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CR3465 (L-Tyrosine, N-[(2-quinolinyl)carbonyl]-O-(7-fluoro-2-quinolinylmethyl) sodium salt) is a potent antagonist of [3H]leukotriene D4 ([3H]LTD4) binding to guinea pig lung preparations, its Ki (4.7+/-0.7 nM) being comparable with that of montelukast (5.6+/-0.6 nM). In tracheal strips from standard or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs, CR3465 caused parallel rightward shifts in the concentration-response curves obtained with either LTD4 or antigen (pA(2), 8.74 and 8.15). Intravenous (i.v.) administration of the agent both antagonized (ED50, 9.9+/-1.9 microg/kg) and reverted LTD4 -induced bronchoconstriction of anesthetized guinea pigs. CR3465 reduced inflammatory infiltrates in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after antigen challenge of sensitized animals, and proved also active in inhibiting phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) and phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) activities exhibited by human platelets and neutrophils (IC50, 2.01+/-0.07 and 4.7+/-0.5 microM). In line with properties shown by phosphodiesterase inhibitors, CR3465 reduced the contractile response of guinea pig airways to histamine and decreased N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-induced degranulation of human neutrophils (IC50, 13.8 microM). Oral administration (20 mg/kg) of the compound in rats produced a significant (37%) ex vivo inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood. Pharmacokinetic data in the rat demonstrated approximately 100% bioavailability of the agent. We conclude that CR3465 represents a potent leukotriene CysLT1 receptor antagonist with enhanced effects, being also useful for counteracting spasmogenic and inflammatory stimuli other than those elicited by cysteinyl-leukotrienes (Cys-LTs).
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Due to few paediatric drug safety studies, knowledge on risks of drug treatment in children is limited. The knowledge needs to be increased to make proper risk-benefit analyses possible when treating paediatric patients with drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate drug groups commonly used in children concerning type and frequency of individual case safety reports in children.
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There were no differences between 4 weeks of CIC 400 microg once daily and FP 250 microg twice daily on methacholine hyper-responsiveness in mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. Longer-term studies are indicated to evaluate their relative efficacy on asthma exacerbations.
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A total of 512 elderly, asthmatic patients were included in the study: seventy-one (13.9%) patients had well-controlled asthma, 211 (41.2%) had partly controlled asthma, and 230 (44.9%) had uncontrolled asthma. During the first year of treatment using ICS and LABA, an increase in the median percentage of days without asthma was observed from 50.1% to 62.1%, as well as a decrease in the percentage of days with short beta-receptor agonist use, from 52.2% to 46.8%. These differences were significantly greater after 12 months, when montelukast was added to the therapy (78.4% and 39.5%, respectively). This improvement was not observed in the control group. After 2 years of observation, the median number of asthma exacerbation incidents per patient decreased from 1.6 per year to 1.2 per year when montelukast was added.
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Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are important mediators of asthma in children. Predictors of susceptibility to CysLT effects have not been developed.
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Cultures of human detrusor SMCs were obtained from patients with benign bladder diseases undergoing cystoscopy. [Ca2+](i) was measured in fura-2 loaded SMCs using micro-spectrofluorometry and dynamic video imaging. Contractile force was monitored with an especially built mini-myograph.
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We have previously demonstrated the clinical efficacy of montelukast in a randomized double-blind controlled cross-over trial in patients with dyspepsia in association with duodenal eosinophilia. The mechanism of this clinical response is unknown but could involve a decrease in eosinophil density or activation.
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Influenza A viruses generate annual epidemics and occasional pandemics of respiratory disease with important consequences for human health and the economy. Therefore, a large effort has been devoted to the development of new anti-influenza virus drugs directed to viral targets, as well as to the identification of cellular targets amenable to anti-influenza virus therapy. Here we have addressed the identification of such potential cellular targets by screening collections of drugs approved for human use. We reasoned that screening with a green fluorescent protein-based recombinant replicon system would identify cellular targets involved in virus transcription/replication and/or gene expression and hence address an early stage of virus infection. By using such a strategy, we identified Montelukast (MK) as an inhibitor of virus multiplication. MK inhibited virus gene expression but did not alter viral RNA synthesis in vitro or viral RNA accumulation in vivo The low selectivity index of MK prevented its use as an antiviral, but it was sufficient to identify a new cellular pathway suitable for anti-influenza virus intervention. By deep sequencing of RNA isolated from mock- and virus-infected human cells, treated with MK or left untreated, we showed that it stimulates the PERK-mediated unfolded protein stress response. The phosphorylation of PERK was partly inhibited in virus-infected cells but stimulated in MK-treated cells. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of PERK phosphorylation led to increased viral gene expression, while inhibition of PERK phosphatase reduced viral protein synthesis. These results suggest the PERK-mediated unfolded protein response as a potential cellular target to modulate influenza virus infection.
Montelukast and ketotifen are oral anti-allergy medications in asthmatic children. This study investigates the modulation effect of montelukast and ketotifen on children with intermittent to mild persistent asthma as demonstrated by the levels of peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma scores (AS), exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and plasma stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) concentration in a randomized, prospective study.
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Both in CIS and CISMK group, serum levels of urea and creatinine and urinary protein levels were significantly higher compared with Io values and control group at 3 and 7 days, (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). Urinary creatinine levels were significantly decreased at 3 and 7 days, (p < 0.01) and (p < 0.05) in CIS and CISMK group compared to Io and control group. The degree of severity of histopathological changes was similar in CIS and CISMK group.
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Add-on therapy with high-dose vitamin D3 (4,000 IU/d) could be considered a safe and potentially beneficial immunomodulator in patients with chronic urticaria.
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Although none of 4 genes were associated with ΔPEFsal-ΔPEFmon in the univariate analyses, multivariate analysis showed that PTGER4 gene, interacting with ADRB2 Gly16Arg, was associated with ΔPEFsal-ΔPEFmon (p=0.0032).
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These data demonstrate that CysLTs are active in vitro in directly up-regulating human eosinophil functions involved in eosinophil recruitment. The down-regulation of Mac-1 expression and eosinophil chemotaxis by the potent and selective CysLT1 receptor antagonist montelukast indicated the specificity of the LTC4-, LTD4- and LTE4-induced response.
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Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) and asthma are strongly associated, and patients suffering from both diseases are often difficult to treat. However, no guidelines about the management of patients with CRS and coexisting asthma exist.
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The goal was to compare the efficacy and safety of low-dose fluticasone propionate (FP) and montelukast as first-line maintenance therapy in symptomatic patients by using short-acting beta2-agonists alone to treat persistent asthma.
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One feature of allergic asthma, the EAR (early allergic reaction), is not present in the commonly used mouse models. We therefore investigated the mediators involved in EAR in a guinea-pig in vivo model of allergic airway inflammation. Animals were sensitized using a single OVA (ovalbumin)/alum injection and challenged with aerosolized OVA on day 14. On day 15, airway resistance was assessed after challenge with OVA or MCh (methacholine) using the forced oscillation technique, and lung tissue was prepared for histology. The contribution of mast cell mediators was investigated using inhibitors of the main mast cell mediators [histamine (pyrilamine) and CysLTs (cysteinyl-leukotrienes) (montelukast) and prostanoids (indomethacin)]. OVA-sensitized and challenged animals demonstrated AHR (airway hyper-responsiveness) to MCh, and lung tissue eosinophilic inflammation. Antigen challenge induced a strong EAR in the sensitized animals. Treatment with a single compound, or indomethacin together with pyrilamine or montelukast, did not reduce the antigen-induced airway resistance. In contrast, dual treatment with pyrilamine together with montelukast, or triple inhibitor treatment, attenuated approximately 70% of the EAR. We conclude that, as in humans, the guinea-pig allergic inflammation model exhibits both EAR and AHR, supporting its suitability for in vivo identification of mast cell mediators that contribute to the development of asthma. Moreover, the known mast cell mediators histamine and leukotrienes were major contributors of the EAR. The data also lend further support to the concept that combination therapy with selective inhibitors of key mediators could improve asthma management.
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The start of therapy with either fluticasone or montelukast as a single-controller for asthma was associated with similar asthma-related health care resource use in this matched population.
Of 618 patients who completed the primary phase of the study, 516 (83.5%) participated in the extension study Data from 506 patients (302 without previous asthma maintenance therapy, 204 with) were included in the analysis. During the extension phase, patients who received montelukast and had not used previous asthma maintenance therapy were followed for a mean of 329.5 days; those who received usual care and
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Morning FEV1 percent change from baseline.
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Nasal polyps were significantly smaller after both 6 months (p<0.01) and 12 months of treatment (p<0.01) than before treatment. The decrease in the shadow score was statistically significant after both 6 months (p<0.01) and 12 months of treatment (p<0.01). Significant reductions in peripheral blood eosinophil counts were also seen after both 6 months (p<0.05) and 12 months of treatment (p<0.01). A significant correlation was found between the rate of change in the peripheral blood eosinophil count and that in the CT score after both 6 months (r=0.578, p=0.012) and 12 months (r=0.625, p=0.007).
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Children randomly assigned to receive montelukast experienced a 53% reduction in days with worse asthma symptoms compared with placebo (3.9% vs 8.3%) and a 78% reduction in unscheduled physician visits for asthma (4 [montelukast] vs 18 [placebo] visits). The benefit of montelukast was seen both in those using and not using regular inhaled corticosteroids and among those reporting and not reporting colds during the trial. There were differences in efficacy according to age and gender. Boys aged 2 to 5 years showed greater benefit from montelukast (0.4% vs 8.8% days with worse asthma symptoms) than did older boys, whereas among girls the treatment effect was most evident in 10- to 14-year-olds (4.6% [montelukast] vs 17.0% [placebo]), with nonsignificant effects in younger girls.
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A broad range of T- and B-cell parameters were studied over time, during and after discontinuation of corticosteroid therapy. Published works on this topic in animal and human models are reviewed. The findings unique to this patient are highlighted.
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The variability of asthma rescue-free days, asthma symptoms, albuterol use, medical resource use, and exercise Limitations among patients with documented mild persistent asthma was compared between the month before study enrollment and the last 2 weeks of the run-in period.
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We studied all 74,580 children below 18 years of age, belonging to 95 GP practices within the second Dutch national survey of general practice (DNSGP-2), in which GPs registered all physician-patient contacts during the year 2001. Status on prescribing of asthma medication (at least one prescription for beta2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, cromones or montelukast) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care) was determined.
There is no comparative study among asthma patients receiving first-line versus various second-line treatment regimens for mild to moderate persistent asthma.
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Several cases of eosinophilic conditions including Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) have recently been reported in asthmatic patients being treated with antileukotriene receptor antagonists. One patient with CSS who experienced a clinical relapse after treatment with montelukast and two asthmatic patients who developed CSS while receiving montelukast treatment are described. In one case reduction in the dose of oral steroid preceded the onset of CSS. To our knowledge, no case of CSS relapse has previously been reported in association with leukotriene antagonists.