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To meet the requirements for marketing a new generic product, this study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two 2 mg tablet formulations of risperidone: a newly developed generic formulation (test) and a branded formulation (reference) in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers.
Risperidone (Risperdal), a psychotropic atypical antipsychotic agent, is thought to act via dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. The clinical efficacy of oral risperidone in the treatment of bipolar mania and schizophrenia in adult patients is well established. In the US, risperidone is also approved for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents aged 5-16 years, for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents aged 13-17 years and, as monotherapy, for the short-term treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder in children and adolescents aged 10-17 years. Oral risperidone treatment was better than placebo treatment in reducing irritability and other behavioural symptoms associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents in two well designed short-term trials, with these benefits maintained in those receiving risperidone for up to 6 months. The drug had a clinically manageable tolerability profile, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate intensity. There are some aspects of treatment, such as weight gain, somnolence and hyperglycaemia, that require monitoring, and the long-term safety of risperidone in children and adolescents with autistic disorder remains to be fully determined. With these issues in mind, risperidone offers a valuable emerging option for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.
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The purpose of this study was to develop an ideal microsphere formulation of risperidone that would prolong the drug release for 3 months in vivo and avoid the need for co-administration of oral tablets.
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The geometric means ratios (%) and 90% confidence interval (CI) of the test and reference products for the log-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters, Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf of risperidone were 104.49 % (92.79% - 117.66%), 100.96 % (92.15% - 110.61 %) and 97.99 % (90.72% - 105.85%). The 90% CI of geometric means ratios of the test and reference products for the log-transformed pharmacokinetic parameters, Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf of 9-hydroxyrisperidone were 97.00%, 96.97% and 97.49%.
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Expected average costs/per patient treated were €5377 for PP-LAI, €6118 for RIS-LAI, and €6537 for OLZ-LAI. Respective QALYs were 0.817, 0.809, and 0.811; ER visits were 0.127, 0.134, and 0.141; hospitalizations were 0.252, 0.298, and 0.289. Results were generally robust in sensitivity analyses. PP-LAI dominated RIS-LAI and OLZ-LAI in 90.2% and 92.1% of simulations, respectively. Results were insensitive to drug prices but sensitive to adherence and hospitalization rates.
Long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta) is a novel, intramuscular formulation of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone, which has shown efficacy in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia.Long-acting risperidone is pharmacokinetically equivalent to and causes less plasma drug concentration fluctuation than the oral formulation. This novel formulation is an aqueous suspension of microspheres comprising risperidone and a biodegradable copolymer. Significant release of risperidone from the microspheres begins 3 weeks after the first injection: thus, administration of another antipsychotic is necessary during this period only. Steady-state plasma concentrations are reached after the fourth injection. Elimination is complete 7-8 weeks after the last injection.Long-acting risperidone 25 or 50mg every 2 weeks demonstrated significantly greater antipsychotic efficacy than placebo and equivalent efficacy to oral risperidone 2-6 mg/day in two randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, 12-week trials of patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, in one of these trials, improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were superior with long-acting risperidone than placebo. Compared with baseline, improvements in the symptoms of schizophrenia in stable patients were significant with long-acting risperidone 25 or 50mg (12-month trial) and 25, 37.5 or 50mg (12-week trial) every 2 weeks, in two noncomparative, multicentre trials. Patient satisfaction with their medication and patient HRQOL mental health scores improved significantly in the 12-month trial.Long-acting risperidone is generally well tolerated, with a low incidence of injection site pain and an otherwise similar profile of adverse effects to the oral formulation. The overall incidence of extrapyramidal disorders in clinical trials was low (< or= 10%) with similar, yet minimal, changes in extrapyramidal symptom severity between patients treated with long-acting risperidone, oral risperidone or placebo. Tardive dyskinesia was reported in the 12-month trial, in 0.7% of patients.
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The results show that the 90% confidence intervals for the geometric mean ratios of the solution and the tablet formulations were not within the acceptance range of 80 125% for risperidone, whereas the confidence intervals for 9-hydroxyrisperidone were within the acceptance range of 80 - 125%.
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As in other trials of treatment for mania, the high proportion of imputed efficacy data resulting from rates of failure to complete treatment of between 12% and 62% may have biased the results.
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Two reviewers independently extracted data from trial reports. Janssen-Cilag was asked to provide missing information.
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Two reviewers extracted data from included trials. Data were pooled where possible, and analysed using appropriate statistical methods. Odds ratios of average differences were calculated. Only 'intention to treat' data were included. Analysis included haloperidol treated patients, compared with placebo.
An existing 1-year decision-analytic framework was adapted to model drug use in this healthcare system. The average direct costs to the General Insurance Company of the Czech Republic of using paliperidone palmitate (Xeplion®), risperidone (Risperdal Consta®), and olanzapine pamoate (Zypadhera®) were determined. Literature-derived clinical rates populated the model, with costs adjusted to 2012 Euros using the consumer price index. Outcomes included quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), days in remission, and proportions hospitalized or visiting emergency rooms. One-way sensitivity analyses were calculated for all important inputs. A multivariate probability analysis was used to examine the stability of results using 10,000 iterations of simulated input over reasonable ranges of all included variables.
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Patients stabilized on compressed risperidone tablets transitioned to the equivalent dose of orally disintegrating risperidone tablets with continued maintenance of effect, no decompensation and with minimal side effects.
Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder, usually necessitating lifelong treatment. Although atypical antipsychotic agents have improved outcomes in schizophrenia, their clinical potential remains limited by patients' nonadherence to medication. Long-acting antipsychotics were developed in the 1960s to enhance treatment adherence and simplify the medication process. However, although conventional long-acting agents assure medication delivery, they are associated with similar side effects to their oral equivalents. The need for an agent combining the advantages of a long-acting formulation with those of an atypical antipsychotic was highlighted in 1997 by the American Psychiatric Association's Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia. The first long-acting injectable atypical antipsychotic, long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta, Johnson & Johnson), has since been developed. This article discusses the efficacy, tolerability and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, and suggests possibilities for how its role in clinical practice may change over the next 5 years.
Long-acting injectable antipsychotic formulations of conventional antipsychotics were developed to address the problem of partial adherence among patients with schizophrenia. Injection site pain, other skin reactions and patient satisfaction with treatment were assessed in two large, multicentre studies of long-acting injectable risperidone (Risperdal CONSTA, Janssen Pharmaceutica Products, Titusville, New Jersey, USA), the first available long-acting atypical antipsychotic agent. Patients rated injection site pain using a 100-mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and investigators rated injection site pain, redness, swelling and induration. Patient satisfaction with treatment was assessed with the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI). VAS pain ratings were low at all visits across all doses in both studies, and decreased from first to final injection. In the 12-week, double-blind study, mean +/- SD VAS scores at the first and final injections were 15.6 +/- 20.7 and 12.5 +/- 18.3 for placebo-treated patients, and 11.8 +/- 14.4 (first) and 10.0 +/- 12.4 (final) for 25 mg; 16.3+/-21.9 (first) and 13.6 +/- 21.7 (final) for 50 mg; and 16.0 +/- 17.9 (first) and 9.6 +/- 16.0 (final, P<0.01) for 75 mg of long-acting risperidone. Mean VAS scores in the 50-week, open-label study at the first and final injection were: 17.9 +/- 22.2 (first) and 9.5 +/- 16.7 (final, P<0.0001) for 25 mg; 18.1 +/- 19.7 (first) and 10.4 +/- 14.8 (final, P<0.0001) for 50 mg; and 18.5 +/- 21.6 (first) and 13.6 +/- 19.9 (final, P = 0.0001) for 75 mg of long-acting risperidone. Overall, there was no or minimal injection site pain and skin reactions were rare. Mean DAI ratings were available for the 50-week study and indicated high patient satisfaction throughout the trial (baseline = 7.30; endpoint = 7.70; P<0.0001 versus baseline). These findings may positively affect patient and clinician attitudes towards long-term therapy with long-acting injectable risperidone.
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PP-LAI dominated the other two drugs, as it had a lower overall cost and superior clinical outcomes, making it the preferred choice. Using PP-LAI in place of RIS-LAI for chronic relapsing schizophrenia would reduce the overall costs of care for the healthcare system.
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This article will briefly familiarize the reader with the positive and negative signs and with the symptoms of Schizophrenia. After describing these signs and symptoms, the atypical anti-psychotic medications of Risperidone, Olanzapine and Clozapine will be reviewed as to their pharmacodynamics, dosages, and side effects in treating of these sign and symptoms. Within the scope of practice for advance practice nurses, the care being rendered and the implementation of those atypical drugs will be described. Thanks to their educational and clinical background, the advanced practice nurses find themselves in a unique set of circumstances to positively contribute in the treatment and maintenance of Schizophrenia.
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A retrospective chart review within-subject mirror-image study using actual practice chart review data was used to compare annual hospital bed-days and annual hospital episodes for adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder before and after switching to Risperdal Consta in the period 1 January 2003 to 30 June 2005. Secondary endpoints included mean length of hospital stay per episode, the cost of hospitalization, and the cost of antipsychotic treatment. The base case analytical approach allocated all hospital episodes overlapping the switch date entirely to pre-switch treatment. In order to investigate the impact of inpatient care ongoing at the time of the switch, the change in bed-days per year was also estimated using an alternative analytical approach inspired by economic modelling.
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Differences in the formulation and manufacturing process of olanzapine ODTs appear to have a strong influence on the disintegration time of the active compound; differences that may potentially impact their use in clinical practice.
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Of the respondents, 73% stated that they would be unlikely to take a generic antipsychotic if their pharmacist were to substitute it. Providing patients with a short explanation had a significantly positive effect on their intention to take a generic version; however, overall, the patients' intention to take the generic antipsychotic lay well below a neutral midpoint.
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To compare the bioavailability of two risperidone formulations available in the Chilean market.
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Patients with psychoses/schizophrenia using atypical antipsychotics in tablet form perceive generic versions of their antipsychotics as being significantly different. This perceived difference lowers their intention of continuing to take the medication, thus possibly jeopardizing treatment outcome. Caution with the generic substitution of atypical antipsychotics in the pharmacy is therefore recommended. Generic substitution should take place only with the knowledge and agreement of the psychiatrist and the patient.
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Most patients (24/25 MDD; 20/21 BP; 17/18 DE; 14/15 SZ) improved by 1 point on CGI-S from baseline or experienced no change at endpoint. Adverse events (AEs) occurring in any group at a > or =10% incidence included headache (19%) and pharyngolaryngeal pain (10%), reported in the BP group only.
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The preparation and investigation of sustained-release risperidone-encapsulated microspheres using erodible poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) of lower molecular weight were performed and compared to that of commercial Risperdal Consta™ for the treatment of schizophrenia. The research included screening and optimizing of suitable commercial polymers of lower molecular weight PLGA50/50 or the blends of these PLGA polymers to prepare microspheres with zero-order release kinetics properties. Solvent evaporation method was applied here while studies of the risperidone loaded microsphere were carried out on its drug encapsulation capacity, morphology, particle size, as well as in vitro release profiles. Results showed that microspheres prepared using 50504A PLGA or blends of 5050-type PLGAs exerted spherical and smooth morphology, with a higher encapsulation efficiency and nearly zero-order release kinetics. These optimized microspheres showed great potential for a better depot preparation than the marketed Risperdal Consta™, which could further improve the patient compliance.
Delirium occurs in up to 30% of hospitalised patients and is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity and mortality. Recently published reports have suggested that the standard drug for delirium, haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic that may cause adverse extrapyramidal symptoms among patients, may be replaced by atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone, olanzapine or quetiapine, that are as effective as haloperidol in controlling delirium, but that have a lower incidence of extrapyramidal adverse effects.
The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of long-acting risperidone (Risperdal Consta) were evaluated in a multicenter, prospective, open-label, 15-week study of 86 patients with schizophrenia. Subjects stabilized on 2, 4 or 6 mg of oral risperidone once daily for at least 4 weeks were assigned to receive i.m. injections of 25, 50 or 75 mg of risperidone, respectively, every 2 weeks for 10 weeks. The 90% confidence intervals for the i.m./oral ratios of the mean steady-state plasma-AUC, corrected for dosing interval, and of the average plasma concentration of the active moiety (risperidone plus 9-hydroxyrisperidone) were within the range of 80-125%, indicating bioequivalence of the i.m. and oral formulations. However, mean steady-state peak concentrations of the active moiety were 25-32% lower with i.m. than oral dosing (P < 0.05) and fluctuations in plasma active-moiety levels were 32-42% lower with the i.m. than oral regimen. Symptoms of schizophrenia continued to improve after switching from oral to i.m. dosing. Long-acting risperidone was well tolerated locally and systematically. Although overall bioequivalence of the two formulations was established, the differences in pharmacokinetic profiles between the two formulations indicate potential benefits for long-acting risperidone.
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Aggression is a common symptom of many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, Tourette's disorder, mood disorders (including bipolar disorder), substance-related disorders, alcohol-related disorders, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, intermittent explosive disorder and personality disorders (particularly antisocial personality disorder). Many forms of organic brain disorders may present with aggressive behavior. Aggression is common in some epileptic patients and some endocrinological diseases (e.g., diabetes and hyperthyroidism) may be associated with aggressive behavior. Physicians need to rule out many medical and psychiatric disorders before diagnosing aggressive behavior. A thorough diagnostic work up is the most important step in determining the nature of comorbid disorders associated with the behavioral problem. Structured interviews and rating scales completed by patients, parents, teachers and clinicians may aid the diagnosis and provide quantification for the change process related to treatment. The integration of medication, individual and family counseling, educational and psychosocial interventions including the school and community, may increase the effectiveness of interventions. Due to the common association of aggression and disruptive behaviors with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, psychostimulants including new generation long-acting medications and other nonstimulant medications are considered the drug of choice for managing aggressive behavior and disruptive behavior disorders. Severe aggressive behavior not responding to these medications may require the single or combined use of mood regulators including lithium and/or antispychotic medications. Drugs such as risperidone (Risperdal, Janssen-Cilag) have documented effectiveness and safety in children and adolescents, and can be used in treatment.
A single-dose, randomized, fasting, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period was conducted in 23 healthy Thai male volunteers. Blood samples were collected predose and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h following an oral administration of 2 mg risperidone. The plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone were determined by using a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters of Test and Reference were obtained by noncompartmental analysis.
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Bioequivalence between the generic 1 mg/ml risperidone solution and the originator tablet formulation was not proven in this study.
Since schizophrenia is not a rare occurrence and is often chronic, the general practitioner and internist providing primary care should also be informed on new developments in treatment with neuroleptics. A major new form of treatment is provided by the so-called atypical neuroleptics which, however, in terms of their receptor specificity are not a uniform group, and have only a few properties in common. A prototype of this group is clozapine (Leponex), which has a good antipsychotic effect and virtually no action on the extrapyramidal motor system (EPS). Whether clozapine is also capable of improving the primary negative symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g. flattering of affect, reduction of drive, cognitive disorders, etc.) has not yet been ascertained. On account of the rare but possibly fatal agranulocytosis it may induce, it may be prescribed only when certain safety precautions are taken. Risperidone (Risperdal) has similar efficacy against the classical positive symptoms, with no action on the EPS (up to a medium dosage), and has no hematological effects. Other atypical neuroleptics have recently become available: quetiapine, olanzapine and sertindole. They have at least some of the advantages of clozapine but a very low risk of producing hematological effects. However, before they are widely used in the doctor's practice, further clinical experience is needed.
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The ODT manufacturing method was associated with time to disintegrate; the fastest were freeze dried tablets, followed by soft compressed tablets and then hard/dense tablets. Olanzapine Zydis(®) was the only ODT that completely disintegrated in less than 4 s for all strengths (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg), followed by 5-mg Prolanz FAST(®) (12 s) and then risperidone ODT 4 mg (40 s). Reasons for slow dissolution of the olanzapine generics may include low product potency, excipient binding, excipient solubility, active ingredient particle size and incomplete disintegration.