 treatment groups. In addition to an untreated control group, there were 4 groups treated per oral route: moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM), both at 0.2mg/kg bodyweight, levamisole (LEV; at 7.5mg/kg bodyweight) and a benzimidazole (BZ; at 3.75-5mg/kg bodyweight). In France, animals were not treated with LEV, but with netobimin (NET; at 7.5mg/kg bodyweight). The FEC was monitored using a modified McMaster technique. Two weeks after treatment, individual faecal samples were taken from all animals and efficacy was calculated as the difference between arithmetic mean FEC of the control group versus each respective treatment group. The results of the present study indicate the high efficacy of treatment with oral formulations of MOX (99-100%) and IVM (98-100%) on all farms, except on 1 farm in Greece. On this farm, multi drug resistance (MDR) was identified involving 4 anthelmintics (efficacy MOX: 91%; IVM: 0%; BZ: 58% and LEV: 87%). In Greece and Italy, AR against LEV and BZ was observed on some farms, with MDR involving both anthelmintics on 3 farms in Greece and on 2 farms in Italy. In France, AR against BZ and NET was observed on all 10 farms included Zyrtec Equate Brand . In all countries, Teladorsagia sp. was the most common nematode larva identified after treatment, followed by Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus sp., with differences among farms and treatments. The current study confirms the high efficacy of oral treatments with MOX and IVM, even on farms with worm populations resistant to BZ, LEV or NET. This study also reports MDR against 4 anthelmintics on one farm in Greece.

stromectol drug interactions 2016-01-30

A single blind controlled clinical trial of oral ivermectin paste at a dose rate of 0.1 mg/kg daily for seven days for the treatment of chorioptic mange in horses was carried out. There was a statistically significant reduction in the numbers of mites in the samples taken from the treated horses compared with the untreated horses, but the mites were not eliminated from all the treated animals. Two further groups of horses were treated, one at Imdur 30 Tab a dose rate of 0.1 mg/kg daily for 10 days and the other with two doses of 0.2 mg/kg given two weeks apart. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the three treatment groups, and none of the treatments eliminated mites from all the treated horses.

stromectol buy 2015-11-15

Annual losses of honey bee colonies remain high and pesticide exposure is one possible cause. Dangerous combinations of pesticides, plant-produced compounds and antibiotics added to hives may cause or contribute to losses, but it is very difficult to test the many combinations of those compounds that bees encounter. We propose a mechanism-based strategy for simplifying the assessment of combinations of compounds, focusing here on compounds that interact with xenobiotic handling ABC transporters. Suprax Storage We evaluate the use of ivermectin as a model substrate for these transporters. Compounds that increase sensitivity of bees to ivermectin may be inhibiting key transporters. We show that several compounds commonly encountered by honey bees (fumagillin, Pristine, quercetin) significantly increased honey bee mortality due to ivermectin and significantly reduced the LC50 of ivermectin suggesting that they may interfere with transporter function. These inhibitors also significantly increased honey bees sensitivity to the neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid. This mechanism-based strategy may dramatically reduce the number of tests needed to assess the possibility of adverse combinations among pesticides. We also demonstrate an in vivo transporter assay that provides physical evidence of transporter inhibition by tracking the dynamics of a fluorescent substrate of these transporters (Rhodamine B) in bee tissues. Significantly more Rhodamine B remains in the head and hemolymph of bees pretreated with higher concentrations of the transporter inhibitor verapamil. Mechanism-based strategies for simplifying the assessment of adverse chemical interactions such as described here could improve our ability to identify those combinations that pose significantly greater risk to bees and perhaps improve the risk assessment protocols for honey bees and similar sensitive species.

stromectol lice dosage 2016-04-23

Muscle bundle 33 of the locust (Schistocerca gregaria) extensor tibiae muscle which is sensitive to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and receives inhibitory innervation, exhibited both reversible and irreversible responses to dihydroavermectin B1a (DHAVM). These responses involved increases in C1- permeability. DHAVM (0.000075-0.0075 microgram ml-1) induced reversible dose-dependent increases in C1- permeability and partially blocked GABA-induced C1- conductance. These effects appear to be due to an interaction of DHAVM with the GABA receptor-C1- ion channel complex. DHAVM (0.01-1.0 microgram ml-1) induced an irreversible increase in C1- conductance which continued to rise after DHAVM application was stopped. At these concentrations DHAVM potentiated GABA-induced C1- conductances which were in turn reduced by microperfusion of DHAVM (0.01-1.0 microgram ml-1) during bath application of GABA. DHAVM (0.0001-1.0 microgram ml-1) induced only irreversible increases in C1- conductance when applied to fast muscle bundles (21-26) of the locust extensor tibiae muscle, which are GABA-insensitive and have no inhibitory innervation. The actions of DHAVM on locust muscle appear to involve more than one site. Reversible actions of DHAVM appear to be related to GABA sensitivity and may involve the GABA receptor-ionophore complex. This is unlikely to be the site of action for the irreversible increases in C1- conductance caused by DHAVM.

stromectol order online 2016-07-15

We proceeded through the three stages of integrated MDA implementation: mapping the distribution of the three diseases at district level; tailoring district training and logistics based on the results of the mapping exercises; and implementing community-based annual health education and mass treatment where appropriate. During the process we identified the "know-do" gaps in the MDA guidelines for each disease that prevented successful integration of these programmes.

stromectol alcohol 2017-06-12

Cutaneous larva migrans is a zoonotic infestation caused by penetration and migration in the epidermis of filariform larva of different kinds of animal hookworms through contact with feces of infected animals. Cutaneous larva migrans is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Clinically, cutaneous larva migrans is characterized by an intensely pruritic erythematous migrating tortuous or serpiginous, slightly raised track. The diagnosis is mainly clinical, based on the history of travel to an endemic area and exposure to contaminated soil/sand and the characteristic serpiginous track. Treatment options as well as recent patents related to the management of cutaneous larva migrans are also discussed. Compared with oral antihelminthics, topical treatment over the affected area is less effective. Oral ivermectin is the treatment of choice.

stromectol ivermectin dosage 2016-12-13

Mectizan (Ivermectin) has been proved to be central to the control of onchoceriasis through self-sustainable community-based treatment. The possibility of parasitological unresponsiveness to this treatment or selection for drug resistance has emerged recently in many occasions. The reason for the reduced ability of Mectizan to maintain low levels of dermal microfilariae and early recurrent pruritus can only be speculated upon. Here, we report our own findings to address this particular issue.