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The medical term onychomycosis should be understood as chronic infection of the nails caused by a fungus. The most common causative agents are the dermatophytes and Candida species. The less common are certain types of moulds (nondermatophyte moulds or NDMs). In approximately 60-80 % of the cases, onychomycosis is due to dermatophytes. Among dermatophytes, the most often isolated causative pathogen is Trichophyton (T.) rubrum. Other common species are T. interdigitale (formerly T. mentagrophytes), Epidermophyton floccosum, and T. tonsurans. The most significant yeasts causing onychomycosis are Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis. Predisposing factors for onychomycosis include mainly diseases such as diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular arterial disease, chronic venous insufficiency, polyneuropathies of diverse etiologies, and immunosuppression, e.g., myeloproliferative diseases (such as lymphoma and paraproteinemia), HIV/AIDS, etc. Other factors facilitating the fungal infection are frequent trauma in professional sportsmen, often accompanied by excessive perspiration. The diagnostic methods that are often applied in different dermatologic departments and ambulatory units are also different. This precludes the creation of a unified diagnostic algorithm that could be used everywhere as a possible standard. In most of the cases, the method of choice depends on the specialist's individual experience. The therapeutic approach depends mostly on the fungal organism identified by the dermatologist or mycologist. This review hereby includes the conventional as well as the newest and most reliable and modern methods used for the identification of the pathogens causing onychomycosis. Moreover, detailed information is suggested, about the choice of therapeutic scheme in case whether dermatophytes, moulds, or yeasts have been identified as causative agents. A thorough discussion of the schemes and duration of the antifungal therapy in certain groups of patients have been included.
The aim of this study was the determination of the antifungal activity of N,N-phenyl-1,2,3,4-thiatriazol-5-yl-2,4-beta-resorcylcarbothioamide (PTR) against Candida albicans, non-albicans Candida species, dermatophytes and moulds and of its influence on the enzymatic activity of C. albicans strains. The reference strains C. albicans ATCC 10231, 200 of C. albicans strains, 7 of non-albicans C. species, 12 dermatophyte strains and 20 mould strains were isolated from different patients. The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PTR against C. albicans strains isolated from patients was 19.6 mg/l, for reference C. albicans ATCC 10,231 it was 12.5 mg/l on Sabouraud's medium (SB). The mean MIC of isolates from patients was 16.9 mg/l, and reference strains 6.25 mg/l on YNB medium, respectively. The MIC of PTR against 7 non-albicans C. species was 27.7 mg/l on SB and 15.6 mg/l on YNB, respectively. The mean MIC of PTR against C. albicans strains isolated from patients was 14.9 mg/l, C. albicans ATCC 10,231 6.25 mg/l and non-Candida species strains 14 mg/l on RPMI medium. The MICs of PTR against dermatophytes ranged from 3 to 25 mg/l. The MICs of PTR against moulds were 25 mg/l and 100 mg/l, respectively. PTR inhibited the enzymatic activity of selected hydrolases of C. albicans and non-Candida species strains. PTR exerts a potent antifungal activity against the yeast-like fungi strains, moulds and dermatophytes. This new compound inhibited the enzymatic activity of selected hydrolases.
Small bowel transplantation (SBT) can be a life-saving medical procedure. However, these recipients experience high risk of bloodstream infections caused by Candida. This research aims to characterise the SBT recipient gut microbiota over time following transplantation and investigate the epidemiology of candidaemia in seven paediatric patients. Candida species from the recipients' ileum and bloodstream were identified by internal transcribed spacer sequence and distinguished to strain by multilocus sequence typing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream isolates was determined against nine antifungals. Twenty-two ileostomy samples harboured at least one Candida species. Fungaemia were caused by Candida parapsilosis, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida pelliculosa. All but three bloodstream isolates showed susceptibility to all the antifungals tested. One C. glabrata isolate showed multidrug resistance to itraconazole, amphotericin B and posaconazole and intermediate resistance to caspofungin. Results are congruent with both endogenous (C. albicans, C. glabrata) and exogenous (C. parapsilosis) infections; results also suggest two patients were infected by the same strain of C. parapsilosis. Continuing to work towards a better understanding of sources of infection-particularly the exogenous sources-would lead to targeted prevention strategies.
This is a case of seborrheic dermatitis (SD) barbae from which Malassezia furfur (M. furfur) was isolated. The patient was a 57-year-old Dutch male, who was hospitalized for fever and weakness of extremities. He presented with symmetrical erythema with an abundance of greasy chaffy scales on his beard area. No reasons were detected for his fever following a routine search. M. furfur was identified through mycological examination, including direct microscopic examination, culture, Tween test, esculine splitting test and DNA sequencing, of samples from the skin lesions. The patient was treated with oral itraconazole capsules (200 mg, b.i.d. for 8 days, then 200 mg o.d. for 13 days), washing his scalp and face with 2% ketoconazole shampoo (once a day) and topical application of a cream containing 1% naftifine hydrochloride and 0.25% ketoconazole (b.i.d.). After treatment the fever subsided and the SD lesion gradually healed. M. furfur was not isolated again from skin scrapings and 7 days later therapy was terminated and no recurrence was noted after one week follow-up since the cessation of treatment.
Itraconazole is often given for fungal prophylaxis to renal transplant recipients, who require concomitant cyclosporine in the immediate posttransplant period. We determined the extent of the pharmacokinetic interaction between cyclosporine and itraconazole oral solution in renal transplant recipients and the effect on daily drug costs.
The primary outcome was the change in messenger RNA levels of the GLI family zinc finger 1 (GLI1) gene (HH-pathway target gene) in biopsy specimens of normal skin or BCC before and after treatment. Secondary objectives were evaluation of tumor response and tolerability.
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Among 288 PD patients (total follow-up of 7258 patient-months), nine were found with fungal peritonitis. Candida spp were identified in all of them, with a majority of non-albicans Candida species. Resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, or voriconazole was as frequent as potential resistance to amphotericin B. No isolate was resistant to caspofungin and one was resistant to micafungin. Prior bacterial peritonitis was frequent (67%). All patients had their PD catheter removed and all of them survived.
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Azole antifungal compounds are important in the treatment of Cryptococcosis, a major cause of mortality in AIDS patients. The target of the azole drugs is P450 mediated sterol 14 alpha-demethylase. We have investigated the P450 system of Cryptococcus neoformans with respect to azole tolerance observed in clinical isolates which were obtained following the failure of fluconazole therapy. The clinical failure was correlated with in vitro tolerance of azole antifungal when compared to wild-type strains. The microsomal P450 system was typical of yeast and fungi and fluconazole tolerance was not associated with defective sterol biosynthesis. The strains had slightly elevated P450 content and slightly reduced azole levels in the cells, but a clear cause for resistance was the increased level of drug needed to inhibit the sterol 14 alpha-demethylase in vitro.
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Systemic fungal infections remain a major clinical problem in immunocompromised patients. Presumed systemic fungal infections (PSFI) are treated empirically with an intravenous antifungal agent to reduce the occurrence of documented infections and associated mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of intravenous itraconazole (IVitra) treatment with the current first-line empirical treatment of PSFI with conventional amphotericin B (CAB) in cases of neutropenic cancer and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per additional "responder" (defined as a patient without fever or major toxicity). We developed a medical decision analytical tree that included probabilities of toxicity, response and pathogen documentation, and second-line treatments. Clinical data were obtained from randomized clinical trials, and resource use data were obtained from a panel of clinical experts. The total cost of treating PSFI per neutropenic cancer patient was lower for IVitra than for CAB, and this lower cost resulted from a reduced need for second-line antifungals. In a cost-effectiveness analysis, IVitra treatment was superior to CAB treatment. Compared with current treatment with CAB, IVitra therapy was shown to be a cost-effective and cost-saving empirical treatment for PSFI in neutropenic cancer patients and BMT patients.
A prospective cohort study was conducted. Cultures were obtained from different anatomic sites, from medical devices and from the hands of healthcare staff at admission and every 7 days until discharge of the unit. Identification and susceptibility tests to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were performed.
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Yeasts frequently colonize various kinds of domestic animals, but may also cause serious diseases. The aim of this study was to identify yeast isolates collected from dogs, cows and pigs, and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility. Fifty-six yeast isolates from dogs (n = 24), cows (n = 20), and pigs (n = 12) were investigated. Appearance of colonies grown on Sabouraud agar, micromorphology on rice agar, as well as assimilation and fermentation of various carbon and nitrogen sources were evaluated. Susceptibility to six antifungals (flucytosine, amphotericin B, miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) was determined semiquantitatively using the commercially available Fungitest kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories). Ten yeast species were identified in dogs with relatively even distribution. On the other hand, cow and pig were clearly dominated by Candida krusei (from 7 species) and Candida rugosa (from 5 species), respectively. Further, most of yeast isolates exhibited good susceptibility to the antifungals tested particularly to amphotericin B, ketoconazole and itraconazole. Based on results, it can be concluded that significant differences in the species spectrum and distribution were documented between groups of yeasts from dogs, cows and pigs. This is probably due to different environmental conditions and the endogenous origin of the yeast isolates. Mostly good susceptibility to systemic antifungals should positively influence the therapy of diseases caused by yeasts in veterinary medicine.
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Histopathologic examination of the nerve specimen showed B. dermatitidis infection. Needle biopsy and culture results of a suspicious lung scar were positive for Blastomyces. The patient was treated with intravenous amphotericin B followed by oral itraconazole for 6 months. The left eye remained blind 23 months after the biopsy. Approximately 40 articles describing ophthalmic infection were found in the literature search.
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Posaconazole (POS; SCH 56592) is a novel triazole that is active against a wide variety of fungi, including fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates and fungi that are inherently less susceptible to approved azoles, such as Candida glabrata. In this study, we compared the effects of POS, itraconazole (ITZ), fluconazole (FLZ), and voriconazole (VOR) on sterol biosynthesis in strains of C. albicans (both azole-sensitive and azole-resistant strains), C. glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus flavus. Following exposure to azoles, nonsaponifiable sterols were extracted and resolved by liquid chromatography and sterol identity was confirmed by mass spectroscopy. Ergosterol was the major sterol in all but one of the strains; C. glabrata strain C110 synthesized an unusual sterol in place of ergosterol. Exposure to POS led to a decrease in the total sterol content of all the strains tested. The decrease was accompanied by the accumulation of 14alpha-methylated sterols, supporting the contention that POS inhibits the cytochrome P450 14alpha-demethylase enzyme. The degree of sterol inhibition was dependent on both dose and the susceptibility of the strain tested. POS retained activity against C. albicans isolates with mutated forms of the 14alpha-demethylase that rendered these strains resistant to FLZ, ITZ, and VOR. In addition, POS was a more potent inhibitor of sterol synthesis in A. fumigatus and A. flavus than either ITZ or VOR.
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Most cases of Malassezia dermatitis/otitis in the dog are associated with concurrent dermatoses or systemic diseases and recurrences are not uncommon. Recognition and control of the predisposing factors are therefore key factors for successful therapy and prevention of recurrent infections. Currently, Malassezia dermatitis/otitis is managed by the use of antifungal drugs. Systemic therapy is often necessary, in particular when clinical signs are severe and widespread. Ketoconazole and Itraconazole are the most commonly used drugs. Topical therapy is an alternative in case of localized lesions and external ear localizations. Different commercial formulations, available in clinical practice in form of creams, gels, lotions, sprays and ear drops are often used as adiuvants to systemic therapy. Topicals more frequently used are represented by imidazolic antifungals, chlorhexydine and lime sulphur. The presentation deals with more recent advances about the protocols for treatment of Malassezia-related diseases in the dog. New perspectives, as the use of natural compounds, immunotherapy and inhibitors of yeast adherence factors, are also discussed.
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This study performed a cost-effective analysis of posaconazole prophylaxis for IFDs in an Asian teaching hospital, employing decision modeling and data of IFDs and medication costs specific to the institute, in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
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We studied the urine from 50 type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) patients. 24 patients had controlled DMT2 and 26 non-controlled DMT2.
The mean 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio was reduced by 68% from baseline (P < 0·05) after the 1st pulse dosing, but the inhibitory effect appeared to be resolved before the next pulse dosing and at 3 months post-treatment. The magnitude of inhibition appeared in proportion to the baseline CYP3A activity.
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During treatment the percentage of Aspergillus fumigatus (AF)-positive sputum cultures significantly reduced (P < 0.05); precipitating antibodies to AF decreased significantly in all patients (P < 0.05); forced expiratory volume (FEV1) increased to pre-exacerbation level; total IgE levels decreased in 42% of patients on monotherapy and in 56% on combination therapy. Specific IgE (radioallergosorbant; RAST) level decreased in 6 of 21 patients. Eleven patients had transient increased levels of alanine transaminase (ALAT). One patient had isolated increase in alkaline phosphatase and another in aspartate transaminase (ASAT).
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Eighty-one patients (81 eyes) were diagnosed with fungal endophthalmitis at our institution from January 2000 to December 2012. Patient history, etiological agents, direct smear examination, fungal culture and pathogen sensitivity to antifungal drug were evaluated.
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The genetic diversity and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of 55 Candida albicans from immunocompromised patients were studied. PCR based analysis of the transposable intron in the 25S rDNA revealed 39 genotype A, 4 genotype B and 12 genotype C isolates. Serotype analysis categorized 52 isolates as serotype A and 3 as serotype B. All strains were susceptible to micafungin, 5-flucytosine and miconazole, whereas resistance against amphotericin B (3.6%), fluconazole (3.6%), itraconazole (7.3%) and voriconazole (5.5%) was observed. No association was seen between antifungal resistance and genotype/serotype status.
This double-blind study was undertaken to determine whether a 2-week course of oral itraconazole would produce statistically significant clinical and mycologic improvement in the treatment of tinea corporis, tinea cruris, or both, over the results obtained with placebo. A second objective was to determine the safety of itraconazole, through routine measurements of serum chemistry profiles.
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The management of patients with acute leukaemia is often complicated by serious fungal infections, especially of the lungs. The outcome of therapy has historically depended on the early use, efficacy and toxicity of amphotericin B. Pseudoallescheria boydii is an uncommon cause of such infections but as it is more often resistant to amphotericin B early identification may enable the prompt use of alternative and newer antifungal agents. Here we report our experience and review the literature in three cases of P. boydii infection in patients with leukemia, showing unique features such as childhood and central nervous system disease, positive blood cultures and response to itraconazole.