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ACTG (AIDS Clinical Trials Group) 384 is designed to evaluate different strategies for antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1-infected individuals with no previous exposure to antiretroviral treatment. The study is a randomized, partially double-blinded, controlled trial with 980 subjects at 81 centers in the United States and Italy. The study has a factorial design that addresses the following scientific questions: (1) Does the best initial choice of therapy include both a protease inhibitor (PI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) in a four-drug combination with nucleoside analogue (NRTI) drugs, or should these agents be used sequentially in three-drug combinations?; (2) Which sequence is best in a three-drug regimen-PI followed by NNRTI or NNRTI followed by PI ?; (3) Which is the best sequence of dual NRTI combinations-zidovudine plus lamivudine followed by didanosine plus stavudine, or the converse? Subjects in the three-drug combination arms are offered a salvage regimen after failure of their second regimen; subjects in the four-drug combination arm are offered a salvage regimen after failure of their first regimen. The primary endpoint of the study is the time until salvage; secondary endpoints include time to virological failure and time to toxicity-related discontinuation of therapy. A Division of AIDS Data and Safety Monitoring Board will review the trial for safety and efficacy. Control Clin Trials 2001;22:142-159
The absence of associations between exposure of the fetal baboon to AZT and changes in parameters reflective of fetal condition suggests that comparable exposure of the human fetus during intravenous infusion of drug would not confound clinical monitoring used to assess fetal well-being. These findings supplement conclusions from clinical research in support of U.S. Public Health Service recommendations that intrapartum fetal monitoring be performed as clinically indicated, not specifically because pregnant patients are treated with intravenous AZT.
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The tumor stem cell-like subpopulation in human leukemia cell line KG-1a was enriched with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The CD34⁺ CD38⁻ subpopulation in the KG-1a cells was detected with flow cytometry, the cell proliferation was detected by MTT method to study the of Emodin and AZT in the CLSC. The cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of NF-κB, BCL-2 and TGF-β mRNA and proteins were measured with RT-PCR and Western blot respectively.
In the TDF/3TC + LPVr group, samples were available from 59 patients at baseline and 56 patients at 2 years. Of these, 36 patients had samples available from both time points. In the AZT/3TC + NVP group, plasma samples were analyzed from 82 participants at baseline and of those, 61 had samples at 2 years. Median change over 2 years was greater in the TDF/3TC + LPVr group for both CTX (+0.24 ng/mL, interquartile ranges (IQR) 0.10-0.43 vs. +0.09 ng/mL, IQR -0.03 to 0.18, p = 0.001) and P1NP (+25.5 ng/mL, IQR 2.4-51.3 vs. +7.11 ng/mL, IQR -4.3 to 21.6, p = 0.012). Differences remained after adjusting for potential confounders in the multivariable analysis.
This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the care of pregnant women living with HIV and the prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. Prenatal care of pregnancies complicated by HIV infection should include monitoring by a multidisciplinary team with experts in this area.
Anemia is a common finding in HIV-infected patients, especially in late stages of the disease. The grade of anemia is an independent marker for mortality. Beside the classical causes of anemia we find in HIV-infected patients typically cytokine mediated suppression of the bone marrow, infiltration of the latter by opportunistic agents and side effects of drugs. These causes have to be taken into account in the diagnostic approach. The therapeutic intervention should be focused on the aetiology and pathogenesis of anemia in the individual patient. Successful antiretroviral combination therapy is associated with a substantial decrease of morbidity and mortality and lowers the incidence of severe anemia. However, several antiretroviral agents, especially zidovudine, and drugs against opportunistic infections can cause anemia.
Cross-sectional study, Site and Participants: Italian obstetric centres.
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An overview is provided of recent advances made in understanding HIV disease as it affects women, including recent information on HIV-associated gynecologic conditions. Drug blood levels in women, the effects of nelfinavir and oral contraceptives, and the problem of wasting and opportunistic infection control are explored. Nelfinavir, an approved protease inhibitor, effects the level of oral contraceptives in the blood by fifty percent. It appears that treatment drug blood levels remain greater in women than in men and that could affect the amount and severity of side effects. Wasting is still an uncertain factor in women's health, and the initiation and cessation of triple-drug therapy for women is different from men. Overall, while much can be gained from the studies that have been done so far, it appears that medical research is lagging behind in studying women and HIV.
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In 25 vertically HIV-infected children receiving highly-active antiretroviral therapy, a 3-log10 reduction in plasma HIV RNA load was maintained for 1 year and was associated with a doubling of the CD4-cell percentage. Most (75%) new CD4 cells carried the CD45RA marker of naive cells and there was only a small rise in memory cells (CD45RO). This pattern of immune restoration differs from adults, and may be due to the presence of a functioning thymus in children.
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A total of 43 children were included at a median age of 4.8 years (1.8-8.0). Median level of HIV RNA and percentage of CD4 cell count was 5.5 log₁₀ copies/mL (4.6-6) and 15% (8-27.5), respectively. HAART included LPV/r and 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, mainly lamivudine (3TC), zidovudine, and/or abacavir. The median follow-up period was 36 months (18-72). Less than 50 copies/mL of HIV RNA was observed in 46%, 67%, and 70% of the children at months 6, 9, and 12, respectively. In all, 20 children (46.5%) experienced a VF. The risk factors of primary VF were a young age and a low socioeconomic status. The genotypic resistance test, performed for 18 of 20 children with VF, revealed 1 LPV/r-resistant virus and protease inhibitor-related major mutations without LPV/r resistance in 2 other children. Of the 18 children with VF, 15 received a 3TC-based HAART: 12 of 15 (80%) harbored a 3TC-resistant virus. No virus resistant to zidovudine or abacavir was found.
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This paper presents the development and application of a new multi-residue analytical method providing the first data on the environmental occurrence of human pharmaceuticals in Africa, particularly the Nairobi River basin (Kenya). Based on pharmaceutical consumption data available for the Nairobi region, 43 'priority' pharmaceutically active ingredients (PAIs) were selected for this study. On the basis of magnetic sector high-resolution mass spectrometry, a new methodology involving both full-scan screening and selective target analysis has been developed to investigate the presence of the defined priority PAIs. Subsequent analysis of the corresponding standard compounds provided the full confirmation and indicative concentrations (low ng/L-high μg/L) of 10 human PAIs in the Nairobi River. The detected compounds belong to different classes, i.e. antibiotics, analgesic/anti-inflammatory and anti-epileptic drugs, antimalarials and antiretrovirals. Ibuprofen, paracetamol, sulfamethoxazole and zidovudine showed to be the most concentrated PAIs (about 10-30 μg/L). The concentration of the antiretrovirals (lamivudine, zidovudine and nevirapine) is clearly higher than those reported in the literature, although environmental data on this class of PAIs are still very limited. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that provides evidence of detection of lamivudine in surface water. The presented unique data on the occurrence of selected PAIs in the aquatic environment of Africa clearly show that the high prevalence of specific diseases like HIV/AIDS infection in developing countries might result in a different pattern of PAIs in environmental waters compared to the more developed regions.
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We investigated the effects of rifabutin (300 mg daily administered for 7 or 14 days) on the pharmacokinetics of zidovudine in nine patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Serial blood and urine samples were collected over a 6-hour period on each day that the pharmacokinetics of zidovudine were studied. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined for zidovudine and its glucuronide metabolite and compared with use of analysis of variance (ANOVA) appropriate for a repeated-measures design. Except for a statistically significant decrease (28%) in the terminal half-life of zidovudine from 1.5 to 1.1 hours (P = .005) after coadministration of both agents for 14 days, concurrent administration of rifabutin for 7 or 14 days had no statistically significant effects on zidovudine plasma and urine pharmacokinetic parameters (the difference among treatment means was < 25%). Treatment with rifabutin is unlikely to influence the effectiveness of treating HIV-infected patients with zidovudine because of any pharmacokinetic interaction between these drugs.
We have reported that noncytotoxic concentrations of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) increase the cytotoxicity of ICI D1694, a folate-based thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibitor, with increasing AZT incorporation into DNA. We postulated that the inhibition of TS by ICI D1694 would decrease 5'-deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) pools, which compete with AZT triphosphate (AZT-TP) as a substrate for DNA polymerase. Furthermore, the inhibition of TS would increase the activity of both thymidine kinase (TK) and thymidylate kinase (TdK). Each of these consequences of TS inhibition would favor more incorporation of AZT into DNA. Thus, we reasoned that other TS inhibitors should also result in increased AZT incorporation into DNA and, perhaps, in increased cytotoxicity. N6-[4-(Morpholinosulfonyl)benzyl]-N6-methyl-2,6-diaminobenz[ cd]indole glucuronate (AG-331) differs from ICI D1694 in that it is a de novo designed lipophilic TS inhibitor, it does not require a specific carrier for cellular uptake, and it does not undergo intracellular polyglutamation. This potent TS inhibitor causes minimal cytotoxicity in MGH-U1 human bladder cancer cells. A 24-h exposure to 5 microM AG-331 causes almost complete TS inhibition but only 35% cell kill. The combination of AZT and AG-331 in MGH-U1 cells resulted in an enhanced antitumor effect relative to that of each agent alone; 50 microM AZT, noncytotoxic alone, increased the cell kill of induced by AG-331 from 35% to 50%. Biochemical studies of this combination revealed that simultaneous treatment with 5 microM AG-331 plus 1.8 microM [3H]-AZT produced as much as a 68% +/- 7% increase in AZT incorporation into DNA. This observation was associated with an increase in DNA single-strand breaks, measured as comet tail moment, of up to 6.6-fold. These studies support our original premise that TS inhibition favors increased incorporation of AZT into DNA and that the combination causes more cell kill than either drug alone in MGH-U1 cells.
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Morphine is an important drug used to alleviate moderate to severe pain. This opiate is mainly metabolized by glucuronidation to a non-analgesic metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide (M-3-G) and an active metabolite morphine-6-glucuronide (M-6-G). To understand the modulation of morphine glucuronidation activity by environmental factors, the effect of endogenous and food-derived compounds on morphine uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) in rat and human microsomes was evaluated examining the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)). The liver microsomes from Sprague-Dawley rats (RLM) and humans (HLM, 150 donors, pooled microsomes) were used as enzyme sources. Of 27 compounds tested, monoterpenoid alcohols, such as borneol and iso-borneol, exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on morphine glucuronidation in rat liver microsomes (RLM), whereas we failed to detect any inhibitory effect of endogenous substances including amino acids and sugars. The substances which have the ability to inhibit the activity in RLM are also inhibitory toward morphine glucuronidation in HLM and UGT2B7 baculosomes. However, the difference was that while the strongest inhibitory effect was observed for iso-menthol in HLM, borneol was the strongest inhibitor of the activity mediated by RLM. Although zidovudine is a typical substrate of UGT2B7, the inhibition of morphine glucuronidation by zidovudine was far weaker than that of monoterpenoid alcohols. These results demonstrate that dietary and supplementary monoterpenoid alcohols modify the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine through inhibition of UGT2B7.
Metabolic alterations and body fat changes are well-recognized limitations of protease inhibitor-based regimens. Strategies of replacing protease inhibitors with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or abacavir have been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities, particularly by decreasing cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and reducing cardiovascular risk. The various therapeutic options show differences in efficacy, tolerability, and metabolic outcomes. Abacavir seems to be better tolerated, at least in the only randomized trial in which the three options were compared face-to-face, but it is associated with higher virologic failure in patients with prior suboptimal nucleoside therapy. Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, particularly nevirapine, result in a better lipid profile with a greater increase in HDL cholesterol and in the HDUtotal cholesterol ratio, one of the most important parameters associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Efavirenz has been associated with increased triglyceride levels in some studies. Although protease inhibitor compounds as a family have been linked to metabolic and body fat alterations, new drugs such as atazanavir seem to be associated with a more favorable lipid profile. Lipoatrophy is a stigmatizing complication in HIV-infected patients receiving HAART. There is strong evidence suggesting a prominent role of thymidine analogs, mainly stavudine, in its development. Substitution of stavudine or zidovudine for abacavir or tenofovir partially improves peripheral fat loss. In addition, the lipid profile significantly improves. Finally, although the extended use of non-thymidine nucleoside analogs and the development of new families of antiretroviral drugs will probably result in a lower impact in lipids and morphologic changes, many patients are currently under treatment with these compounds. In this setting, switching strategies may be useful to minimize clinical and psychological consequences, improving the quality of life of HIV-infected patients treated with HAART.
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The Tshepo Study is a completed, open-labeled, randomized study that enrolled 650 ARV-naive adults between December 2002 and 2004. The study is a 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design comparing the efficacy and tolerability among factors: (1) 3 combinations of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): zidovudine (ZDV) + lamivudine (3TC), ZDV + didanosine (ddI), and stavudine (d4T) + 3TC; (2) 2 different nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): nevirapine and efavirenz; and (3) 2 different adherence strategies: the current national "standard of care" versus an "intensified adherence strategy" incorporating a "community-based directly observed therapy." Study patients were stratified into 2 balanced CD4 T-cell count groups: less than 201 versus 201-350 cells per cubic millimeter with viral load greater than 55,000 copies per milliliter. Following Data Safety Monitoring Board recommendations in April 2006, ZDV/ddI-containing arms were discontinued due to inferiority in primary end point, namely, virologic failure with resistance. We report both overall data and pooled data from patients receiving ZDV/ddI- versus ZDV/3TC- and d4T/3TC-containing cART through April 1, 2006.
A prospective cohort study.
CD4+ and CD8+ T cell number, CD62L/CD45RA expression on CD4+ T cells and CD38 expression on CD8+ T cells were measured by three-color flow cytometry.
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In the United States, approximately 30% of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients are also infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Both viruses share similar routes of transmission. Unlike HIV or hepatitis B virus, HCV is curable if treated and the patient achieves a sustained virologic response. The impact of coinfection includes greater morbidity and mortality, with higher rates of opportunistic disease, development of cirrhosis, and death. The standard of treatment for HIV-HCV coinfection is similar to that for HCV monoinfection and consists of pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin. As with HCV monoinfection, the best predictor of response to therapy for HIV-HCV coinfection is infection with an HCV genotype other than genotype 1 or 4. Adherence to treatment is critical for improving response to HCV therapy. However, considerable toxicities are associated with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin and pose particular problems in the coinfected patient. Coinfected patients are more likely to experience significant weight loss with HCV therapy. Neutropenia and anemia are both common laboratory abnormalities that necessitate dosage reductions and are concerns for development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining events. The effect of CD4(+) cell count has been evaluated both as a factor in response to HCV therapy and in stratification of risk for infection. Immunosuppression is not a contraindication to HCV therapy, although CD4(+) counts above 350 cells/mm(3) are associated with increased response rates in patients with HCV genotype 1 coinfection. Antiretroviral therapy does need to be adjusted to minimize adverse effects. Concomitant use of zidovudine is contraindicated because of its profound exacerbation of bone marrow suppression. The use of didanosine is also not indicated during HCV therapy because of the risks of hepatic decompensation. Controversy exists regarding the use of abacavir. Newer agents for HCV include the protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir. Although results with the protease inhibitors are highly encouraging, their effects in coinfected patients have not been evaluated. Treatment for HCV in patients with HIV poses potential obstacles to success, but the benefits of viral eradication warrant the challenge of therapy.
No effective treatment for TSP/HAM has been described so far. Interventions with corticosteroids, plasmapheresis, interferon and, more recently, with antiretroviral drugs have been tried with poor results. The main HTLV replication mechanism is thought to be through clonal expansion of HTLV-infected cells, which excludes the involvement of the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme. However, a virological and clinical improvement has been noticed in HTLV-I carriers suffering from TSP/HAM receiving zidovudine or lamivudine. Herein, we describe the virological and clinical outcome in two TSP/HAM patients infected with HTLV-I treated with zidovudine plus lamivudine, and in two HTLV-II/HIV-1 co-infected patients receiving triple combinations including lamivudine. While, one TSP/HAM patient experienced a 2 log decrease in HTLV-I proviral load, an increase of 1 log was observed in another patient after several months of treatment with zidovudine plus lamivudine. The two HTLV-II/HIV-1 co-infected patients showed an initial increase in HTLV-II proviral load after beginning HAART followed by a slight decline a few months later. Plasma HIV-1 RNA fell to <50 copies/ml in both patients after beginning therapy. None of the four HTLV positive patients developed genetic changes at the conserved YMDD domain within their respective RT genes, which could be related to lamivudine resistance. No clinical improvement was observed in one TSP/HAM patient after more than 1 year on treatment with nucleoside analogues. The inhibition of the HTLV RT along with the cytostatic effect of some nucleoside analogues, including zidovudine, could reduce HTLV replication, and therefore reduce HTLV proviral load. The clinical consequences of this effect need to be further examined.