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Repaglinide is a short-acting insulin secretagogue, which often results in considerable interindividual variability in therapeutic efficacy when widely used in a clinical setting. Among various reasons under discussion is genetic polymorphism, especially the genes related to insulin secretion and resistance. Recent studies have described the importance of PPARD in regulating the secretion and resistance of insulin. However, little is known about the impacts of PPARD genetic polymorphism on the efficacy of repaglinide. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the associations of PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) susceptibility and repaglinide therapeutic efficacy in Chinese Han T2DM patients. A total of 338 T2DM patients and 200 healthy subjects were genotyped for PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. A total of 84 patients with the same genotypes of CYP2C8*3 139Arg and OATP1B1 521TT were randomized to orally take repaglinide for 8 weeks. Then the pharmacodynamic parameters of repaglinide and biochemical indicators were determined before and after repaglinide treatment. No significant difference was found in either allelic frequency (P = 0.298) or genotype distribution (P = 0.151) of PPARD rs2016520 between T2DM patients and healthy subjects. However, T2DM patients carrying genotype TC showed a significantly lower increase in postprandial serum insulin (mU/L) than those with wild-type TT (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that PPARD rs2016520 polymorphism might influence the therapeutic effect of repaglinide rather than T2DM susceptibility in Chinese Han T2DM patients.
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18F-labeled non-sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent (S)-2-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethoxy)-4-((3-methyl-1-(2-piperidin-1-yl-phenyl)-butylcarbamoyl)-methyl)-benzoic acid ([(18)F]repaglinide), a derivative of the sulfonylurea-receptor (SUR) ligand repaglinide, was synthesized as a potential tracer for the non-invasive investigation of the sulfonylurea 1 receptor status of pancreatic beta-cells by positron emission tomography (PET) in the context of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. [(18)F]Repaglinide could be obtained in an overall radiochemical yield (RCY) of 20% after 135 min with a radiochemical purity higher than 98% applying the secondary labeling precursor 2-[(18)F]fluoroethyltosylate. Specific activity was in the range of 50-60 GBq/micromol. Labeling was conducted by exchanging the ethoxy-moiety into a 2-[(18)F]fluoroethoxy group. To characterize the properties of fluorinated repaglinide, the affinity of the analogous non-radioactive (19)F-compound for binding to the human SUR1 isoform was assessed. [(19)F]Repaglinide induced a complete monophasic inhibition curve with a Hill coefficient close to 1 (1.03) yielding a dissociation constant (K(D)) of 134 nM. Biological activity was proven via insulin secretion experiments on isolated rat islets and was comparable to that of repaglinide. Finally, biodistribution of [(18)F]repaglinide was investigated in rats by measuring the concentration of the compound in different organs after i.v. injection. Pancreatic tissue displayed a stable accumulation of approximately 0.12% of the injected dose from 10 min to 30 min p.i. 50% of the radioactive tracer could be displaced by additional injection of unlabeled repaglinide, indicating that [(18)F]repaglinide might be suitable for in vivo investigation with PET.
Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality.
To compare the effects of treatment with repaglinide and glibenclamide on platelet function and endothelial markers in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, before and after a standardized meal.
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Exaggerated postprandial glucose (PPG) excursions are associated with a derangement of both global, executive, and attention functioning. A tighter control of PPG may prevent cognitive decline in older diabetic individuals.
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Persons with Type 2 diabetes who were poorly controlled on oral therapy were randomly assigned to monotherapy with repaglinide or combination therapy with repaglinide plus metformin. Brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation was assessed by ultrasonography at randomization and following 16 weeks of therapy. The primary outcome was change in brachial artery endothelial function from baseline. Comparison of randomized groups was a secondary aim.
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Insulin therapy safely reversed chronic weight loss in patients with CFRD FH-.
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Post-prandial hyperglycaemia, which occurs early in the development of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), has been receiving increased attention recently. Post-prandial hyperglycaemia is likely to promote or aggravate fasting hyperglycaemia and contributes entirely to HbA1c elevation, which is associated with microvascular and macrovascular complications in people with T2DM. Moreover, post-prandial hyperglycaemia is coupled with coagulation activation and may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in people with or without diabetes. For these reasons, reduction of post-prandial hyperglycaemia is an important target in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or T2DM. Several treatments have therefore been developed to reduce post-prandial hyperglycaemia; of these, repaglinide, a prandial glucose regulator taken orally before each meal, is now available. Drugs that reduce post-prandial hyperglycaemia significantly also decrease HbA1c (up to 2% with repaglinide) and fasting glucose concentrations (up to 3.9 mmol/l with repaglinide), with consequent decreases in coagulation activation and, in some studies, post-prandial lipidaemia. In clinical trials in patients with T2DM, repaglinide significantly reduced 2-hr post-prandial glucose concentrations and significantly reduced the risk of hypoglycaemia, compared with sulphonylureas, especially when participants missed or postponed a meal. Treatment with the prandial glucose regulator repaglinide allows patients with T2DM to have a more flexible lifestyle, which is likely to improve their quality of life and compliance.
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Repaglinide is a prandial glucose regulator indicated for management of type 2 diabetes. This post-marketing study used the observational cohort technique of prescription-event monitoring (PEM) to monitor safety of repaglinide prescribed in primary care in England. Patients were identified from dispensed prescriptions issued by general practitioners (GPs) between December 1998 and January 2001. Demographic and clinical event data were collected from questionnaires posted to GPs at least six months after the date of first prescription for each patient. The cohort consisted of 5731 patients [median age 60 (IQR 51-68), 49.9% male]. Event incidence densities (IDs) [no. 1st reports/1000 patient-months of exposure] were calculated for all events reported. The most frequently recorded clinical events in the first month were diarrhoea (ID(1) 10.3), malaise/lassitude (ID(1) 8.1) and nausea/vomiting (ID(1) 7.9). The most frequently reported reason for stopping was 'not effective' (647), with the most common clinical reasons being diarrhoea (60), malaise/lassitude (55) and intolerance (54). One hundred and thirteen adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were reported, with the most frequently specified being diarrhoea (10), abdominal pain (10) and nausea/vomiting (9). We concluded that repaglinide is generally well tolerated when used in general practice in England and did not identify any serious unrecognised adverse events.
This review has not found any significant conclusive evidence that long-acting insulins, short-acting insulins or oral hypoglycemic agents have a distinct advantage over one another in controlling hyperglycemia or clinical outcomes associated with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. While some cystic fibrosis centers use oral medications to help control diabetes, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (USA) clinical practice guidelines support the use of insulin therapy and this remains the most widely-used treatment method. Randomized controlled trials specifically related to controlling diabetes with this impact on the course of pulmonary disease process in cystic fibrosis continue to be a high priority.There is no demonstrated advantage yet established for using oral hypoglycemic agents over insulin, and further studies need to be evaluated to establish whether there is clear benefit for using hypoglycemic agents. Agents that potentiate insulin action, especially agents with additional anti-inflammatory potential should be further investigated to see if there may be a clinical advantage to adding these medications to insulin as adjuvant therapy.
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In older patients with type 2 diabetes hospitalized for IHD, prior use of gliclazide, glyburide, or repaglinide appears to be associated with a similar risk of adverse cardiovascular sequelae.
To compare the effect on glycemic control and weight gain of repaglinide versus metformin combined with bedtime NPH insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.
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Coprescribing of clopidogrel and other drugs is common. Available reviews have addressed the drug-drug interactions (DDIs) when clopidogrel is as an object drug, or focused on combination use of clopidogrel and a special class of drugs. Clinicians may still be ignorant of those DDIs when clopidogrel is a precipitant drug, the factors determining the degree of DDIs, and corresponding risk management.
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Repaglinide and glibenclamide, respectively, were >or=30 and >or=1,000 times more potent in closing the pancreatic than the cardiovascular channels and they did not lead to complete inhibition of the myocardial channel. Binding assays showed that the selectivity of glibenclamide was essentially based on high affinity for the pancreatic SUR, whereas binding of repaglinide to the SUR subtypes was rather non-selective. After coexpression with Kir6.x to form the assembled channels, however, the affinity of the pancreatic channel for repaglinide was increased 130-fold, an effect much larger than with the cardiovascular channels. This selective effect of coexpression depended on the piperidino substituent in repaglinide.
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Patients were aged 68±10 years, 57.1% were males, Body Mass Index was 30±5 kg/m2, glycated hemoglobin 8±1%, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were 138±15/80±9 mmHg. Serum creatinine was 1.03±0.35 mg/dL and GFR 71±21 mL/min/1.73 m2. In 504 patients (30%) GFR was lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The different treatment groups had different GFR and hypoglycaemic drugs were prescribed differently in the different K/DIGO stages. The majority of subjects in stage 3A and 3B were treated with repaglinide, however a significant percentage of them were treated with metformin and sulfonylureas. Nearly half of subjects with CKD stage 4 were treated with metformin and sulfonylureas.
Hyperglycemia is a modifiable risk factor that has a deleterious effect on the development and progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study revealed how reductions in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) correlate with a significant reduction in all-cause mortality and the incidence of myocardial infarction. The Diabetes Intervention Study showed that poor control of fasting glycemia does not increase the risk of myocardial infarction or mortality, whereas poor control of post-prandial glucose is associated with a high all-cause mortality rate. HbA1c is the standard measure for metabolic control and therapeutic efficacy, but does not reflect fluctuations in glycemic control. Plasma glucose concentrations in healthy subjects remain within a narrow range, which suggests that the fluctuations in glucose levels caused by inappropriate treatment may have negative consequences. These fluctuations have been associated with acute adverse effects (particularly excessive post-prandial hyperglycemia, pre-meal hypoglycemia and weight gain) that counteract the positive effect of lowering fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c. Post-prandial hyperglycemia and spikes also have deleterious effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity. Prandial oral antidiabetic agents such as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (acarbose, miglitol) and rapidly acting insulin secretagogues (nateglinide, repaglinide) have recently been introduced to improve the control of post-prandial hyperglycemia.
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This study was designed to compare diurnal blood glucose excursions and the effects of accidental dietary noncompliance in type 2 diabetic patients who are well-controlled on either repaglinide or glyburide treatment.
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A total of 22 healthy young male participants were recruited from a pool of pharmacogenetically characterized participants genotyped for SLCO1B1, CYP3A4, and CYP2C8 SNPs by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Volunteers with CYP2C8*3 and CYP3A4*4 alleles were excluded from the clinical study. Then selected volunteers took part in the clinical pharmacokinetic study, receiving 2 mg repaglinide.
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CYP2C8 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 family of enzymes; it affects the activity of various drugs used in routine clinical practice, including amiodarone, chloroquine, amodiaquine, and repaglinide, as well as endogenous compounds, such as arachidonic acid and retonic acid. It is also the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of the widely used anticancer drug Paclitaxel, which has a very narrow therapeutic index. There is evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP2C8 gene influence the adverse reactions and/or the efficacy of drugs metabolized by this enzyme. We examined the allele and genotype frequencies of widely studied functional polymorphisms of the CYP2C8 gene in a North Indian population. We assayed the genomic DNA of at least 251 healthy unrelated North Indians for CYP2C8*2, CYP2C8*3 (G416A, A1196G), and CYP2C8*4 genetic polymorphisms by RFLP technique. These results were compared to information on other populations. The allelic frequencies of CYP2C8*2, CYP2C8*3, and CYP2C8*4 were found to be 3, 4, and 4% respectively. The two CYP2C8*3 polymorphisms (G416A and A1196G) were found to be completely linked to each other. Allele frequencies of CYP2C8 genetic variants in northern Indians were found to have a distinct pattern that differs from that of southern Indian and other global populations. This is the first report from North India on CYP2C8 polymorphisms. Ethnic differences with respect to polymorphisms are the molecular basis of interethnic variability in pharmacokinetics. Our study may help in rational use of drugs that are substrates for CYP2C8 in this population.
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The current study involves the development of oral bioadhesive hydrophilic matrices of repaglinide and the optimization of their in vitro drug release and ex vivo bioadhesion. A simplex lattice design was employed to systematically optimize the drug delivery containing two polymers and a filler. The proportions of polyethylene oxide (PEO), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and lactose were varied to be fitted in simplex lattice design. Mucoadhesion (M), drug release at 2 h (Q2) and drug release at 8 h (Q8) were taken as responses. Response surface plots were drawn and the optimum formulation was selected by desirability function. The criteria for optimized formulation were set for mucoadhesion as maximum, Q2 as 20% and Q8 as 80%. The formulations were also checked for their swelling index and showed good swelling characteristic. In vitro drug release study was carried out using simulated gastric fluid (SGF) pH 1.2. The experimental values of M, Q2 and Q8 for check point batch were found to be 0.211N, 21.87% and 80.86% respectively. The release profile indicated anomalous (non-Fickian) transport mechanism. The optimized formulation was further checked for its compatibility with other excipients by studying FTIR and DSC studies and they indicated the absence of any significant chemical interaction within drug and excipients.
In the past few years, oral antihyperglycaemic agents have been considered as an alternative to insulin therapy in the treatment of gestational diabetes. There is still little information available on the safety of these drugs during pregnancy, but there have been several studies published regarding their use. Here we report on the case of a woman who took repaglinide up to the seventh week of pregnancy. Delivery occured with no complications and the newborn showed no malformations. Further studies are required to confirm the safety of repaglinide during pregnancy.
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A change in the function or expression of hepatic drug transporters may have significant effect on the efficacy or safety of orally administered drugs. Although a number of clinical drug-drug interactions associated with hepatic transport proteins have been reported, in practice it is not always straightforward to discriminate other pathways (e.g. drug metabolism) from being involved in these interactions. The present study was designed to assess the interactions between organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) substrates (pravastatin or repaglinide) and inhibitors (spironolactone or diphenhydramine) in vivo in rats. The mechanisms behind the interactions were then investigated using in vitro tools (isolated hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes). The results showed a significant increase in the systemic exposures of pravastatin (2.5-fold increase in AUC) and repaglinide (1.8-fold increase in AUC) after co-administration of spironolactone to rats. Diphenhydramine increased the AUC of repaglinide by 1.4-fold. The in vivo interactions observed in rats between Oatp substrates and inhibitors may a priori be classified as transport-mediated drug-drug interactions. However, mechanistic studies performed in vitro using both isolated rat hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes showed that the interaction between pravastatin and spironolactone may be solely linked to the inhibition of pravastatin uptake in liver. On the contrary, the inhibition of cytochrome P450 seemed to be the reason for the interactions observed between repaglinide and spironolactone. Although the function and structure of transport proteins may vary between rats and humans, the approach used in the present study can be applied to humans and help to understand the role of drug transport and drug metabolism in a given drug-drug interaction. This is important to predict and mitigate the risk of drug-drug interactions for a candidate drug in pre-clinical development, it is also important for the optimal design of drug-drug interactions studies in the clinic.
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Pharmacokinetic profiles of single- and multiple-dose regimens of repaglinide were evaluated in 12 elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes. On day 1, following a 10-hour fast, subjects received a single 2-mg dose of repaglinide. Starting on day 2 and continuing for 7 days, each subject received a 2-mg dose of repaglinide 15 minutes before each of the three main meals. On day 9, subjects received a single 2-mg dose of repaglinide. Pharmacokinetic profiles, including area under the curve (AUC), log(AUC), maximal concentration (Cmax), log(Cmax), time to maximal concentration (Tmax), and half-life (T(1/2)), were determined at completion of the single- and multiple-dose regimens (days 1 and 9, respectively). Trough repaglinide values were collected on days 2 through 7. The mean log(AUC) values after multiple dosing were significantly higher than the values obtained after a single dose. The mean values for log(Cmax), and Tmax were comparable after each dosing regimen. The T(1/2) of repaglinide after multiple dosing was 1.7 hours. The trough values for repaglinide were low. No hypoglycemic events were reported. The pharmacokinetic profiles of repaglinide after single- and multiple-dose regimens were similar, and repaglinide was well tolerated by elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes.
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified that SLC30A8 genetic polymorphism was a risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in several populations. This study aimed to investigate whether the SLC30A8 rs13266634 and rs16889462 polymorphisms were associated with T2DM susceptibility and repaglinide therapeutic efficacy in Chinese T2DM patients.
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In vitro data have recently suggested that sulfonylureas (SUs) enhance GH secretion by modulating the effects of GHRH and somatostatin in pituitary cells. The present study was undertaken to explore in more detail a possible influence of a single dose of SU (glibenclamide) and a non-SU (repaglinide) insulin secretagogue on circulating GH dynamics. Ten C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetic individuals were examined on three occasions in random order. Either glibenclamide (10.5 mg), repaglinide (8 mg), or placebo was administered after overnight normalization of plasma glucose by iv insulin infusion. Subsequently, GH concentrations were measured regularly after stimulation with GHRH (bolus 0.1 micro g/kg) alone and during concomitant infusion with somatostatin (7 ng.kg(-1).min(-1)). Insulin was replaced at baseline levels (0.25 mU.kg(-1).min(-1)) and plasma glucose clamped at 5-6 mmol/liter. Overall, there were no significant statistical differences in GH responses determined as either GH peak concentrations, integrated levels of GH, or secretory burst mass of GH during the experimental protocol. In contrast, plasma glucagon concentrations were significantly increased during glibenclamide and repaglinide exposure. The present experimental design does not support the hypothesis that acute administration of pharmacological doses of the oral antihyperglycemic agents glibenclamide and repaglinide per se enhance GH release in humans. Additionally, this study shows that these potassium channel inhibitors seem to stimulate glucagon secretion in people who have severe intraislet insulin deficiency (e.g. type 1 diabetes). However, extrapolation of our findings to type 2 diabetic individuals should be done with some caution.
Of 20 drugs for which the DDD value has changed in the 5 year period, 5 were used in Rijeka hospital: erythropoietin parenteral, budesonide nasal spray, repaglinide oral, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid parenteral, and fentanyl transdermal. Graphs for individual drugs with the year by year method showed artificial jerks in the years proceeding the year of DDD change. Representation of total hospital consumption did not differ notably with the two methods.