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Precose

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Glucophage, Actos, Avandia, Amaryl, Glucovance, Micronase, Glycomet

 

Also known as:  Acarbose.

Description

Generic Precose is used for treating type 2 diabetes in adults whose diabetes cannot be managed with diet alone. Generic Precose may be used alone, in combination with other oral diabetes medicines, or with insulin.

Generic Precose is a glucosidase inhibitor. It works by slowing down the enzyme that turns carbohydrates into glucose; it decreases blood sugar levels following a meal.

Precose is also known as Acarbose, Glucobay, Glucor, Rebose.

Generic name of Generic Precose is Acarbose.

Brand name of Generic Precose is Precose.

Dosage

Take Generic Precose by mouth with food.

If you also take charcoal or digestive enzyme preparations, do not take them within 2 to 4 hours before after taking Generic Precose.

Temporary insulin therapy may be necessary during stressful periods (such as fever, trauma, infection, or surgery).

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Precose and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 25 degrees C (77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Precose are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Precose if you are allergic to Generic Precose components.

Be careful with Generic Precose if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have blockage of the stomach or intestine or are at risk for these problems.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have long-term (chronic) bowel inflammation, colon ulcers, or stomach or intestine problems that interfere with digestion or nutrient absorption.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have cirrhosis of the liver or unexplained abnormal liver function tests.

Do not take Generic Precose if you have diabetic ketoacidosis (high ketone levels) or severe kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances

if you have stomach or intestinal problems, liver problems, or kidney problems.

Try to be careful with Generic Precose if you are taking anticoagulants (eg, warfarin) because the risk of their side effects, including bleeding, may be increased by Generic Precose; calcium channel blockers (eg, verapamil), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogen, isoniazid, nicotinic acid, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), phenothiazines (eg, chlorpromazine), phenytoin, sympathomimetics (eg, pseudoephedrine), or thyroid hormone because they may increase or decrease Precose 's effectiveness; insulin or sulfonylureas (eg, glyburide) because the risk of their side effects may be increased by Generic Precose; digoxin because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Precose.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Precose suddenly.

precose drug interactions

Acarbose is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Acarbose inhibits carbohydrate digestion, allowing an excessive amount of undigested carbohydrate to reach the colon. Bacterial fermentation of the carbohydrate produces intestinal gas, which can cause flatulence and abdominal pain. Beano, an over-the-counter enzyme preparation (alpha-galactosidase), diminishes intestinal gas production by enhancing the breakdown of certain carbohydrates before they reach the lower intestine. This study was undertaken to investigate whether concomitant administration of Beano and acarbose could reduce the flatulence associated with acarbose and, if so, whether Beano would interfere with the effects of acarbose on postprandial serum glucose concentration. In this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, three-period crossover study, 37 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus received acarbose 100 mg, acarbose 100 mg plus Beano, or placebo. The study population consisted of 20 males and 17 females who ranged in age from 36 to 72 years (mean, 56 years) and in weight from 62 to 142 kg (mean, 92 kg). Each treatment period consisted of 3 days, during which both acarbose and Beano were given at the beginning of each of three meals. There was a 4-day washout interval between each treatment period. The frequency and severity of flatulence were measured using a score compiled from patient diaries. As an additional measure of intestinal gas production, breath hydrogen concentration was measured on day 3 of each treatment period. Postprandial serum glucose concentration was measured at predetermined times after each morning dose to assess pharmacodynamic activity. Patients who took Beano with acarbose had a significantly lower flatulence score than did those who took acarbose alone (0.79 vs 1.09). Consistent with this finding, breath hydrogen concentration was lower after administration of acarbose plus Beano than with acarbose alone (31.2 ppm vs 50.5 ppm). Beano had variable effects on the ability of acarbose to reduce the postprandial serum glucose concentration. Although postprandial serum glucose levels were higher in patients who received acarbose plus Beano than in those who received acarbose alone, both treatments (with or without Beano) resulted in postprandial serum glucose levels that were significantly lower than those seen with placebo. Therefore, although Beano appeared to diminish the activity of acarbose, postprandial serum glucose concentrations still decreased significantly in patients taking Beano with acarbose. Beano has been shown to alleviate the flatulence accompanying acarbose treatment, but it may also interfere with the glucose-lowering effect of acarbose.

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There was an early increment in GLP-1 15 min after sucrose ingestion. With acarbose, sucrose reached the colon approximately 120 min after ingestion, as indicated by an increment in breath hydrogen exhalation (p < 0.0001), and GLP-1 release was prolonged (p < 0.0001). The sucrose-related increments in glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and the suppression of glucagon were only marginally affected by acarbose administration.

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This study is to evaluate the anti-diabetic effects of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor valibose in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes rat model. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (58 mg x kg(-1), ip) in SD rats, rats with elevated fasting blood glucose levels (250-450 mg x dL(-1)) were selected and divided into five groups (n = 10 in each). Another ten normal SD rats were chosen as normal group. Valibose mixed with the high sucrose diets (0.4, 1.0 and 2.5 mg 100 g(-1) diets) or acarbose (30 mg x 100 g(-1) diets) was administrated in the diabetic rats for about 5 weeks. In all groups, fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, plasma lipids, glycosylated serum protein, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), creatinine (Cre), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urine sugar levels were determined during the treatment. At the end of the experiment, the morphological alterations in kidney were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. After 3-weeks administration, valibose significantly decreased postprandial and fasting blood glucose, urine glucose, and reduced the levels of serum fructosamine. Valibose also decreased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels after 4 weeks treatment. These results indicated that valibose ameliorated metabolic disturbance of glucose and lipids in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In addition, valibose markedly reduced level of serum NAG and BUN, and decreased the weight index of kidney. HE staining showed reduced kidney pathological changes after valibose treatment. The findings of the present study indicate that valibose may be a novel alpha-glucosidase inhibitor for the prevention from hyperglycemia in STZ-induced type 1 diabetes rats. And valibose might have a potential role for protecting against diabetic nephropathy during hyperglycemia.

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A total of 290 patients with NIDDM and fasting plasma glucose levels of at least 140 mg/dL were randomized to receive treatment TID with acarbose 200 mg, tolbutamide 250 to 1,000 mg, a combination of both drugs, or placebo. A 6-week run-in period was followed by double-blind treatment for 24 weeks, then a 6-week follow-up period.

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Two new acarbose analogues were synthesized by the reaction of acarbose with sucrose and dextransucrases from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-512FMC and B-742CB. The major products for each reaction were subjected to yeast fermentation, and then separated and purified by Bio-Gel P2 gel permeation chromatography and descending paper chromatography. The structures of the products were determined by one- and two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). B-512FMC-dextransucrase produced one major acarbose product, 2(I)-alpha-D-glucopyranosylacarbose and B-742CB-dextransucrase produced two major acarbose products, 2(I)-alpha-D-glucopyranosylacarbose and 3(IV)-alpha-D-glucopyranosylacarbose.

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Depression of carbohydrate digestion by oral administration of acarbose, a glucosidase inhibitor, led to a 75% inhibition of the re-activation of lipogenesis in vivo in the mammary gland of 18 h-starved lactating rats refed with 5 g of chow diet. Rates of [1-14C]glucose incorporation in vitro into lipid and CO2 in mammary-gland acini isolated from refed animals were elevated compared with acini from starved rats, but acarbose treatment completely prevented this stimulation. Gastric intubation of glucose led to a large stimulation of lipogenesis in the mammary gland of starved lactating rats, similar to that induced by refeeding with chow diet; this was dependent on the amount of glucose given and the time elapsed between glucose administration and injection of 3H2O for the measurement of lipogenesis. The switch-on of lipogenesis in the mammary gland of starved lactating rats, by refeeding or by intubation of glucose, was associated with a decrease in the ratio of [glucose 6-phosphate]/[fructose 1,6-bisphosphate] in the gland, indicative of an increase in phosphofructokinase activity. A time-course study revealed that the ratio decreased rapidly over the first 30 min of chow refeeding, after which a large surge in lipogenesis was seen. Acarbose, given 25 min after the onset of refeeding, led to a stepwise increase in the ratio, in parallel with the observed decrease in lipogenic activity. It is concluded that the control of lipogenesis in the mammary gland is closely linked to the availability of dietary carbohydrate. An important site of regulation of lipogenesis in the gland appears to be at the level of phosphofructokinase. A possible role of insulin in the regulation of phosphofructokinase activity, and the acute modulation of insulin-sensitivity in the gland during the starved-refed transition, are discussed.

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Native enzyme and a mutant containing an extra disulphide bridge of recombinant Saccharomycopsis fibuligera R64 α-amylase, designated as Sfamy01 and Sfamy02, respectively, have successfully been overexpressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris KM71H. The purified α-amylase variants demonstrated starch hydrolysis resulting in a mixture of maltose, maltotriose, and glucose, similar to the wild type enzyme. Introduction of the disulphide bridge shifted the melting temperature (TM) from 54.5 to 56 °C and nearly tripled the enzyme half-life time at 65 °C. The two variants have similar kcat/KM values. Similarly, inhibition by acarbose was only slightly affected, with the IC50 of Sfamy02 for acarbose being 40 ± 3.4 μM, while that of Sfamy01 was 31 ± 3.9 μM. On the other hand, the IC50 of Sfamy02 for EDTA was 0.45 mM, nearly two times lower than that of Sfamy01 at 0.77 mM. These results show that the introduction of a disulphide bridge had little effect on the enzyme activity, but made the enzyme more susceptible to calcium ion extraction. Altogether, the new disulphide bridge improved the enzyme stability without affecting its activity, although minor changes in the active site environment cannot be excluded.

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Leaf ethyl acetate fraction (LEF) had the strongest antiglucosidase (EC50 0.55 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC50 10.81 μg/mL) activity among leaf fractionsCallus ethyl acetate fraction (CEF) and chloroform fraction had the highest antiglucosidase (EC50 0.25 mg/mL) and radical scavenging (EC50 34.12 μg/mL) activity, respectively, among callus fractionsLEF and CEF were identified as noncompetitive and competitive á-glucosidase inhibitors, respectivelyAntiglucosidase and antioxidant activities of leaf fractions correlated with phytochemical contents. Abbreviations used: LHF: Leaf hexane fraction, LCF: Leaf chloroform fraction, LEF: Leaf ethyl acetate fraction, LBF: Leaf butanol fraction, LWF: Leaf water fraction, CHF: Callus hexane fraction, CCF: Callus chloroform fraction, CEF: Callus ethyl acetate fraction, CBF: Callus butanol fraction, CWF: Callus water fraction, TP: Total phenolic, TF: Total flavonoid, TC: Total coumarin.

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Antioxidant activity was determined (up to 1 mg/mL) as radical-scavenging activity (RSA) of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), copper (CCA) and iron (ICA) chelating activities and iron reducing power (FRAP). NO production was measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages for 24 h at concentrations up to 100 μg/mL and antidiabetic potential was assessed by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition (up to 10 mg/mL) assays. The phytochemical composition of the extracts was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

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The present study examined the ability of rats to develop aversions to familiar flavours and to flavours that they had previously acquired a preference for. Rats were first conditioned to prefer a CS+ flavour over a CS- flavour by pairing CS+ intake with the consumption of a starch solution (16% Polycose). A second group was exposed to the same training but preference conditioning was prevented by inhibiting starch digestion with the drug acarbose. The rats were next given aversion training; the CS+ flavour was now paired with toxicosis (LiCl injection) while the CS- flavour paired with a control treatment (NaCl injection). The results of two-choice tests revealed that aversion training produced significant avoidance of the CS+ flavours in both the group that had acquired a preference for this flavour as well as in the no-preference group. The value of using conditioned flavour preferences as targets for aversions to model the aversion therapy approach to alcoholism is discussed.

precose patient review

The markedly increased peri-interventional risk (PCI and CABG) in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus may be reduced by adjusting blood glucose values to a near-normal level. This adjustment should be realized acutely by glucose-insulin-potassium infusions. In long-term therapy, the target value should be achieved independent of the pharmacological principle of blood glucose reduction. Among the available oral antidiabetic agents, metformin, acarbose and glitazones seem to be cardioprotective via pleotropic effects. Given an optimal stent implantation and administration of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors during coronary interventions, results are similar to those of non-diabetics.

precose 100 mg

Excessive postprandial (pp) glucose excursion in people with IGT and type 2 diabetes is associated with a cascade of proatherogenic events. Acarbose, a potent competitive inhibitor of alpha-glucosidases of the small intestine specifically reduces pp hyperglycemia with an average reduction of HbA1c by 0.8% in Cochrane metaanalysis. This is associated with pleiotropic effects on a broad spectrum of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors: reduction of overweight, lowering of blood pressure, triglycerides, hsCRP, fibrinogen and other biomarkers of low grade inflammation.

precose reviews

Only 15% of patients knew the correct mechanism of action of their medication and 62% took tablets correctly in relation to food. Only 10% of those taking a sulphonylurea knew it may cause hypoglycaemia and 20% of those taking metformin were aware of its gastrointestinal side-effects. Twenty per cent forgot to take their tablets at least once a week and 5% omitted tablets because of hyperglycaemia. Only 35% of patients recalled receiving advice about their medication with only 1% receiving written advice. The healthcare professionals showed important gaps in their knowledge on dosage timing and mechanism of action, particularly with respect to metformin and acarbose.

precose 50 mg

Phytochemical investigation of the natural products from Xanthium strumarium led to the isolation of fourteen compounds including seven caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives. The individual compounds were screened for inhibition of α-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1β (PTP1β), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and ABTS⁺ radical scavenging activity using in vitro assays. Among the isolated compounds, methyl-3,5-di-caffeoyquinic acid exhibited significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (18.42 μM), PTP1β (1.88 μM), AGEs (82.79 μM), and ABTS⁺ (6.03 μM). This effect was marked compared to that of the positive controls (acarbose 584.79 μM, sumarin 5.51 μM, aminoguanidine 1410.00 μM, and trolox 29.72 μM respectively). In addition, 3,5-di-O-CQA (88.14 μM) and protocatechuic acid (32.93 μM) had a considerable inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase and ABTS⁺. Based on these findings, methyl-3,5-di-caffeoyquinic acid was assumed to be potentially responsible for the anti-diabetic actions of X. strumarium.

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The results of the study demonstrate that acarbose and gliclazide were reasonably effective in improving metabolic control in patients insufficiently controlled with diet alone, and both treatments were well tolerated. Because of its effects on weight reduction and PP hyperinsulinaemia, acarbose may be preferred as a first-line drug, particularly in the treatment of overweight type 2 diabetic patients.

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Acarbose--the most extensively investigated and widely prescribed alpha-glucosidase inhibitor--reduces postprandial plasma glucose excursions by delaying the absorption of carbohydrate from the small intestine. Acarbose is an effective first-line therapy for patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, and induces a further improvement in glycemic control when used in combination with other antidiabetes agents. By decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia and improving insulin sensitivity, acarbose therapy also reduces fasting and postprandial serum insulin, fasting plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1c levels. As the burden of type 2 diabetes continues to grow, there is a great need for an oral antidiabetes agent with a proven ability to prevent the development of micro- and macrovascular complications, and maintain long-term glycemic control. More than 15 years of clinical investigation have confirmed the sustained efficacy, tolerability, and excellent safety profile of acarbose in a wide range of patient types. Furthermore, the results of the recent Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (STOP-NIDDM) showed that acarbose therapy significantly decreased the risk of cardiovascular events in high-risk individuals with glucose intolerance. Acarbose is therefore a convenient and effective long-term option for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, with the added benefit of reducing cardiovascular risk.

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When administered in the powdered form at the low dose of 25 mg 3 times/day with meals over 3 mo, acarbose was well tolerated by the NIDDM patients and was without side effects. It improved glycemic control by reducing postprandial hyperglycemia, but had no effect on glucose turnover, insulin sensitivity, or lipid profile.

precose 25 mg

Seminal alpha-glucosidase has been used clinically as a marker of epididymal function. In this study enzyme inhibitors were used to increase the specificity of the human seminal alpha-glucosidase assay and improve its diagnostic value as an indicator of distal epididymal occlusion in cases of azoospermia. Sodium dodecylsulphate was added to the sample to eliminate the interfering acid isoenzyme secreted by the prostate gland, and castanospermine was used with semen pools to provide a semen blank for the assay by eliminating non-glucosidase-regulated degradation of the substrate. With both inhibitors included in the assay, glucosidase activity in semen samples from 17 fathers was measured to provide reference values for the clinic (lower threshold 18 mU per ejaculate). With the improved assay glucosidase was non-detectable in 8 out of 11 cases of proven and 5 out of 8 cases of suspected ductal obstruction; other azoospermic patients with distal occlusion had values below 11 mU per ejaculate.

precose dosing

In patients with IGT, treatment with acarbose was associated with beneficial effects on 2-h plasma glucose levels but not with improvement of beta-cell function.

acarbose precose medication

Sarcandra glabra (Thunb.) Nakai is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine and dietary supplement used for treating several diseases. The anti-diabetic activity of S. glabra polysaccharides is reported for the first time. The in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition assay indicated that the acidic S. glabra polysaccharide (SGP-2) has an IC50 of 87.06 ± 11.76 μg mL(-1), which was much lower than acarbose at 338.90 ± 46.86 μg mL(-1). Moreover, high fat diet (HFD) with streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice were administered SGP-2 (150, 300, or 600 mg kg(-1) per day, respectively) for 3 weeks. Postprandial blood glucose levels (PBGL), total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in diabetic mice treated with SGP-2 were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared to those of the model group. The results of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index indicated that SGP-2 could significantly improve (p < 0.05) the insulin resistance and glucose tolerance in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, hexokinase and pyruvate kinase were significantly increased (p < 0.05) in SGP-2 treated groups. Thus we proposed that SGP-2 exerted hypoglycemic activity by relieving insulin resistance, reducing postprandial blood glucose levels and ameliorating lipid metabolism, as well as alleviating oxidative stress. These data suggested that SGP-2 with anti-hyperglycemic activity could be used in medicinal preparations for diabetes mellitus and its complications.

precose user reviews

If metformin was used for preventive treatment as in DPP study, a total cost of 69 122.95RMB was needed for preventing one new onset of diabetes in three years period. If acarbose was used for preventive treatment as in STOP-NIDDM, then 154 116.05RMB was the cost to prevent one diabetes in 3.3 years of treatment. However, if the generic metformin was used, the total cost was only 21 666.63RMB for the 3-years treatment. Data showed that the average cost for treating diabetes per year was 9143.70RMB in Shanghai.

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precose tablets 2015-05-03

In the absence of a bedtime treatment, 27% of the measured nocturnal plasma glucose concentrations were less than 70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/liter) in 12 patients; 16, 6, and 1% were less than 60, less than 50, and less than 40 mg/dl (3.3, 2.8, buy precose and 2.2 mmol/liter), respectively. Neither the snack (without or with acarbose) nor cornstarch raised the mean nadir nocturnal glucose concentration or reduced the number of low glucose levels or the number of patients with low levels. Terbutaline raised the mean nadir nocturnal glucose concentration (mean +/- se, 127 +/- 11 vs. 75 +/- 9 mg/dl; P < 0.001), eliminated glucose levels less than 50 mg/dl (P = 0.038), reduced levels less than 60 mg/dl (P = 0.005) to one, and reduced levels less than 70 mg/dl (P = 0.001) to five (four at 2215 h, one at 2230 h). However, it also raised glucose levels the following morning.

precose reviews 2015-04-29

We find evidence to support previous discoveries that nitroglycerin, theophylline and acarbose may be able to be repositioned for cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, we identify seven previously unknown drug candidates that also may interact with the biological cardiovascular system. These discoveries buy precose show our proposed Prize-Collecting Steiner Tree approach as a promising strategy for drug repositioning.

precose patient review 2015-11-23

The pseudotetrasaccharide acarbose is a medically relevant secondary metabolite produced by strains of the genera Actinoplanes and Streptomyces. In this study gene products involved in acarbose metabolism were identified by analyzing the cytosolic and extracellular proteome of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 cultures grown in a high-maltose minimal medium. The analysis by 2D protein gel electrophoresis of cytosolic proteins of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 resulted in 318 protein spots and 162 identified proteins. Nine of those were acarbose cluster proteins (Acb-proteins buy precose ), namely AcbB, AcbD, AcbE, AcbK, AcbL, AcbN, AcbR, AcbV and AcbZ. The analysis of proteins in the extracellular space of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 cultures resulted in about 100 protein spots and 22 identified proteins. The identifications included the three acarbose gene cluster proteins AcbD, AcbE and AcbZ. After their identification, proteins were classified into functional groups. The dominant functional groups were the carbohydrate binding, carbohydrate cleavage and carbohydrate transport proteins. The other functional groups included protein cleavage, amino acid degradation, nucleic acid cleavage and a number of functionally uncharacterized proteins. In addition, signal peptide structures of extracellularly found proteins were analyzed. Of the 22 detected proteins 19 contained signal peptides, while 2 had N-terminal transmembrane helices explaining their localization. The only protein having neither of them was enolase. Under the conditions applied, the secretome of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 was dominated by seven proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism (PulA, AcbE, AcbD, MalE, AglE, CbpA and Cgt). Of special interest were the identified extracellular pullulanase PulA and the two solute-binding proteins MalE and AglE. The identifications suggest that Actinoplanes sp. SE50/110 has two maltose/maltodextrin import systems. We postulate the identified MalEFG transport system of Actinoplanes sp. SE50/100 as the missing acarbose-metabolite importer and present a model of acarbose metabolism that is extended by the newly identified gene products.

precose drug interactions 2016-09-17

Glycogen accumulation in pancreatic islet cells in situations of sustained hyperglycaemia may participate in the phenomenon of so-called B-cell glucotoxicity. Unexpectedly, however, previously little if any glycogen was found in islet cells of non-insulin-dependent diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats (GK rats). Therefore, the activities of glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase and alpha-amylase were measured in islets of control and GK rats. No significant difference in enzymatic activity was observed between the control and diabetic animals. In the liver, the activity of glycogen synthase appeared even somewhat higher in GK rats than in control animals. It buy precose is concluded that the diabetic syndrome in the GK rats does not involve any major anomaly of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase activity in the liver of these animals, as well as alpha-amylase, in pancreatic islets.

precose medicine 2016-11-29

Lactobacillus brevis is found together with the yeast Brettanomyces lambicus during the overattenuation process in spontaneously fermented lambic beer. An isolated L. brevis strain has been shown to produce an alpha-glucosidase with many similarities to the glucosidase earlier found in B. lambicus. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel (Sephadex G-150 and Ultrogel AcA-44) filtration, and ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sephadex A-50). The molecular weights of the enzyme, as determined by gel chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were about 50,000 and 60,000, respectively. Optimum catalytic activity was obtained at 40 degrees C and pH 6.0. The enzyme showed a decrease of hydrolysis with an increase in the degree of polymerization of the substrate. The K(m) values for p-nitrophenyl-alpha-d-glucopyranoside, maltose, and maltotriose were 0.51, 3.0, and 5.2 mM, respectively. There was lack of inhibition by 0.15 mM acarbose and 0.5 M turanose, but the enzyme was inhibited by Tris (K(i) value of 25 buy precose mM). The alpha-glucosidase of L. brevis together with the enzyme of B. lambicus seems to be a key factor in the overattenuation of lambic beer, although the involvement of other lactic acid bacteria (pediococci) cannot be excluded.

acarbose precose medication 2017-02-16

An open-label, analyst-blind, randomized, crossover, two-period study was conducted in 11 healthy subjects. In period I, each subject received one single oral dose of 0.75 mg digoxin. In period II, they were given acarbose tablets, 50 mg 3 times a day for 12 days. On day 8, one hour after acarbose administration, a single oral dose of 0.75 mg digoxin was administered. The study periods were separated by buy precose a 3 week washout interval. Serum digoxin levels, over time, in the two periods were compared by standard techniques.

precose generic 2016-04-21

To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of GAA measurement in dried buy precose blood specimens (DBSs) in comparison with lymphocytes. If DBSs provided reliable results, the diagnosis of Pompe disease could be facilitated, and high-throughput screening would become possible.

precose user reviews 2017-04-18

  Twenty-one healthy Japanese men participated in the study. The meal tolerance test was buy precose performed with modified nutrient compositions, with or without pretreatment with the α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, or with substitution of sucrose with an equivalent dose of sweeteners in the meal. Blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and apolipoprotein (Apo) B-48 were measured.

precose dosing 2015-09-16

We report a case of diabetic mastopathy in a man with type 2 diabetes. The patient was a 62-year-old man buy precose who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at the age of 46 years. He had been treated with oral hypoglycemic agents. He noticed a mass in his left breast in February 2007, when HbA(1)c was 7.6% with the treatment using oral hypoglycemic agents, including acarbose, glimepiride, buformine, and pioglitazone. Mammography of the breast showed increased density, and ultrasonography showed a regular-shaped hypoechoic mass. Core needle biopsy was performed, and diabetic mastopathy was confirmed pathologically. Diabetic mastopathy usually occurs in women with type 1 diabetes. This case, a man with type 2 diabetes, is very rare.

precose buy 2017-11-22

Fructose is transported transcellularly by facilitated buy precose diffusion and paracellularly (based on lactulose transport) via glucose-activated solution drag. In the human small intestine, free fructose and glucose transport does not occur via the disaccharidase system.

precose medication 2016-01-09

Since the structure of proteins is more conserved than the sequence, the identification of conserved three-dimensional (3D) patterns among a set of proteins, can be important for protein function prediction, protein clustering, drug discovery and the establishment of evolutionary relationships. Thus, several computational applications to buy precose identify, describe and compare 3D patterns (or motifs) have been developed. Often, these tools consider a 3D pattern as that described by the residues surrounding co-crystallized/docked ligands available from X-ray crystal structures or homology models. Nevertheless, many of the protein structures stored in public databases do not provide information about the location and characteristics of ligand binding sites and/or other important 3D patterns such as allosteric sites, enzyme-cofactor interaction motifs, etc. This makes necessary the development of new ligand-independent methods to search and compare 3D patterns in all available protein structures.

buy precose online 2016-04-20

Seven new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives (1-7) including a chlorinated one (4), together with eight known ones (8-15), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of artificial agarwood originating from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. All structures including the absolute configurations were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic (NMR, UV, IR, MS) methods, Mosher's method, and comparison with reported data in the literatures. Among those, compounds 8, 12, and 14 exhibited significant inhibition against α-glucosidase in vitro with IC50 values of 0.15, 0.05, and 0.09 mM, respectively (with acarbose as the positive control; IC50: 0.98 mM). In addition, compounds 3, 9, 11, and 14 showed weak inhibitory activity against AChE; and compounds 12 and 13 displayed weak cytotoxicity against human gastric cell line (SGC-7901) among three types of tested human cancer buy precose cell lines (BEL-7402, K562, and SGC-7901).

precose drug class 2015-04-21

A new series of 1,9-acetals of forskolin were synthesized by treating with aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes using Ceric ammonium nitrate as catalyst and evaluated for anticancer and α-glucosidase inhibition activities. Among the synthesized compounds 2a, 2b and 3a showed potential cytotoxic activity towards human cancer cell lines buy precose MCF-7 (Human Breast Adenocarcinoma), MDA-MB (Human Breast Carcinoma), HeLa (Human Cervix Adenocarcinoma), A498 (Human Kidney Carcinoma), K562 (Human Erythromyeloblastoid leukemia), SH-SY5Y (Human Neuroblastoma), Hek293 (Human Embryonic Kidney) and WRL68 (Human Hepatic) with IC50 values ranging between 0.95 and 47.96 μg/ml. Osmotic fragility test revealed compound 3a as non-toxic to human erythrocytes at the tested concentrations of 50 and 100 μg/ml. Compounds 1g (IC50 value 0.76 μg/ml) and 1p (IC50 value 0.74 μg/ml) significantly inhibited α-glucosidase in in vitro system. In silico based docking, ADME and toxicity risk assessment studies also showed discernible α-glucosidase activity for compounds 1g, 1p compared to standard acarbose.

precose drugs 2015-07-03

Cardiovascular risk events are frequent in patients with type 2 diabetes. The way to treat type 2 diabetes with history of cardiovascular disease is not really different from the one used in a patient without this history with a pathophysiologic approach designed according to the importance of each therapeutic target: insulin-resistance and insulin deficiency. However, it is recommended to use antidiabetic drugs without detrimental cardiovascular effects. Metformin can be used in patients with history of cardiovascular disease (in the exception of renal failure or severe heart failure) since its use has been shown to be associated with a reduction of cardiovascular events in several clinical trials. Among sulfonylureas, first generation sulfonylureas and glibenclamide are not recommended because they impair ischemic preconditioning. Glinides, acarbose, GLP-1 agonists buy precose and DPP-4 inhibitors can be used in type 2 diabetic patients with history of cardiovascular disease. DPP-4 inhibitors have been shown to he safe in recent cardiovascular outcome trials. In addition, data from the ORIGIN trial indicate that insulin itself is not likely to increase cardiovascular risk. Most importantly, the risk of hypoglycaemia must be an important concern in patients with history of cardiovascular disease and the use of antidiabetic agents that may induce hypoglycaemic events should he limited.

precose 100 mg 2015-06-04

Acarbose and metformin decreased HbA1c levels similarly Celebrex Generic Cost regardless of BMI status of Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. Acarbose and metformin resulted in a significant and modest improvement of anthropometric parametres in different BMI status. Thus, acarbose treatment may contribute a similar effect on plasma glucose control compared to metformin, even in obesity patients.

precose tabs 2017-09-07

We included Flagyl Alcohol Myth published and unpublished randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for treating pregnant women with GDM. We included studies comparing oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies with 1) placebo/standard care, 2) another oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapy, 3) combined oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. Trials using insulin as the comparator were excluded as they are the subject of a separate Cochrane systematic review.Women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes were excluded.

precose cost 2016-02-28

Drug repositioning can reduce the time, costs and risks of drug development by identifying new therapeutic effects for known drugs. It is challenging to reposition drugs as pharmacological data is large and complex. Subnetwork identification has already been used to simplify the visualization and interpretation of biological data, but it has not been Lipitor Generic Dose applied to drug repositioning so far. In this paper, we fill this gap by proposing a new Physarum-inspired Prize-Collecting Steiner Tree algorithm to identify subnetworks for drug repositioning.

precose tablet 2016-06-30

Considerable discrepancies exist in the literature regarding the rates of glucose absorption from the common dietary disaccharides, lactose, maltose, and sucrose. This study compared the unidirectional flux of glucose derived from dietary disaccharides with that of their constituent monosaccharides in vitro. Lactose-stimulated short-circuit current (Isc) and mucosal-to-serosal flux (Jm----s) were lower than that of an equimolar glucose-galactose mixture and were phlorizin inhibitable. Maltose- and glucose-stimulated Isc were similar, but Jm----s of glucose derived from the hydrolysis of maltose was lower than that of free glucose. Sucrose-stimulated Isc and Jm----s were similar to that of an equimolar glucose-fructose mixture. Isc and Jm----s of glucose from both maltose and sucrose were Brahmi Ayurvedic Medicine phlorizin and acarbose inhibitable. We conclude that the rate of glucose uptake from disaccharides is less than or equal to that of free glucose and is dependent on the glucose source. We speculate that regulation of glucose uptake from disaccharides can occur at three sites: the hydrolytic enzyme, the glucose transporter, and the tight junctions.

precose 50 mg 2015-11-28

Most patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus require pharmacotherapy, initially as monotherapy and subsequently in combination, as adjuncts to diet and exercise. Exogenous insulin is ultimately required in a substantial proportion, reflecting the progressive natural history of the disease. Sulphonylureas and biguanides have been employed for over 4 decades as oral antidiabetic agents, but they have a limited capacity to provide long term glycaemic control and can cause serious adverse effects. Thus, more efficacious and tolerable antidiabetic agents are required. Recent years have witnessed the introduction of agents with novel modes of action, that is, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose and miglitol (which reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia) and the first of the thiazolidinedione insulinsensitising drugs--troglitazone and rosiglitazone. Although the former has been withdrawn in some countries due to adverse effects, another 'glitazone' pioglitazone is expected to be approved in the near future. Other recently introduced drugs include glimepiride and the meglitinide insulin secretagogue, repaglinide. Attention is also focusing increasingly on combination therapy using insulin together with sulphonylureas, metformin or troglitazone. Rapid-acting insulin analogues are now being used as alternatives to conventional insulins; their role in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus is presently uncertain but reports of a reduced frequency of hypoglycaemia are encouraging. The development of new drugs aims to counter the principal metabolic defects of the disorder, respectively, relative insulin deficiency and insulin resistance. Novel classes of rapid-acting secretagogues under evaluation include the morphilinoguanide BTS 67582 and the meglitinides mitiglinide (KAD 1229) and senaglinide (A-4166). Succinate ester derivatives represent a potential Cymbalta Tablets Pain novel approach to improving beta-cell function through enhancement of insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Enhancement of nutrient-induced insulin secretion is a mechanism with several putative targets within the beta-cell; potentiators of insulin secretion include glucagon-like peptide-1 and its analogues, phosphodiesterase inhibitors and the imidazoline derivative PMS 812 (S 21663). The amylin agonist pramlintide slows gastric emptying and suppression of glucagon secretion. Non-thiazolidinedione insulin-sensitising agents include the gamma-receptor agonist G 1262570X (GG 570) and D-chiro-inositol. Insulin analogues with prolonged action and inhaled insulin preparations are also under investigation. Insulin-mimetic agents include organic vanadium compounds. Whether newer agents will offer clinically relevant efficacy and tolerability advantages over existing therapies remains to be determined.

precose online 2015-07-14

Acarbose inhibits alpha-glucosidases of the small intestine and thus delays glucose release from complex carbohydrates. Therefore, its efficacy and acceptability as a first-line drug in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) insufficiently treated with diet alone was tested in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled Ceftin With Alcohol study.

precose drug 2015-08-18

After an initial mean weight loss Tegretol Pill of 10.0 +/- 3.4 kg, 54 subjects received acarbose at increasing dosage and 56 subjects received placebo treatment. After 14 weeks of follow-up, there was no change in body weight in the two groups. After 26 weeks, completed by 37 subjects in the acarbose group and by 38 subjects in the placebo group, a small weight regain of 0.6 kg was documented in the latter, whereas no weight increase was observed under acarbose treatment (p = 0.38, analysis of covariance with initial body weight as covariable).

precose dosage 2015-05-25

Capsular warning syndrome was first described in 1993, featured with repetitive episodes of motor and/or sensory dysfunction without cortical signs. Recently, it has been demonstrated that clinically typical capsular warning syndrome can be associated with pontine Stromectol Overdose infarct and the term oepontine warning syndrome was coined.

precose dose 2017-04-08

Acarbose treatment suppressed weight gain and the development of hepatic Diamox Drug steatosis in KO mice. Acarbose treatment up-regulated hepatic expression of the pparalpha, ucp-2, and abca1 genes, as well as srebp1c, pparalpha, and ppargamma in adipose tissue. In WT mice, however, acarbose treatment had little influence on weight gain and gene expression.

precose generic name 2015-09-07

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) belonging to the alpha-amylase family mainly catalyzes transglycosylation and produces cyclodextrins from starch and related alpha-1,4-glucans. The catalytic site of CGTase specifically conserves four aromatic residues, Phe183, Tyr195, Phe259, and Phe283, which are not found in alpha-amylase. To elucidate the structural role of Phe283, we determined the crystal structures of native and acarbose-complexed mutant CGTases in which Phe283 was replaced with leucine (F283L) or tyrosine (F283Y). The temperature factors of the region 259 Strattera 80mg Capsules -269 in native F283L increased >10 A(2) compared with the wild type. The complex formation with acarbose not only increased the temperature factors (>10 A(2)) but also changed the structure of the region 257-267. This region is stabilized by interactions of Phe283 with Phe259 and Leu260 and plays an important role in the cyclodextrin binding. The conformation of the side-chains of Glu257, Phe259, His327, and Asp328 in the catalytic site was altered by the mutation of Phe283 with leucine, and this indicates that Phe283 partly arranges the structure of the catalytic site through contacts with Glu257 and Phe259. The replacement of Phe283 with tyrosine decreased the enzymatic activity in the basic pH range. The hydroxyl group of Tyr283 forms hydrogen bonds with the carboxyl group of Glu257, and the pK(a) of Glu257 in F283Y may be lower than that in the wild type.

precose acarbose tablets 2016-10-27

These results clearly indicated that active compounds present in N. diderrichii and S. pobeguinii leaves or/and bark were selective and highly potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase and validate their popular use for the treatment of diabetes.

precose 25 mg 2017-12-13

TreX is an archaeal glycogen-debranching enzyme that exists in two oligomeric states in solution, as a dimer and tetramer. Unlike its homologs, TreX from Sulfolobus solfataricus shows dual activities for alpha-1,4-transferase and alpha-1,6-glucosidase. To understand this bifunctional mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of TreX in complex with an acarbose ligand. The acarbose intermediate was covalently bound to Asp363, occupying subsites -1 to -3. Although generally similar to the monomeric structure of isoamylase, TreX exhibits two different active-site configurations depending on its oligomeric state. The N terminus of one subunit is located at the active site of the other molecule, resulting in a reshaping of the active site in the tetramer. This is accompanied by a large shift in the "flexible loop" (amino acids 399-416), creating connected holes inside the tetramer. Mutations in the N-terminal region result in a sharp increase in alpha-1,4-transferase activity and a reduced level of alpha-1,6-glucosidase activity. On the basis of geometrical analysis of the active site and mutational study, we suggest that the structural lid (acids 99-97) at the active site generated by the tetramerization is closely associated with the bifunctionality and in particular with the alpha-1,4-transferase activity. These results provide a structural basis for the modulation of activities upon TreX oligomerization that may represent a common mode of action for other glycogen-debranching enzymes in higher organisms.

precose tablets 2017-02-21

Sixteen naturally occurring oleanolic acid saponins and their derivatives were synthesized in an efficient and practical strategy, and their inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were evaluated in vitro. Among all the compounds, 28-O-monoglucoside 8 exhibited remarkably potent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 87.3 µM, which was fivefold stronger than that of the antidiabetic acarbose. Based on the preliminary structure-activity relationships, for 28-O-monoglucosides, the presence of a terminal α-l-rhamnopyranosyl residue enhanced the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. Furthermore, for 3,28-O-bidesmosides, sugar-substituted moieties attached to the C-3 and C-28 positions of the oleanolic acid scaffold are helpful to increase the inhibitory activities against α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

precose reviews 2016-10-28

Acarbose reduces the intestinal absorption of dietary carbohydrate, thereby ameliorating postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus. Dietary carbohydrate can modulate the bioavailability of some trace minerals like zinc and copper. Deficiencies in these minerals are associated with glucose intolerance. It is still unknown whether acarbose's reduction of intestinal carbohydrate absorption causes the short supply of these minerals. Thus, we investigated the changes in plasma zinc and copper levels in patients with NIDDM, after administration of acarbose for 3 months. The results showed that acarbose did not significantly affect fasting and postprandial plasma levels of these minerals, even after acarbose withdrawal. This study indicated that acarbose administration in NIDDM patients over a 3-month period does not influence plasma levels of zinc or copper.