Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication. Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Ropinirole.
Generic Requip is an anti-Pakirson medication.
Generic Requip is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, muscle spasms, poor muscle control.
Requip is also known as Ropinirole, Ropidon, Adartrel, Ropark.
Generic Requip is also used to treat restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Generic Requip has some of the same effects as a chemical called dopamine, which occurs naturally in your body. Low levels of dopamine in the brain are associated with Parkinson's disease.
Generic name of Generic Requip is Ropinirole.
Brand names of Generic Requip are Requip, Requip XL.
Take Generic Requip orally.
Take Generic Requip with or without food.
The dose and timing of Generic Requip in treating Parkinson's disease is different from the dose and timing in treating RLS.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Requip suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Requip and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Requip overdosage: nausea, vomiting, weakness, fainting, agitation, confusion, hallucinations, muscle twitching, tingly feeling, chest pain.
Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Requip are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Requip if you are allergic to Generic Requip components.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you have heart disease, high or low blood pressure, mental illness or compulsive behaviors, kidney or liver disease.
Be very careful with Generic Requip if you are taking levodopa, ciprofloxacin (Cipro), fluvoxamine (Luvox), metoclopramide (Reglan), omeprazole (Prilosec); medication used to treat nausea and vomiting or mental illness, such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), fluphenazine (Prolixin), mesoridazine (Serentil), perphenazine (Trilafon), thioridazine (Mellaril), promazine (Sparine), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), thiothixene (Navane), or haloperidol (Haldol); estrogen such as Premarin, Prempro, Estratest, Ogen, Estraderm, Climara, Vivelle, estradiol and others.
Avoid getting up too fast from a sitting or lying position. Get up slowly and steady yourself to prevent a fall.
Avoid alcohol and smoking.
Avoid machine driving.
It can be dangerous to stop Generic Requip taking suddenly.
Pramipexole has a large effect size (0.6-1.1) in the treatment of both bipolar and unipolar depression with a low short-term rate of manic switching in bipolar patients (1% mania, 5% hypomania). The pooled discontinuation rate for all reasons was 9%. Pramipexole is neuroprotective and exerts beneficial effects on sleep architecture. Pramipexole is associated with 3 rare but serious side effects: sleep attacks, which have only occurred in Parkinson's disease; compulsive behaviors and pathologic gambling, which have occurred in Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome; and psychosis, which has occurred in both psychiatric and neurologic populations.
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We suggest that VMT can be useful in the assessment of treatment effect on high-level motor planning and cognitive capabilities in newly diagnosed PD patients, added to the UPDRS which does not appropriately comply with those skills.
To assess safety, tolerability, and efficacy outcomes of an overnight switch from oral ropinirole, pramipexole, or cabergoline to rotigotine, a dopaminergic agonist with transdermal delivery over 24 hours in subjects with established Parkinson disease (PD).
Clinical evidence suggests that after initiation of dopaminergic medications some patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the neurocognitive basis of this phenomenon can be defined as the formation of arbitrary and illusory associations between conditioned stimuli and reward signals, called aberrant salience. Young, never-medicated PD patients and matched controls were assessed on a speeded reaction time task in which the probe stimulus was preceded by conditioned stimuli that could signal monetary reward by color or shape. The patients and controls were re-evaluated after 12 weeks during which the patients received a dopamine agonist (pramipexole or ropinirole). Results indicated that dopamine agonists increased both adaptive and aberrant salience in PD patients, that is, formation of real and illusory associations between conditioned stimuli and reward, respectively. This effect was present when associations were assessed by means of faster responding after conditioned stimuli signaling reward (implicit salience) and overt rating of stimulus-reward links (explicit salience). However, unusual feelings and experiences, which are subclinical manifestations of psychotic-like symptoms, were specifically related to irrelevant and illusory stimulus-reward associations (aberrant salience) in PD patients receiving dopamine agonists. The learning of relevant and real stimulus-reward associations (adaptive salience) was not related to unusual experiences. These results suggest that dopamine agonists may increase psychotic-like experiences in young patients with PD, possibly by facilitating dopaminergic transmission in the ventral striatum, which results in aberrant associations between conditioned stimuli and reward.
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Ropinirole therapy can reduce levodopa dose but at the expense of increased dyskinetic adverse events. No clear effect on off time reduction was found but this may have been due to the under-powering of the single evaluable trial. Inadequate data on motor impairments and disability was collected to assess these outcomes. These conclusions apply to short and medium term treatment, up to 26 weeks. Further longer term trials are required, with measurements of effectiveness, and also studies to compare the newer with the older dopamine agonists.
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To study the relative rates of progression of early Parkinson's disease (PD) in patients started on a dopamine agonist, ropinirole, or L-dopa.
Primary RLS patients from eight medical centers were recruited in the study. They were evaluated in the baseline phase using various questionnaires including the Korean versions of the International Restless Legs Scale (K-IRLS), RLS QoL questionnaire (K-RLSQoL), and the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). After taking ropinirole for 8 weeks the same questionnaires were again completed as a re-evaluation. We analyzed the statistical difference using a paired t-test, a Pearson's correlation, and a stepwise multiple regression in order to identify the factors associated with the QoL change.
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Drug-discrimination studies have proven instructive in the characterization of psychotropic agents, a procedure applied herein to the novel antiparkinson agent, S32504. This highly selective agonist at dopamine D(3) and (less potently) D(2) receptors displays potent antiparkinson, neuroprotective and antidepressant properties (Millan et al., J Pharmacol Exp Ther 309:936-950, 2004a; Millan et al., J Pharmacol Exp Ther 309:903-920, 2004b; Millan et al., J Pharmacol Exp Ther 309:921-935, 2004c).
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This manuscript reviews the preclinical in vitro, ex vivo, and nonhuman in vivo effects of psychopharmacological agents in clinical use on cell physiology with a view toward identifying agents with neuroprotective properties in neurodegenerative disease. These agents are routinely used in the symptomatic treatment of neurodegenerative disease. Each agent is reviewed in terms of its effects on pathogenic proteins, proteasomal function, mitochondrial viability, mitochondrial function and metabolism, mitochondrial permeability transition pore development, cellular viability, and apoptosis. Effects on the metabolism of the neurodegenerative disease pathogenic proteins alpha-synuclein, beta-amyloid, and tau, including tau phosphorylation, are particularly addressed, with application to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Limitations of the current data are detailed and predictive criteria for translational clinical neuroprotection are proposed and discussed. Drugs that warrant further study for neuroprotection in neurodegenerative disease include pramipexole, thioridazine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, lithium, valproate, desipramine, maprotiline, fluoxetine, buspirone, clonazepam, diphenhydramine, and melatonin. Those with multiple neuroprotective mechanisms include pramipexole, thioridazine, olanzapine, quetiapine, lithium, valproate, desipramine, maprotiline, clonazepam, and melatonin. Those best viewed circumspectly in neurodegenerative disease until clinical disease course outcomes data become available, include several antipsychotics, lithium, oxcarbazepine, valproate, several tricyclic antidepressants, certain SSRIs, diazepam, and possibly diphenhydramine. A search for clinical studies of neuroprotection revealed only a single study demonstrating putatively positive results for ropinirole. An agenda for research on potentially neuroprotective agent is provided.
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Ropinirole hydrochloride, a dopamine receptor agonist with a non-ergot alkaloid structure, is highly selective for the dopamine D(2) /D(3) receptors. This study was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy after repeated oral administration of prolonged-release tablets of ropinirole hydrochloride in the absence of L-dopa preparations in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD).
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Switching from a TCA to another TCA provides only a modest advantage (response rate 9%-27%), while switching from a SSRI to another SSRI is more advantageous (response rate up to 75%). Evidence supports the usefulness of switching from SSRI to venlafaxine (5 positive trials out 6), TCA (2 positive trials out 3), and MAOI (2 positive trials out 2) but not from SSRI to bupropione, duloxetine and mirtazapine. Three reviews demonstrated that the benefits of intra- and cross-class switch do not significantly differ. Data on combination strategy are controversial regarding TCA-SSRI combination (positive results in old studies, negative in more recent study) and bupropion-SSRI combination (three open series studies but not three controlled trails support the useful of this combination) and positive regard mirtazapine (or its analogue mianserine) combination with ADs of different classes. As regards the augmentation strategy, available evidences supported the efficacy of TCA augmentation with lithium salts and thyroid hormone (T3), but are conflicting regard the SSRI augmentation with these two drugs (1 positive trial out of 4 for lithium and 3 out of 5 for thyroid hormone). Double-blind controlled studies showed the efficacy of AD augmentation with aripiprazole (5 positive trials out 5), quetiapine (3 positive trials out 3) and, at less extent, of fluoxetine augmentation with olanzapine (3 positive trials out 6), so these drugs received the FDA indication for the acute treatment of TRD. Results on AD augmentation with risperidone are conflicting (2 short term positive trials, 1 short-term and 1 long-term negative trials). Case series and open-label trials showed that AD augmentation with pramipexole or ropinirole, two dopamine agonists, could be an effective treatment for TRD (response rate to pramipexole 48%-74%, to ropinirole 40%-44%) although one recent double-blind placebo-controlled study does not support the superiority of pramipexole over placebo. Evidences do not justify the use of psychostimulants, omega-3 fatty acids, S-adenosil-L-metionine, methylfolate, pindolol, lamotrigine, and sex hormone as AD augmentation for TRD. Combining the available evidences with our experience we suggest treating non-responders to one SSRI bupropion or mirtazapine trial by switching to venlafaxine, and non-responders to one venlafaxine trial by switching to a TCA or, if TCA are not tolerated, combining mirtazapine with SSRI or venlafaxine. In non-responders to two or more ADs (including at least one TCA if tolerated) current AD regimen could be augmented with lithium salts (mainly in patients with bipolar depression or suicidality), SGAs (mostly aripiprazole) or DA-agonists (mostly pramipexole). In patients with severe TRD, i.e., non-responders to combination and augmentation strategies as well as to electroconvulsive therapy if workable, we suggest to try a combination plus augmentation strategy.
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Only in the last three decades, the restless legs syndrome (RLS) has been examined in randomized controlled trials. The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a task force to perform an evidence-based review of the medical literature on treatment modalities used to manage patients with RLS. The task force performed a search of the published literature using electronic databases. The therapeutic efficacy of each drug was classified as being either efficacious, likely efficacious, investigational, nonefficacious, or lacking sufficient evidence to classify. Implications for clinical practice were generated based on the levels of evidence and particular features of each modality, such as adverse events. All studies were classed according to three levels of evidence. All Level-I trials were included in the efficacy tables; if no Level-I trials were available then Level-II trials were included or, in the absence of Level-II trials, Level-III studies or case series were included. Only studies published in print or online before December 31, 2006 were included. All studies published after 1996, which attempted to assess RLS augmentation, were reviewed in a separate section. The following drugs are considered efficacious for the treatment of RLS: levodopa, ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, pergolide, and gabapentin. Drugs considered likely efficacious are rotigotine, bromocriptine, oxycodone, carbamazepine, valproic acid, and clonidine. Drugs that are considered investigational are dihydroergocriptine, lisuride, methadone, tramadol, clonazepam, zolpidem, amantadine, and topiramate. Magnesium, folic acid, and exercise are also considered to be investigational. Sumanirole is nonefficacious. Intravenous iron dextran is likely efficacious for the treatment of RLS secondary to end-stage renal disease and investigational in RLS subjects with normal renal function. The efficacy of oral iron is considered investigational; however, its efficacy appears to depend on the iron status of subjects. Cabergoline and pergolide (and possibly lisuride) require special monitoring due to fibrotic complications including cardiac valvulopathy. Special monitoring is required for several other medications based on clinical concerns: opioids (including, but not limited to, oxycodone, methadone and tramadol), due to possible addiction and respiratory depression, and some anticonvulsants (particularly, carbamazepine and valproic acid), due to systemic toxicities.
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Though L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is universally employed for alleviation of motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD), it is poorly-effective against co-morbid symptoms like cognitive impairment and depression. Further, it elicits dyskinesia, its pharmacokinetics are highly variable, and efficacy wanes upon long-term administration. Accordingly, "dopaminergic agonists" are increasingly employed both as adjuncts to L-DOPA and as monotherapy. While all recognize dopamine D(2) receptors, they display contrasting patterns of interaction with other classes of monoaminergic receptor. For example, pramipexole and ropinirole are high efficacy agonists at D(2) and D(3) receptors, while pergolide recognizes D(1), D(2) and D(3) receptors and a broad suite of serotonergic receptors. Interestingly, several antiparkinson drugs display modest efficacy at D(2) receptors. Of these, piribedil displays the unique cellular signature of: 1), signal-specific partial agonist actions at dopamine D(2)and D(3) receptors; 2), antagonist properties at α(2)-adrenoceptors and 3), minimal interaction with serotonergic receptors. Dopamine-deprived striatal D(2) receptors are supersensitive in PD, so partial agonism is sufficient for relief of motor dysfunction while limiting undesirable effects due to "over-dosage" of "normosensitive" D(2) receptors elsewhere. Further, α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonism reinforces adrenergic, dopaminergic and cholinergic transmission to favourably influence motor function, cognition, mood and the integrity of dopaminergic neurones. In reviewing the above issues, the present paper focuses on the distinctive cellular, preclinical and therapeutic profile of piribedil, comparisons to pramipexole, ropinirole and pergolide, and the core triad of symptoms that characterises PD-motor dysfunction, depressed mood and cognitive impairment. The article concludes by highlighting perspectives for clarifying the mechanisms of action of piribedil and other antiparkinson agents, and for optimizing their clinical exploitation.
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The aptitude of ropinirole to permeate the buccal tissue was tested using porcine mucosa mounted on Franz-type diffusion cells as ex vivo model. Drug permeation was also evaluated in presence of various penetration enhancers and in iontophoretic conditions. Ropinirole, widely used in treatment of motor fluctuations of Parkinson's disease, passes the buccal mucosa. Flux and permeability coefficient values suggested that the membrane does not appear a limiting step to the drug absorption. Nevertheless, an initial lag time is observed but the input rate can be modulated by permeation enhancement using limonene or by application of electric fields. Absorption improvement was accompanied by the important reduction of the lag time; at once the time required to reach the steady state plasma concentration was drastically decreased. On the basis of these results we could assume that clinical application of ropinirole by buccal delivery is feasible.
Some studies have suggested a potential risk of heart failure in patients with Parkinson's disease receiving dopamine (DA) agonists. However, the results are conflicting. We used VigiBase®, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) database, to investigate a potential signal strengthening of heart failure with DA agonists in Parkinsonian patients older than 45 years.
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Patients with hemiparesis 1 to 12 months after stroke were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of ropinirole+physical therapy versus placebo+physical therapy, results of which have previously been reported (NCT00221390).(15) Primary end point was change in gait velocity. Enrollees underwent baseline multimodal assessment that included 19 measures spanning 5 assessment categories (medical history, impairment, disability, brain injury, and brain function), and also underwent reassessment 3 weeks after end of therapy.
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A total of 381 patients were enrolled; 164 (87.7%) of 187 patients randomized to ropinirole and 167 (86.1%) of 194 randomized to placebo completed the study. Significant treatment differences favoring ropinirole, compared with placebo, were observed for change in IRLS total score at week 12 (adjusted mean treatment difference, -3.7; 95% confidence interval, -5.4 to -2.0; P < .001) and for all 3 key secondary end points: mean change from baseline in IRLS total score at week 1 and proportion of patients who were much/very much improved on the Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale at weeks 1 and 12. Ropinirole was associated with significantly greater Improvements in subjective measures of sleep disturbance, quantity, and adequacy; quality of life; and anxiety. Although treatment differences favoring ropinirole in daytime somnolence were observed, they were not statistically significant (P = .10). Ropinirole was generally well tolerated, with an adverse-event profile consistent with other dopamine agonists.
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Dopaminergic agents are the best-studied agents and are considered first-line treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Extensive data are available for levodopa, pramipexole, and ropinirole, which have approval for the indication RLS, and to a smaller extent for cabergoline, pergolide, and rotigotine. Apart from one recent study, comparing two active drugs (levodopa and cabergoline), no comparative studies have been published. The individual treatment regimen with the most appropriate agent concerning efficacy and side effects has to be selected by the treating physician. On the basis of these clinical trials and expert opinion of the authors, a treatment algorithm is proposed to support the search for the optimal individual treatment. Opioids and anticonvulsants such as gabapentine are second-line options in individual patients. Iron substitution is justified in people with iron deficiency related RLS (ferritin concentration lower than 50 microg/L).
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Oral levodopa is the most effective symptomatic treatment for Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agonists are useful adjuvants to levodopa in the pharmacotherapy of parkinsonian patients. Monotherapy with dopamine agonists in early Parkinson's disease has been advocated in order to delay the occurrence of complications associated with long term administration of levodopa. The use of dopamine agonists alone provides an adequate antiparkinsonian effect in only a minority of patients. In early stages of Parkinson's disease, dopamine agonists can produce a clinical response comparable with levodopa but, thereafter, their efficacy wanes. Early initiation of combination therapy with levodopa and dopamine agonists appears to reduce the severity and delay the appearance of the complications associated with long term administration of levodopa. Currently, dopamine agonists are most commonly used in combination with levodopa in patients in advanced stages of the disease who experience fluctuations of their motor symptoms. Despite their different pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles, the ergot derivatives bromocriptine, lisuride and pergolide appear to be very similar in terms of their clinical efficacy. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation by parenteral infusion of water-soluble dopamine agonists such as apomorphine and lisuride can overcome motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson's disease. Other dopamine agonists such as cabergoline, pramipexole and ropinirole are currently being studied. Further studies with these compounds will be required to determine their efficacy and adverse effects in comparison with the currently available orally active ergot agonists. It has been suggested that oxidative stress resulting from dopamine metabolism may be reduced by the administration of dopamine agonists. These drugs may therefore slow the rate of progression of Parkinson's disease. At present, however, there is no convincing clinical data to support a neuroprotective effect of dopamine agonists.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common neurologic condition characterized by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations in the legs, occurring primarily at rest, which are usually worse in the evening and are alleviated by movement. RLS is present in 20-40% of patients with renal failure. This study was a 14-week open, randomized, crossover trial of ropinirole vs. levodopa sustained release (SR) in 11 patients with RLS on chronic hemodialysis.
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