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The clinical, hematological, nutritional and electrophysiological assessments of 33 consecutive patients have been prospectively collected and evaluated. At baseline (before the start of LCIG therapy), 3/33 (9%) patients showed symptomatic PNP and 7/33 (21%) subclinical PNP. During a follow-up of 24.36 ± 12.18 months, 2/23 patients with normal baseline clinical-electrophysiological assessment developed a subacute PNP, 2/23 developed a chronic PNP and 7/23 developed a subclinical PNP. LCIG was immediately halted in the subacute cases, while the infusion therapy was not interrupted in chronic and subclinical forms. All PNP were supplemented with vitamin B1 and B12, showing a clinical improvement and/or substantial stability at the following evaluations. Higher levodopa-equivalent daily dose (P: 0.024) and homocysteine levels (P: 0.041) were found in chronic PNP, while no correlations were observed with vitamin B12, folate and UPDRS values. A trend towards BMI reduction was observed in both PNP and unaffected subjects and one patient developed a symptomatic PNP associated with a relevant weight loss.
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STN-DBS and Duodopa showed a significant efficacy on motor symptoms, activities of daily living, and motor complications. The group of Duodopa-treated patients developed more procedure-related complications.
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During the 5 years of the study, both treatment groups responded extremely well to therapy. The incidence of all patients reaching the 'event' was low, approximately 20% by diary criteria and 16% by questionnaire definition, and there was no significant difference between the two treatment groups. Activities of daily living scores in the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) consistently favored the Sinemet CR treatment group and a number of the NHP scales also favored the CR group. Based upon the frequency of adverse experiences, and the overall low incidence of withdrawals, the two treatment groups demonstrated very similar safety profiles. The most common drug-related effect was nausea; seen in 20% of patients. Other drug-related effects were dizziness, insomnia, abdominal pain, dyskinesia, headache and depression. Drug-related withdrawals were less than 10% of all patients, primarily due to nervous/psychiatric complaints.
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The majority of parkinsonian patients on long-term treatment with levodopa develop fluctuations in motor performance. Several of the features of long-term levodopa treatment seem to be associated with levodopa concentrations in the plasma. In order to overcome the dose-related clinical fluctuations, sustained or controlled-release oral tablets have been developed to achieve more stable plasma concentrations of the drug. This paper describes a Norwegian multi-centre study of Sinemet CR in 56 patients with mild to moderate parkinsonism. After 24 weeks on Sinemet CR the performance of 40 patients was evaluated as improved, i.e. better than when they were treated with standard levodopa. Patients with mild disease or with no motor fluctuations experienced similar clinical benefit from controlled-release levodopa as the more advanced parkinsonian patients. The authors also discuss the advantages and problems of controlled-release levodopa in parkinsonian patients in general.
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A discussion between Dr. Dee Silver and Dr. Richard Trosch provides insight and advice for physicians considering a switch from immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa (IR CD-LD) to RYTARY as a treatment for patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The dialogue describes how they identify patients with PD who may and may not be successful switching to RYTARY, how they approach the conversion process and patient compliance, and how they address some side effects that may occur after patients begin taking RYTARY. The clinicians also discuss their experiences with how long it takes to establish a stable regimen as well as provide general advice regarding conversion from treatment with IR CD-LD to RYTARY.
Ever since its early clinical use in the 1960s, levodopa has remained the gold standard of symptomatic efficacy in the drug treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Motor response fluctuations and drug-induced dyskinesias seriously compromise the unparalleled symptomatic efficacy of l-dopa during long-term treatment. Discontinuous drug delivery resulting from the short half-life of l-dopa and erratic gastrointestinal absorption plays a major role in the pathophysiology of these motor complications. Several approaches to improve the pharmacokinetics and ways of administration of l-dopa are in different stages of clinical development and include novel formulations as well as nonoral routes of drug delivery. IPX066 is a novel extended-release l-dopa capsule that has successfully completed phase III clinical trials while the l-dopa prodrug XP21279 and a gastric retention formulation ("accordion pill") are in earlier phases of clinical development. Novel enzyme inhibitors enhancing l-dopa efficacy and half-life are also still being developed, including a novel catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor with once-daily pharmacokinetics, and there are studies testing the effects of increasing the dose of amino acid decarboxylase inhibitors given concomitantly with l-dopa. Intrajejunal infusion of a gel formulation of l-dopa/carbidopa is in clinical use in Europe, and its efficacy to smooth out motor fluctuations has recently been shown in a randomized, controlled trial. Subcutaneous and intrapulmonal delivery routes of l-dopa have reached phase III of clinical development. After more than 50 years of clinical use, l-dopa not only remains the gold standard of symptomatic efficacy, but it also remains a drug in active clinical development.
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The rationale for sustained release oral levodopa preparations is to deliver levodopa in the areas of maximal intestinal absorption in a slow and predictable way, leading to stable plasma levodopa levels and brain dopamine levels, therefore resulting in a lengthened duration of action. Sinemet CR is the prototype of such preparations, with demonstrated efficacy in decreasing periods of akinesia in parkinsonian patients with mild to moderate motor fluctuations. Total doses of levodopa are raised 10 to 30% because of the lowered bioavailability; diphasic dyskinesias may increase at the end of the day. Tolerance is good in de novo patients and studies are in progress to establish if early treatment with Sinemet CR delays the onset or attenuates the severity of motor fluctuations as compared to standard Sinemet.
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Some non-antibiotic drugs, e.g. cytostatics, anaesthetics or vasodilators may also show the antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to detect and characterise the antimicrobial activity expressed by selected non-antibiotic drugs analysed during state control performed in the Drug Institute. Over 60 drugs were randomly chosen from different groups. The surveillance study was performed on standard microbial strains: S. aureus ATCC 6538P, E. coli ATCC 8739, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442 and C. albicans ATCC 10231. It was found that the drugs listed below inhibited growth at least one of the examined strains: Acesan 0.075 tabl., Benuron 500 mg tabl., Chlorchex 0.5 aerosol, Methotrexat-Ebewe 500 mg amp., Naproxen 500 mg tabl., Nospa Forte 60 mg tabl., Platamine 50 mg amp., Platidiam 50 mg amp., Sensit 50 mg drag., Septofervex 2 mg tabl., Seractil 400 mg tabl., Sermion 4 mg amp., Sinemet 125 mg tabl., Tarproxen 500 mg tabl. and Zyban 150 mg tabl. It was interesting, that strong antimicrobial activity of methotrexate was limited to Staphylococcus aureus strain. Minimal inhibitory concentration of methotrexate was determined by agar dilution method with the use of 54 clinical S. aureus strains (MRSA-32 and MSSA-22). For MSSA strains, MIC50 and MIC90 were 10 micrograms/ml and 20 micrograms/ml, respectively (range: 10-20 micrograms/ml). For MRSA strains, MIC50 and MIC90 were 20 micrograms/ml and 100-> 100 micrograms/ml, respectively (range: 10-< 100 micrograms/ml).
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An open cross-over study of 20 patients with Parkinson's disease performed with two drugs containing L-dopa and a peripheral aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor (benserazide, carbidopa) confirmed the conclusions reached in other clinical trials that this combined treatment of Parkinson's disease is the most effective form of drug therapy available at present. With both drugs, Madopar or Sinemet, an optimum therapeutic result was obtained with relatively small doses of L-dopa (the reduction in L-dopa dosage amounting to about 80%). A loss of efficacy with both drugs, which has observed during long-term treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease, could be avoided by switching the patients from Sinemet to Madopar and vice versa. Determination of L-dopa in the plasma demonstrated that with either drug similar plasma levels of L-dopa were achieved during clinically effective treatment.
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Four healthy monkeys were injected with diluted MPTP solution continuously through peripheral veins. The behavioral changes of the monkeys were monitored with the Parkinson disease scale for monkeys. 18FDG-PET-CT scans for the whole brain were obtained before and 3 months after the injection of MPTP. The pathological and glucose metabolic changes of the brains were examined.
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Contrary to a previous report, pretreatment of normal men with carbidopa plus L-dopa (Sinemet 25/250) markedly inhibited the PRL response to TRH, a stimulus that acts directly on the pituitary. Thus, the results of carbidopa/L-dopa testing cannot be used to determine whether agents that stimulate PRL secretion act on the pituitary or at a higher central nervous system level.
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Among 415 patients with parkinsonism, 16 (3.9%) had findings of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). This report reviews the clinical features and response to drug therapy in those 16 patients. Anticholinergic drugs failed to benefit any of the 5 patients treated, while presynaptic dopaminergic drugs (Sinemet or amantadine) were beneficial in only 5 of 22 patient trials. Alternatively, dopamine agonists (bromocriptine and pergolide) caused improvement in 9 of 14 patient trials despite the fact that all but 1 of these patients had previously failed to respond to presynaptic dopaminergic drugs. Dopamine agonists such as bromocriptine and pergolide may be useful in some patients with PSP.
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Patient-reported data can be a valuable, adjunctive tool in helping physicians assess the quality-of-life and functional changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We analyzed and evaluated the largest PD patient-reported database (PROPATHtrade mark) relative to prescribing habits and changes in reported outcomes by therapy. Our analysis included 1436 patients, followed for 1 yr, who completed a series of questionnaires assessing medication therapy, daily activity scores adapted from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), global disease visual analogue scale, and health resources consumption. Our results indicated that physicians are prescribing Eldepryl(R) with increased frequency in patients with early and mild PD. Patients receiving Eldepryl alone or in combination with Sinemet(R) reported better outcomes than those receiving Sinemet monotherapy. There was a great deal of variability in the reported utilization of healthcare resources by patients in the PROPATH program and, thus, no statistical differences were noted for patients treated with different regimens. We conclude that the adjunctive use of longitudinal patient self-reported data programs such as PROPATH can help assess and improve overall patient outcomes. Future controlled studies should be conducted to further evaluate the roles of alternative therapies and patient-reported data in improving quality-of-life and outcomes for PD patients.
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The case of Duodopa® provides excellent insight into VBP reimbursement decision making in combination with CED and ex post review in actual practice. Publicly available decisions document the rigorous, time-consuming process (four iterations were required before a final decision could be reached). The data generated as part of the risk-sharing agreement proved correct the initial decision to grant limited coverage despite lack of economic data. Access was provided to 100 patients while evidence was generated.
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Change in daily off/on time.
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This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 30-week study of 381 levodopa-naïve patients assigned to placebo or IPX066 containing 145, 245 or 390 mg of levodopa administered three times daily (TID). The primary efficacy measure was change from Baseline in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) activities of daily living (Part II) + motor scores (Part III), at 30 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included UPDRS total and subscores, patient and clinician global impressions (PGI-I, CGI-I), and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39).
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We evaluated prospectively open-label seven advanced PD patients (65.7 ± 9.6 years, 71.4% men) treated with DLI. Schwab & England Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), 39-item Parkinson's disease QoL Questionnaire Summary Index score (PDQ-39SI), Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZCBI), and Caregiver Strain Index (CSI) were used. Comparisons were made between scores obtained at baseline and those at a mean follow-up of 31.4 ± 7.9 months (range, 23-42).
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Quality of life is an important issue in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Both general and disease specific quality of life scales are now being used in interventional trials. In the Sinemet CR First trial, the long-acting preparation was found to be superior to the immediate release preparation in several measures of the Nottingham Health Profile, a generic quality of life scale. In particular social isolation and emotional reactivity was better with Sinemet CR. The long acting drug was also superior for all five years of the study, for activities of daily living subscale of the UPDRS. It is concluded the Sinemet CR may have advantages over the immediate release preparation on Quality of life issues in PD.
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This case report is structured as an n-of-1 style trial. The study patient was an outpatient with residual hemiparesis secondary to removal of benign oligoastrocytoma seen in an outpatient physiatry practice at an academic center. The study intervention was levodopa/carbidopa vs. placebo, combined with a structured 6-wk physiotherapy regimen. Outcomes were measured using the motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment to assess for motor recovery.
We performed a 39-week, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of levodopa/carbidopa/entacapone (LCE, Stalevo) with levodopa/carbidopa (LC, Sinemet IR) in patients with early Parkinson's disease (PD). Four hundred twenty-three patients with early PD warranting levodopa were randomly assigned to treatment with LCE 100/25/200 or LC 100/25 three-times daily. The adjusted mean difference in total Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Parts II and III between groups using the analysis of covariance model (prespecified primary outcome measure) was 1.7 (standard error = 0.84) points favoring LCE (P = 0.045). Significantly greater improvement with LCE compared with LC was also observed in UPDRS Part II activities of daily living (ADL) scores (P = 0.025), Schwab and England ADL scores (blinded rater, P = 0.003; subject, P = 0.006) and subject-reported Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scores (P = 0.047). There was no significant difference in UPDRS Part III or investigator-rated CGI scores. Wearing-off was observed in 29 (13.9%) subjects in the LCE group and 43 (20.0%) in the LC group (P = 0.099). Dyskinesia was observed in 11 (5.3%) subjects in the LCE group and 16 (7.4%) in the LC group (P = 0.367). Nausea and diarrhea were reported more frequently in the LCE group. LCE provided greater symptomatic benefit than LC and did not increase motor complications.
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Nerve conduction studies and a clinical evaluation with a standardized battery of peripheral neuropathy scales were performed at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 9 months.
Asterixis was observed in five parkinsonian patients who were taking levodopa. A prospective study revealed that 4 of 55 consecutive patients had asterixis. Liver and metabolic functions were normal in all patients. Asterixis always occurred as part of a toxic confusional state superimposed on a parkinsonian state associated with some dementia. Insomnia, hallucinosis, and myoclonus were also prominent in the affected patients. Because of this association with other signs of chronic drug toxicity and its reversal with drug withdrawal, the asterixis seemed to be drug-related.