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Narrative literature review.
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There have been recent reports in the psychiatric literature of the possible association of glucose dysregulation and diabetes mellitus with the use of atypical antipsychotics. This article describes a retrospective chart review of patients from various clinical settings, including a continuing day treatment program, two inpatient programs, and a large private practice. Information was obtained with regard to weight, fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles, EKG changes, and medical comorbidities. The patients included those treated with conventional antipsychotic agents, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine. No one antipsychotic agent was associated with a statistically significantly higher prevalence of diabetes, lipid abnormalities, or EKG problems. It was noted, however, that there were higher rates of diabetes (17%), lipid abnormalities (43%), and hypertension (30%) across the sample. This finding suggests that the high prevalence of diabetes, lipid abnormalities, and hypertension in a young, chronically psychiatrically ill population makes the case for aggressive screening.
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In this paper, we report on two subjects with psychotic disorders who were found to have peripheral edema during olanzapine therapy.
We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis based on a random-effects model. We calculated numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a random-effects model.
Rats were trained to discriminate quetiapine at 10 mg/kg and tested with a range of ligands, selective for specific classes of receptor.
Consistent with the two previously published cases, the main clinical effects of overdose were hypotension, tachycardia, and somnolence as predicted by its known alpha-adrenergic receptor and histamine receptor blockade. These effects were managed with fluid resuscitation and supportive measures. No cardiac arrhythmias other than tachycardia have been reported, but the tachycardia was of an unexpectedly long duration in this case. Decline in serum quetiapine concentration followed a biexponential pattern with a terminal elimination half-life of 22 hours. Unexpectedly low peak serum concentrations in three patients with overdose suggest that absorption is highly reduced, either by the effects of the overdose or by the activated charcoal administered.
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The present study examined the safety of the atypical antipsychotic drugs sertindol, olanzapine and quetiapine used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic drug, was used for comparison. These data may account for the different therapeutic effects and side-effect profiles (cardiovascular risk) of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia.
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CG4 cells, an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell line, were treated with various concentrations of HAL, OLA, or QUE for specific periods. The proliferation and differentiation of the CG4 cells were measured. The regulation of CG4 cell differentiation by oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factors 1 and 2 (Olig1 and Olig2) was examined.
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Schizophrenia patients with and without TD were similar in time to discontinuation of treatment for any cause and improvement in psychopathology, but differed in neurocognitive response. There were no significant differences between treatments in the course of TD, with most patients showing either persistence of or fluctuation in observable symptoms.
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We conclude that a course of ECT produced notable improvements not only in PDP but also in the severity of PD. The findings of change in rCBF suggest implications for dysfunction in the middle frontal region for patients with PDP.
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There is some limited evidence of efficacy of risperidone reducing aggression and conduct problems in children aged 5 to 18 with disruptive behaviour disorders in the short term.For aggression, the difference in scores of 6.49 points on the ABC Irritability subscale (range 0 to 45) may be clinically significant. For conduct problems, the difference in scores of 8.61 points on the NCBRF-CP (range 0 to 48) is likely to be clinically significant.Caution is required due to the limitations of the evidence and the small number of relevant high-quality studies. The findings from the one study assessing impact in the longer term suggest that the effects are maintained to some extent (small effect size) for up to six months. Inadequately powered studies produced non-significant results. The evidence is restricted by heterogeneity of the population (including below average and borderline IQ), and methodological issues in some studies, such as use of enriched designs and risk of selection bias. No study addressed the issue of pre-existing/concurrent psychosocial interventions, and comorbid stimulant medication and its dosage was only partially addressed. There is currently no evidence to support the use of quetiapine for disruptive behaviour disorders in children and adolescents.It is uncertain to what degree the efficacy found in clinical trials will translate into real life clinical practice. Participants in the studies were recruited from clinical services but those who agree to take part in the clinical trials are a subset of the overall population presenting for care. There are no research data for children under five years of age. Further high-quality research is required with large samples of clinically representative youths and long-term follow-up to replicate current findings.
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The mean +/- SD of maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 - 48 h (AUC0-48) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC0-inf) of Quantia 200 vs. Seroquel were 886.60 +/- 356.50 vs. 811.34 +/- 323.37 ng/ml; 3,754.41 +/- 1,453.00 vs. 3,420.00 +/- 1,229.6 ng x h/ml and 4,015.35 +/- 1,528.25 vs. 3,769.45 +/- 1,296.69 ng x h/ml, respectively. Time to reach Cmax (tmax) of Quantia 200 and Seroquel were 1.08 +/- 0.778 and 1.10 +/- 0.79 h, respectively, and thus not significantly different. The 90% confidence interval of the ratios of the logarithmically transformed of Cmax, AUC0-48 and AUC0-inf were 98.21 - 124.37%, 94.43 - 117.03% and 94.77 - 116.61%, respectively, which were within the acceptable range of 80 - 125%. Power of the test for Cmax, AUC0-48 and AUC0-inf was 92.1%, 96.9% and 97.4%, respectively.
Analysis revealed a significant group level trend indicating that typical antipsychotic drugs have faster onsets of action than atypical antipsychotic drugs.
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The magnitude of publication bias found for antipsychotics was less than that found previously for antidepressants, possibly because antipsychotics demonstrate superiority to placebo more consistently. Without increased access to regulatory agency data, publication bias will continue to blur distinctions between effective and ineffective drugs.
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Eighteen randomised trials met the inclusion criteria. Aspects of three of the quetiapine studies were commercial-in-confidence. The quality of the included trials was limited and overall, key methodological criteria were not met in most trials. Quetiapine, olanzapine and valproate semisodium appear superior to placebo in reducing manic symptoms, but may cause side-effects. There appears to be little difference between these treatments and lithium in terms of effectiveness, but quetiapine is associated with somnolence and weight gain, whereas lithium is associated with tremor. Olanzapine as adjunct therapy to mood stabilisers may be more effective than placebo in reducing mania and improving global health, but it is associated with more dry mouth, somnolence, weight gain, increased appetite, tremor and speech disorder. There was little difference between these treatments and haloperidol in reducing mania, but haloperidol was associated with more extrapyramidal side-effects and negative implications for health-related quality of life. Intramuscular olanzapine and lorazepam were equally effective and safe in one very short (24 hour) trial. Valproate semisodium and carbamazepine were equally effective and safe in one small trial in children. Olanzapine may be more effective than valproate semisodium in reducing mania, but was associated with more dry mouth, increased appetite, oedema, somnolence, speech disorder, Parkinson-like symptoms and weight gain. Valproate semisodium was associated with more nausea than olanzapine. The results from the base-case analysis demonstrate that choice of optimal strategy is dependent on the maximum that the health service is prepared to pay per additional responder. For a figure of less than 7179 British pounds per additional responder, haloperidol is the optimal decision; for a spend in excess of this, it would be olanzapine. Under the most favourable scenario in relation to the costs of responders and non-responders beyond the 3-week period considered in the base-case analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of olanzapine is reduced to 1236 British pounds.
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The transmembrane transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a wide range of drugs. P-gp potentially limits access to brain tissue of psychoactive substrates, but little is known about its specificity for antipsychotics. The objective of this study was to assess the affinity of some atypical antipsychotic drugs in vitro for P-gp as indicative of their potential as P-gp substrates in vivo. The activity of P-gp towards four atypical and two conventional antipsychotics and a proven substrate, verapamil, was examined by their P-gp ATPase activity, a putative measure of P-gp affinity. The Michaelis-Menten equation was fitted to the data. The rank order of the ratio V(max) / K(m) was: verapamil (2.6) > quetiapine (1.7) > risperidone (1.4) > olanzapine (0.8) > chlorpromzaine (0.7) > haloperidol (0.3) = clozapine (0.3). The atypical antipsychotics quetiapine and risperidone were relatively good P-gp substrates, although their affinities were not as high as verapamil. Olanzapine showed intermediate affinity and clozapine showed the least affinity of the drugs studied. These results suggest that P-gp is likely to influence the access to the brain of all of the atypical antipsychotics studied to various degrees. In vivo studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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Both hypotheses were supported. Olanzapine appears to be a superior treatment for hostility in early phases of therapy for first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophreniform disorder. This efficacy advantage of olanzapine must be weighed against its adverse metabolic effects and propensity to cause weight gain.
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The in vivo metabolic mechanism of quetiapine (QTP) with clinical therapeutic dose was studied. Nineteen patients received multiple doses of QTP with or without concomitant erythromycin. Midazolam was given to detect enzyme activity. Plasma Concentrations of QTP, midazolam, and their metabolites were measured at specified time intervals. In presence of erythromycin, activity of CYP3A4 decreased significantly; for QTP, C(max), AUC(0-24), and t(1/2) increased significantly, CL decreased significantly, and variations in AUC(0-24) and CL showed, respectively, significant negative and positive correlation to that of CYP3A4 activity; for QTP sulfoxide (QTP-SF), C(max) and AUC(0-24) decreased significantly, t(1/2) increased significantly, and variation of t(1/2) was significantly positively correlated to that of CYP3A4 activity; for 7-hydroxy-quetiapine (QTP-H), t(1/2) increased significantly and was closely correlated to CYP3A4 activity; for 7-hydroxy-N-desalkyl-quetiapine (QTP-ND), C(max) and AUC(0-24) decreased significantly, and variation of AUC(0-24) was significantly positively correlated to that of CYP3A4 activity. In conclusion, the major metabolic pathway of QTP is sulfoxidation. CYP3A4 is the primary enzyme responsible for CYP-mediated metabolism of QTP in clinical therapy dosage in vivo. QTP sulfoxidation and N-dealkylation are mainly catalyzed by CYP3A4. 7-Hydroxylation of QTP is not mainly catalyzed by CYP3A4. The metabolism of QTP-SF and QTP-H is mainly catalyzed by CYP3A4, but QTP-ND is not by CYP3A4.
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We developed a model to assess the potential anticholinergic activity (AA) of atypical antipsychotics at therapeutic doses. A radioreceptor assay was used to measure in vitro AA at 6 clinically relevant concentrations of aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. Using published pharmacokinetic data, in combination with the measured in vitro AA, dose-AA curves were generated.
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Fifteen of 16 consenting patients completed the study. Aggression was significantly reduced by day 3. Psychopathology also was significantly reduced, with the greatest improvement in BPRS Thinking Disturbance subscale scores. No significant increase in movement side effects was seen by day 8. Seven participants were administered a concomitant sedating antipsychotic on an as-needed basis, particularly in the first 4 days of treatment; these participants displayed much greater aggression--but not psychopathology--at day 1, and it took longer for their aggression and psychopathology to improve compared with patients treated with quetiapine XR as the sole antipsychotic.
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All patients achieved remission of delirium several days after starting quetiapine (mean +/- SD duration until remission = 4.8 +/- 3.5 days). Quetiapine treatment was well tolerated, and no clinically relevant change in EPS was detected.
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93 patients with Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and clinically significant agitation.
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