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Ponstel (Mefenamic Acid)

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Ponstel is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short-term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain. Ponstel blocks the effect of certain substances in the body that are associated with pain and inflammation.

Other names for this medication:

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Celebrex, Voltaren, Dolobid, Lodine, Motrin, Indocin, Orudis, Toradol, Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Voltaren, Aleve, Advil, Celecoxib, Naprosyn, Motrin, Ketoprofen


Also known as:  Mefenamic Acid.


Ponstel is used for treating menstrual pain. It may be used for short term (not more than 7 days) treatment of mild to moderate pain.

Ponstel blocks certain substances in the body that are linked to inflammation. NSAIDs treat the symptoms of pain and inflammation.

Ponstel is also known as Mefenamic acid, Ponstan.

Generic name of Ponstel is Mefenamic Acid.

Brand name of Ponstel is Ponstel.


Take Ponstel orally.

Take Ponstel with or without food.

Take Ponstel with a full glass of water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ponstel suddenly.


If you overdose Ponstel and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Ponstel if you are allergic to Ponstel components or to aspirin.

Do not take Ponstel if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Do not take Ponstel if you have had a severe allergic reaction (e.g., severe rash, hives, trouble breathing, growths in the nose, dizziness) to aspirin or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (e.g., ibuprofen, celecoxib).

Do not take Ponstel if you have had recent or will be having bypass heart surgery.

Do not take Ponstel if you have kidney problems.

Do not take Ponstel if you have ulcers or inflammation of the stomach or bowel.

Do not use Ponstel with aspirin.

Be careful with Ponstel when it is used by children younger than 14 years old and by elderly people.

Avoid machine driving.

Avoid drinking alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Ponstel taking suddenly.

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Sixty-nine patients with a convincing history of menorrhagia completed a 4-cycle double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover trial of mefenamic acid taken during menstruation. Only 30 of these patients demonstrated objective menorrhagia with a measured menstrual loss greater than 80 ml during the placebo cycles, but the remainder reported passing clots and/or using 2 pads at a time. Fourteen of these women (20%) had a loss of less than 35 ml while taking placebos. This raises serious questions about the establishment of menorrhagia based on history alone. Overall, there was a mean reduction of 28.1% in menstrual blood loss between placebo and mefenamic acid cycles (P less than .001). The greatest reduction recorded was 80%, and most of the large percentage reductions were seen in patients with high loss during placebo cycles. Significant reductions in blood loss (P less than .001) were seen in patients with ovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding and menorrhagia that developed after tubal interruption. There was also an indication based on small sample sizes that mefenamic acid reduced blood loss in women with anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding, fibroids, intrauterine devices, and von Willebrand disease. No reduction was seen during the mefenamic acid cycle in the group with a loss of less than 35 ml during the placebo cycle. There was a significant shortening of duration of bleeding (P less than .003). Fifteen patients (21.7%) experienced no objective reduction in blood loss.

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We encountered one confirmed aspirin-relieved asthma patient and investigated the effects of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors on his condition.

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In human subcutaneous resistance arteries in-vitro, the relaxation produced by the novel furopyridine compound cicletanine (30 microMs) was inhibited by 51% (P less than 0.0001) in the presence of 20 microMs of the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Maximal cicletanine-induced relaxation was reduced by both the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor mefenamic acid and the relatively specific blocker of prostacyclin synthetase, tranylcypromine by 55% (P less than 0.0005) and 43% (P less than 0.01), respectively. The potassium channel blocker, glibenclamide (100 microMs), did not affect the relaxation produced by cicletanine but did inhibit the relaxation produced by the potassium channel blocker cromakalim (P less than 0.0001). Cromakalim-induced relaxation was inhibited in the presence of indomethacin; relaxation induced by cromakalim (30 microMs) was reduced by 22% (P less than 0.02). The relaxation produced by the hypotensive agonists sodium nitroprusside, hydrochlorothiazide, bumetanide and nicardipine was unaffected by incubation with indomethacin. The results suggest that the vascular eicosanoid system, specifically prostacyclin, may be involved in the mechanism of the acute vasodilator action of cicletanine. Although at high doses, cicletanine is a diuretic, in this model it did not act like either a thiazide or a loop diuretic. The acute vasodilator action of the thiazide diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide was a novel finding of this study. Cromakalim showed a reduced response in the presence of indomethacin suggesting an involvement of the eicosanoid system in its mechanism of action.

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Stir bar sorptive extraction with polyurethane (PU) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymeric phases followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection [SBSE(PU or PDMS)/HPLC-DAD] was studied for the determination of six acidic pharmaceuticals [o-acetylsalicylic acid (ACA), ibuprofen (IBU), diclofenac sodium (DIC), naproxen (NAP), mefenamic acid (MEF) and gemfibrozil (GEM)], selected as non-steroidal acidic anti-inflammatory drugs and lipid regulators model compounds in environmental water matrices. The main parameters affecting the efficiency of the proposed methodology are fully discussed. Assays performed on 25 mL of water samples spiked at the 10 microg L(-1) level under optimized experimental conditions, yielded recoveries ranging from 45.3+/-9.0% (ACA) to 90.6+/-7.2% (IBU) by SBSE(PU) and 9.8+/-1.6% (NAP) to 73.4+/-5.0% (GEM) by SBSE(PDMS), where the former polymeric phase presented a better affinity to extract these target analytes from water matrices at the trace level. The methodology showed also excellent linear dynamic ranges for the six acidic pharmaceuticals studied, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9976, limits of detection and quantification between 0.40-1.7 microg L(-1) and 1.5-5.8 microg L(-1), respectively, and suitable precision (RSD <15%). Moreover, the developed methodology was applied for the determination of these target analytes in several environmental matrices, including river, sea and wastewater samples, having achieved good performance and moderate matrix effects. In short, the PU foams demonstrated to be an excellent alternative for the enrichment of the more polar metabolites from water matrices by SBSE, overcoming the limitations of the conventional PDMS phase.

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Whenever a dentist is dealing with abscess formation in the oral and maxillofacial region, it is mostly from dental origins. However, sometimes uncommon (co-)factors are present and responsible for major complications. Many general conditions or medications can significantly influence the course of an inflammation. It might spread faster and wider and also be resistant to "correct" therapy. This case report should raise awareness about general conditions supporting inflammation and demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary treatment in these situations. A 76-year-old patient was referred to the maxillofacial surgery clinic after extraction of two teeth resulted in therapy-resistant painful swelling. Her dentist already had initiated "standard" therapy including Ponstan® (mefenamic acid) and Clamoxyl® (amoxicillin) without success. Initial blood testing came back with severe agranulocytosis. Immediately all potentially myelosuppressing drugs were stopped while myelosupporting drugs were prescribed. Under close interdisciplinary treatment conditions, healing was then uneventful without the necessity of surgical intervention. The challenge in inflammation treatment is to identify patients with uncommonly severe, fast-progressing, or therapy-resistant disease as early as possible. Further examination including blood workup for several medical parameters is indispensable in those patients.

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Osmotic fragility of red cells is increased by the use of mefenamic acid. The use of this analgesic induces hemolytic anemia. Study of osmotic fragility of RBCs of control and test was observed following administration of 7.1 mg, 10.5 mg and 14 mg/day mefenamic acid to each lizard. Increased osmotic fragility was observed with increase in the amount of dose on day 6 and day 12.

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The human liver and kidney are important sites of MPA glucuronidation. MPA glucuronidation was inhibited to various extents by different NSAIDs and the four most effective inhibitors were niflumic acid, flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid and diflunisal. These drugs have similar molecular structures consisting of two aromatic rings bearing a carboxylic group.

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Primary dysmenorrhea refers to the occurrence of painful menstrual cramps of uterus and is considered as a gynecological complaint. The common treatment for this problem is medical therapy such as mefenamic acid [non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)] and oral contraceptive pills, both of which work by reducing myometrial activity. Fennel contains an antispasmodic and anethol agents and may be helpful for management of primary dysmenorrhea.

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A double-blind study was carried out in 48 patients with soft-tissue injuries to compare the effectiveness of mefenamic acid and dextropropoxyphene plus paracetamol in relieving acute post-injury pain. Patients received capsules containing either 250 mg mefenamic acid or 32.5 mg dextropropoxyphene hydochloride plus 325 mg paracetamol and were instructed to take up to 6 capsules daily as necessary. By the third post-injury day both preparations had controlled pain adequately and lessened local tenderness in most cases. There was no significant difference in response between the two patient groups. Two patients in each group stopped treatment because of gastro-intestinal intolerance, and a further 4 patients in each group reported troublesome side-effects.

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The influence exerted by a number of non-steroid antiphlogistic agents on the fermentative mechanism responsible for the formation and decomposition of kininines in an inflammation focus and on the permeability of vessels in a skin changed under the effect of exogenous bradykininine was studied. Bradykininine, chigamin, sodium salicylate and mephenaminate are shown to inhibit "in vitro" the kininogenic and intensify the kininase activity of the exudate in rats with turpentine-induced pleuritis, while indometacin affects only the activity of kininogenases. Butadion, chingamin and sodium mephenaminate merely reduce the reactivity of the skin with respect to exogenous bradykininine.

ponstel dosing

We examined the effect of 26 drugs on T4 binding to transthyretin (TTR; prealbumin) and T4-binding globulin (TBG) by determining their ability to inhibit [125I]T4 binding to TTR isolated from normal human plasma and to serum diluted 1:10,000, respectively. The hierarchies for drug inhibition of T4 binding differed greatly for these two proteins. Relative to T4, the drugs were much more potent inhibitors of [125I]T4 binding to TTR than to TBG. Compounds of the anthranilic acid class, such as flufenamic, meclofenamic, and mefenamic acids, interacted particularly strongly with TTR. Flufenamic acid was more potent than T4 itself in inhibiting [125I]T4 binding [175 +/- 17% (+/- SD); cf. T4; n = 3; P less than 0.001], while mefenamic acid, diflunisal, and meclofenamic acid were 20-26% as potent as T4 in their interaction with TTR. The reactivity of diclofenac, fenclofenac, indomethacin, sulindac, and the diuretic ethacrynic acid was 0.8-2.1% relative to that of T4. In contrast, furosemide, the drug most highly reactive with TBG, was only 0.11 +/- 0.03% (n = 7) as potent as T4, followed by meclofenamic acid greater than mefenamic acid greater than fenclofenac greater than flufenamic acid greater than diflunisal greater than milrinone. Aspirin and sodium salicylate were, respectively, 0.05% and 0.20% as active as unlabeled T4 as inhibitors of [125I]T4 binding to TTR, but these compounds had only 3-4 x 10(-6)% of the activity of T4 for TBG binding. Diphenylhydantoin had no detectable effect on T4 binding to TTR and was 2.9 x 10(-4)% as reactive as T4 with TBG. Amiodarone did not interact with either binding site. Drug interactions with TTR may be important when this protein becomes a major circulating T4-binding protein, as in patients with complete or partial TBG deficiency, or when serum T4 is markedly elevated. Such interactions may also be important where TTR is the dominant tissue T4-binding protein, as in the choroid plexus. In addition, the drug competitors described here may be useful as probes to further define the structural basis for specific ligand interactions with different classes of T4-binding sites.

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For many clinicians and parents "teething" remains a convenient diagnosis to explain all manner of local and systemic upset in the young child. Many therapies are on the market to help alleviate the symptoms of primary tooth eruption. In this article we highlight the problems of "teething" as a diagnosis by presenting a case where an initial misdiagnosis of teething compromised a patient's life. The same patient then suffered from topical analgesic misuse during the recovery period.

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Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, although not usually life-threatening, can cause disruption and discomfort for many women. It has often been poorly researched in the past, possibly because of the difficulty in measuring menstrual blood loss. Several different therapies are available and individual women can choose from a number of options. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as mefenamic acid or indomethacin will be the first choice for many women as they have few side effects and it is only necessary to take them when menstrual bleeding occurs. When contraception is also required, combined oral contraceptives are helpful. Progestogen and danazol therapy are also effective, although side effects do occur. A new development has been the levonorgestrel-containing intrauterine contraceptive device which has been shown to result in large decreases in menstrual blood loss. For those women who would like a surgical approach but do not want to undergo hysterectomy, the relatively new technique of endometrial resection results either in amenorrhoea or reduced menstrual blood loss in the majority of women.

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To assess the effectiveness of commencing the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) or usual medical treatments for women presenting with HMB in general practice.

ponstel dosage dysmenorrhea

Bidirectional transport studies were performed using Caco-2 cells. Compounds exhibiting an efflux ratio of > or =2 were further examined for their potential interaction with P-gp and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) using verapamil and indomethacin. Calcein efflux inhibition studies were conducted to investigate the efflux mechanism of these compounds. Geometry optimization of the esters was performed, and the spatial separation of two electron donor groups of each prodrug was measured.

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Hepatotoxicity is one of the common side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We investigated the cytotoxicity of 18 acidic NSAIDs (3 salicylic acids, 3 anthranilic acids, 6 arylacetic acids, 6 arylpropionic acids) to freshly isolated rat hepatocytes as assessed by the NSAID-induced leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in order to determine structural requirements for the direct hepatotoxicity of the NSAIDs. Diflunisal (salicylic acids), flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid (anthranilic acids), diclofenac, indomethacin, acemetacin (arylacetic acids) and flurbiprofen (arylpropionic acids) caused significant LDH leakage, indicating that substituent position of a carboxyl group does not relate to the hepatotoxicity of the NSAIDs. Because the cytotoxic NSAIDs were of two types as classified by their "skeleton," diphenyl and diphenylamine, we tested the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Diphenyl did not cause LDH leakage, but diflunisal, which has the diphenyl structure, was cytotoxic. On the other hand, diphenylamine induced LDH leakage to the same degree as diclofenac, which has the diphenylamine structure. Therefore, diphenylamine itself was suggested to be responsible for the cytotoxicity of diclofenac and anthranilic acids, whereas a substituted group(s) in addition to diphenyl structure seems to be important for diflunisal cytotoxicity. All of the cytotoxic NSAIDs and diphenylamine extensively decreased hepatocellular ATP content, whereas the noncytotoxic NSAID did not, indicating that the NSAID-induced decrease in ATP, probably by their uncoupling effects on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, is involved in the hepatotoxicity of the NSAIDs.

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The efficiency of sequential advanced membrane technology wastewater treatment plant towards removal of a widely used non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) mefenamic acid was investigated. The sequential system included activated sludge, ultrafiltration by hollow fibre membranes with 100 kDa cutoff, and spiral wound membranes with 20 kDa cutoff, activated carbon and a reverse osmosis (RO) unit. The performance of the integrated plant showed complete removal of mefenamic acid from spiked wastewater samples. The activated carbon column was the most effective component in removing mefenamic acid with a removal efficiency of 97.2%. Stability study of mefenamic acid in pure water and Al-Quds activated sludge revealed that the anti-inflammatory drug was resistant to degradation in both environments. Batch adsorption of mefenamic acid by activated charcoal and a composite micelle (otadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA)-clay (montmorillonite) was determined at 25.0°C. Langmuir isotherm was found to fit the data with Qmax of 90.9 mg g(-1) and 100.0 mg g(-1) for activated carbon and micelle-clay complex, respectively. Filtration experiment by micelle-clay columns mixed with sand in the mg L(-1) range revealed complete removal of the drug with much larger capacity than activated carbon column. The combined results demonstrated that an integration of a micelle-clay column in the plant system has a good potential to improve the removal efficiency of the plant towards NSAID drugs such as mefenamic acid.

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A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive method for simultaneous analysis of anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen, ibuprofen, and mefenamic acid) in diluted human serum was developed using the electrochemically controlled solid-phase microextraction coupled to ion mobility spectrometry. A conducting molecularly imprinted polymer film based on polypyrrole was synthesized for the selective uptake and release of drugs. The film was prepared by incorporation of a template molecule (naproxen) during the electropolymerization of pyrrole onto a platinum electrode using cyclic voltammetry method. The measured ion mobility spectrometry intensity was related to the concentration of analytes taken up into the films. The calibration graphs (naproxen, ibuprofen, and mefenamic acid) were linear in the range of 0.1-30 ng/mL and detection limits were 0.07-0.37 ng/mL and relative standard deviation was lower than 6%. On the basis of the results obtained in this work, the conducting molecularly imprinted polymer films as absorbent have been applied in the electrochemically controlled solid-phase microextraction and ion mobility spectrometry system for the selective clean-up and quantification of trace amounts of anti-inflammatory drugs in human serum samples. Scanning electron microscopy has confirmed the nano-structure morphology of the polypyrrole film.

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The MICs of diclofenac, mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, and naproxen, in the presence of PAβN, were significantly (≥4-fold) reduced, decreasing to 25-1600 mg/L, against the majority of the studied strains. In the case of acetylsalicylic acid only for 5 and 7 out of 12 strains of P. mirabilis and E. coli, respectively, a 4-fold increase in susceptibility in the presence of PAβN was observed. The presence of Aspirin resulted in a 4-fold increase in the MIC of ofloxacin against only two strains of E. coli among 48 tested clinical strains, which included species such as E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and S. maltophilia. Besides, the medicinal products containing the following NSAIDs, diclofenac, mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, and naproxen, did not cause the decrease of clinical strains' susceptibility to antibiotics.

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In the present work, the effect of application of voltage steps on extraction efficiency of pulsed electromembrane extraction (PEME) was investigated for the first time. The effects of voltage variations including initial and final voltages, number of steps between the initial and final voltages as well as their time durations were studied on the extraction efficiencies of three different classes of analytes. These classes include amitriptyline (AMI) and nortriptyline (NOR) as more hydrophobic analytes, diclofenac (DIC) and mefenamic acid (MEF) as acidic drugs and salbutamol (SB) and terbutaline (TB) as hydrophilic compounds. It was anticipated that the application of high voltages is not necessary at the beginning of the extraction, since large amounts of target analytes exist around the supported liquid membrane (SLM)/sample solution interface. So, they could be easily transferred into the acceptor phase utilizing lower voltages. Results showed that the benefits of voltage-step PEME (VS-PEME) are more obvious in systems with low electrical resistance (regarding the SLM composition). Efficiencies of VS-PEME for extraction of AMI and NOR (96% and 89% for AMI and NOR, respectively) were comparable with those achieved from applying a constant voltage (95% for AMI and 83% for NOR). However, recoveries from the VS-PEME of DIC and MEF (53% and 44% for DIC and MEF, respectively) were significantly higher than those from the application of a constant voltage (33% for DIC and 31% for MEF). Also, recoveries obtained from the VS-PEME for SB and TB were approximately 3 orders of magnitude greater than those from a constant voltage. Moreover, it was demonstrated that in all cases analytes could effectively be extracted at the beginning of extraction by applying low voltages.

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To determine the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic ibuprofen compared to placebo/no intervention or other cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor drugs (indomethacin, mefenamic acid, etc) in the prevention of PDA in preterm infants.

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buy ponstel online 2016-01-28

HPLC with fluorescence detection is considered for confirmatory analysis of group B veterinary drugs by the European Union legislation. A procedure for confirming the presence of anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drug (NSAID) residues in bovine milk by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection is herein described. The buy ponstel native fluorescence of nine drugs belonging to different NSAID sub-classes, namely flurbiprofen, carprofen, naproxen, vedaprofen, 5-hydroxy-flunixin, niflumic acid, mefenamic acid, meclofenamic acid and tolfenamic acid, allowed for detection in bovine milk down to 0.25-20.0 microg/kg. Confirmation of the nine NSAIDs is attained by fluorescence detection at characteristic excitation and emission wavelengths. The procedure described is simple and selective. Limits of quantification (LOQs) ranging between 0.25 and 20 microg/kg were measured; satisfactory trueness and within-laboratory reproducibility data were calculated at LOQ spiking levels, apart from 5-hydroxy-flunixin. The procedure developed is used in our laboratory for confirmation of each one of the above mentioned NSAIDs in bovine milk, to support results after HPLC quantitative analysis with UV-vis detection.

ponstel medication information 2015-03-05

We measured six acidic analgesics or anti-inflammatories (aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, fenoprofen, mefenamic acid), two phenolic antiseptics (thymol, triclosan), four amide pharmaceuticals (propyphenazone, crotamiton, carbamazepine, diethyltoluamide), three phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (nonylphenol, octylphenol, bisphenol A), and three natural estrogens (17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol) in 24-h composite samples of influents and secondary effluents collected seasonally from five municipal sewage treatment plants in Tokyo. Aspirin was most abundant in the influent, with an average concentration of 7300 ng/L (n = 16), followed by crotamiton (921 ng/L), ibuprofen (669 ng/L), triclosan (511 ng/L), and diethyltoluamide (503 ng/L). These concentrations were 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in the USA and Europe. This can be ascribed to lower consumption of the pharmaceuticals in Japan. Aspirin, ibuprofen, and thymol were removed efficiently during primary + secondary treatment (> 90% efficiency). On the other hand, amide-type pharmaceuticals, ketoprofen, and buy ponstel naproxen showed poor removal (< 50% efficiency), which is probably due to their lower hydrophobicity (logKow < 3). Because of the persistence of crotamiton during secondary treatment, crotamiton was most abundant among the target pharmaceuticals in the effluent. This is the first paper to report ubiquitous occurrence of crotamiton, a scabicide, in sewage. Because crotamiton is used worldwide and it is persistent during secondary treatment, it is a promising molecular marker of sewage and secondary effluent.

ponstel drug interaction 2017-12-01

Tranexamic acid and mefenamic acid during the first buy ponstel 90 days after levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system placement do not alleviate "nuisance" bleeding or spotting.

ponstel medication 2015-02-24

In this study, the effect of X-rays on the pharmaceutical quality of drug tablets was investigated buy ponstel .

ponstel generic 2015-12-09

One hundred and four women undergoing cesarean deliveries were randomized in two groups according to 10 ml of 2% lidocaine (n = 52) or 0.9% saline (n = 52) was injected at the abdominal incision prior to the performance of the cesarean section (CS). Postoperative pain treatment consisted of oral analgesia with mefenamic acid 500 mg buy ponstel . Morphine 5 mg was used for rescue analgesia. Pain intensity was self-evaluated with visual analog scale. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 11.5 and p value <0.05 was considered significant.

ponstel syrup children 2016-02-06

The effects of types of surfactants on the solubilization and dissolution of poorly soluble acidic drugs were compared to identify the most suitable surfactant for conducting an acidic drug dissolution test. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a buy ponstel cationic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as an anionic surfactant, and polysorbate 80 as a non-ionic surfactant were used in the study. And, mefenamic acid, nimesulide, and ibuprofen were selected as model drugs. The dissolution rates of these acidic drugs were substantially enhanced in medium containing CTAB. Electrostatic interactions between acidic drugs and cationic surfactants were confirmed by measuring UV spectra of each drug. Solubility of drugs in various media and the partition coefficients of drugs into micelles were found to depend on drug characteristics. For acidic drugs, the ability of media containing a cationic surfactant to discriminate rates of dissolution of acidic drugs seemed to be greater than that of media containing other surfactant types.

ponstel 250 reviews 2017-02-04

A practical and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatographic method using normal solid-phase extraction has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of twelve non-steroidal buy ponstel anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in human urine. A urine specimen mixed with acetate buffer pH 5.0 was purified by solid-phase extraction on a Sep-Pak Silica cartridge. The analyte was chromatographed by a reversed-phase Inertsil ODS-2 column using a phosphate buffer-acetonitrile at pH 5.0 as the mobile phase, and the effluent from the column was monitored at 230 or 320 nm. Absolute recoveries were greater than 73% for all of the twelve NSAIDs. The present method enabled simple manipulation and isocratic HPLC with UV analysis as well as high sensitivity of 0.005 microg/ml for naproxen, and 0.05 microg/ml for sulindac, piroxicam, loxoprofen, ketoprofen, felbinac, fenbufen, flurbiprofen, diclofenac, ibuprofen and mefenamic acid as the quantitation limit in human urine using indomethacin as an internal standard.

ponstel 250mg capsules 2015-10-27

A prospective, randomized, open label study was conducted in buy ponstel a tertiary care sleep center. Twelve OSA patients with full consciousness and at least moderate oropharyngeal pain (pain visual analogue scale [VAS] > or = 4) after UPPP were recruited. They were randomized to receive TB (n = 7) and M&M (n = 5). Oropharyngeal pain was measured by a VAS and the Clinical Global Impression in Severity (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) at the 12th, 24th, and 72th hours postoperatively. Postoperative pain related morbidities (PRMs) and quality of life in bodily pain (QOL-BP) were also evaluated 72 hours postoperatively. Adverse events incurred by pain treatment were carefully monitored during patients' hospitalizations.

ponstel user reviews 2015-08-25

Comparison of pain intensity in the two groups showed that there was no significant difference in pain relief between the two groups. Comparison of bleeding severity in the study group before and after intervention was demonstrated from the first buy ponstel day to the fifth day (PV on first day, second day, third day, fourth day, and fifth day 0.948, 0.330, 0.508, 0.583, 0.890, respectively).

ponstel pill 2015-10-01

A 26-year-old male undergoing thoracotomy and bleeding control received a preoperative thoracic epidural for postoperative analgesia. On the fifth postoperative day, paralysis of both lower limbs occurred and urgent magnetic resonance imaging showed massive anterior epidural hematoma. During laminectomy buy ponstel and decompression, platelet dysfunction was diagnosed and preoperative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs medications were supposed to the cause of platelet dysfunction. After infusion of ten units of platelet concentrate, coagulopathy was improved. We should be more careful to drugs with antiplatelet effect when using regional analgesia.

ponstel dosing 2016-02-24

Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) is a biotransformation phase II enzyme responsible for the metabolic inactivation of thiopurine drugs. The present study was carried out to investigate the inhibitory potential of 15 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on human TPMT activity in vitro. TPMT activity was measured in pooled human erythrocytes in the absence and presence of various NSAIDs using the previously published high-performance liquid chromatography-UV method. To determine the inhibition type and K(i) value for each compound, we performed kinetic analysis at five different inhibitor concentrations close to the IC(50) value obtained in preliminary experiments. Naproxen (K(i) = 52 microM), mefenamic acid (K(i) = 39 microM), and tolfenamic acid (K(i) = 50 microM) inhibited TPMT activity in a noncompetitive manner. The estimated K(i) values for the inhibition of TPMT by ketoprofen (K(i) = 172 microM) and ibuprofen (K(i) = 1043 microM) indicated that the propionic acid derivatives were relatively weak inhibitors of TPMT. Our results suggest that buy ponstel coadministration of thiopurines and various NSAIDs may lead to drug interactions.

ponstel s syrup 2017-08-13

Dill was as effective as mefenamic acid in reducing the pain severity in primary dysmenorrhea. Further studies regarding side-effects of buy ponstel Dill and its interactivity are recommended.

ponstel capsules 2016-03-23

The method established in this study is useful for identifying buy ponstel drugs with inhibitory potential against human UGT2B7. Among the nine NSAIDs investigated, mefenamic acid had the strongest inhibitory effect on UGT2B7-catalyzed AZTG in HLM. Thus, caution might be exercised when mefenamic acid is coadministered with drugs possessing UGT2B7 as a main elimination pathway.

ponstel medication cost 2017-10-01

The study of the effect of sodium mefenaminate on radiation resistance of rats yielded positive results. Clinical investigations showed mefenamic acid to decrease the activity of cathepsin D-like protease in colonic cancer tissue. The acid failed to affect the proteolytic buy ponstel activity of the normal mucosa. It revealed an immunomodulating activity and influenced the hemostatic system which usually manifested itself in amelioration of hypercoagulation.

ponstel 250 tablets 2015-05-09

At 5 years post-randomisation, 424 (74%) women provided data. While the difference between LNG-IUS and usual treatment groups was not significant (3.9 points; 95% confidence interval = -0.6 to 8.3; P = 0.09), MMAS scores improved significantly in both groups from baseline (mean increase, 44.9 and 43.4 points, Singulair 300 Mg respectively; P<0.001 for both comparisons). Rates of surgical intervention were low in both groups (surgery-free survival was 80% and 77%; hazard ratio 0.90; 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.31; P = 0.6). There was no difference in generic quality of life, sexual activity scores, or serious adverse events.

ponstel capsule 2016-07-10

Mefenamic acid (MA) has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. Available conventional dosage forms are capsules and film-coated tablets. No commercial sustained release preparation of MA exists in the market. The usual oral dose is 250 or 500 mg and reported half-life is 2 h. Sodium alginate (NaAL) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polysaccharide extracted from marine brown algae. It has Motrin 250 Mg the ability to form a water-insoluble gel with a bivalent metal ions as calcium. Therefore, NaAL has been studied for preparing sustained release formulations in pharmaceutical technology. In this study, tablet formulations containing different ratios of NaAL and calcium gluconate (CaGL) were prepared by direct compression method. In vitro release studies were carried out using USP 23 basket method and release data were kinetically evaluated. According to release studies, it can be emphasized that NaAL and CaGL can be used for design of sustained release preparation of MA.

ponstel cost 2016-11-23

Two authors independently abstracted Epivir Generic Name data from relevant trials, and we entered data into RevMan for analysis.

ponstel generic name 2015-03-25

The aim of this Benicar Dosage Sizes investigation was to study the inhibition of 11 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the human liver phenol sulfotransferases (HL-PST) and catechol sulfotransferase (HL-CST).

ponstel buy 2016-07-24

The sensitivity analysis revealed that the biodegradation rate in the sewage treatment plant and the excretion rate of pharmaceuticals were the most important factors influencing the emission rate. The uncertainty of the emission estimate was found to increase with increases in the value of the emission estimate. Once the intrinsic properties of a pharmaceutical (excretion rate, biodegradation rate, and removal rate by sludge separation) were given, the patient behavior parameters, such Zetia Medication Class as participation in a Take-back program and rate of administration, were determined to have a strong influence on the emission estimate. In our study, the predicted and measured concentrations agreed with each other within one order of magnitude. Several management implications were drawn from the analysis of model outcomes.

ponstel dosage 2016-07-09

New non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIAs) were tested on lens protein-, endotoxin- and interleukin-1-induced ocular inflammation. It was found that most NSAIAs, including REV 5901, mefenamic acid, indomethacin, CK-17 and CK-102, inhibited lens protein-induced inflammation. Endotoxin induced inflammation indirectly through the release of IL-1 which was inhibited by fewer agents, including CK-17, CK-102 and prednisolone. However, the direct effect of IL-1 can only be suppressed by CK-17 and prednisolone. Therefore, CK-17 could become an important NSAIA which acts Motrin Jr Tablets similarly to corticosteroids yet produces no steroidal side effects. CK-17 was different from most NSAIAs as it affected little, if any, arachidonate metabolism. Most importantly, CK-17 was found to be 2-fold more potent than prednisolone in inhibiting IL-1-induced uveitis, while no side effects were noted at doses tested to date.

ponstel and alcohol 2017-05-31

The design, preparation and performance for novel UV-light absorbing (room-temperature) ionic liquid matrices (UV-RTILMs) for matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported. A series of UV-RTILMs was prepared by ultrasonication of equimolar of acid (mefenamic acid) and bases (aniline (ANI), pyridine (Pyr), dimethyl aniline (DMANI) and 2-methyl picoline (2-P)). The UV-RTILMs have not only significant absorbance at the desired wavelength (337 nm of the N2 Laser), but also have available protons that can easily undergo proton transfer reactions to ionize the target molecules. The novel UV-RTILMs have the ability to ionize different and wide classes of compounds such as drugs, carbohydrate, and amino acids. The new UV-RTILMs series have been successfully and selectively applied for biosensing the lysates of pathogenic bacteria in the presence of the cell macromolecules. A new strategy for biosensing pathogens was presented via sensing the pathogens lysate in the cell suspension. The new materials can effectively detect the bacterial toxins without separation or any pretreatment. They offered excellent ionization of labile oligosaccharides with protonated peaks. They could significantly enhance the analyte signals, produce homogeneous spotting, reducing spot-to-spot variation, excellent vacuum stability, higher ion peak intensity, and wide application possibility. The physical parameters such as molar refractivity, molar volume, parachor, surface tension, density and polarizability were calculated and tabulated. The new UV-RTILMs could offer excellent reproducibility and great repeatability and they are promising matrices for wide applications on MALDI-MS.

ponstel 250 capsule 2015-04-26

An 18-month-old previously healthy child had an ointment applied topically to a diaper rash by his mother, consisting of a single pump of a prescription ointment that her husband received from a compounding pharmacy for neck pain. Approximately 20 minutes later, when the child had been put down for a nap, he had gasping respiration but was otherwise unresponsive. Emergency medical services was called, and the child was unresponsive. In the ED, vital signs were pulse of 57 beats/min, blood pressure 74/35 mm Hg, respiratory rate 21 breaths/min, and O2 saturation 98% on a nonrebreather. Fingerstick glucose was 105 mg/dL. In the ED, physical examination was significant for unresponsiveness, pinpoint pupils, and hyporeflexia. The patient's mental status continued to deteriorate with depressed respirations, and he was intubated. Laboratory results were noncontributory. Electrocardiogram revealed only sinus bradycardia. The patient was transported to a pediatric intensive care unit. He did well over the next several hours with supportive care and had return to normal vital signs over the following 12 hours. He was extubated the following morning without problems. Blood taken at the time of ED presentation had a serum clonidine level of 9.2 ng/mL (reference range, 0.5-4.5 ng/mL) and a norketamine level of 41 ng/mL (reporting limit, >20 ng/mL).

ponstel suspension 2015-03-19

Poor removal of many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in sewage treatment leads to their discharge into the receiving waters, where they may cause negative effects. Their elimination from the water column depends of several processes, including photochemical and biological degradation. We have focused this research on comparing the degradation kinetics of a wide number (n=33) of frequently detected PPCPs considering different types of water, pH and solar irradiation. For those compounds that were susceptible of photodegradation, their rates (k) varied from 0.02 to 30.48h(-1) at pH7, with the lowest values for antihypertensive and psychiatric drugs (t1/2>1000h). Modification of the pH turned into faster disappearance of most of the PPCPs (e.g., k=0.072 and 0.066h(-1) for atenolol and carbamazepine at pH4, respectively). On the other hand, biodegradation was enhanced by marine bacteria in many cases, for example for mefenamic acid, caffeine and triclosan (k=0.019, 0.01 and 0.04h(-1), respectively), and was faster for anionic surfactants. Comparing photodegradation and biodegradation processes, hydrochlorothiazide and diclofenac, both not biodegradable, were eliminated exclusively by irradiation (t1/2=0.15-0.43h and t1/2=0.14-0.17h, respectively). Salicylic acid and phenylbutazone were efficiently photo (t1/2<3h) and biodegraded (t1/2=116-158h), whereas some compounds such as ibuprofen, carbamazepine and atenolol had low degradation rates by any of the processes tested (t1/2=23-2310h), making then susceptible to persist in the aquatic media.

ponstel drug interactions 2017-06-22

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products are an emerging class of environmental pollutants. Photolysis is expected to be a major loss process for many of these compounds in surface waters, including the common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug mefenamic acid. The direct photolysis solar quantum yield of mefenamic acid was observed to be 1.5+/-0.3x10(-4). Significant photosensitization was observed in solutions of Suwanee River fulvic acid and Mississippi River water, as well as for the model photosensitization compounds 3'-methoxyacetophenone, 2-acetonaphthone and perinaphthenone. Quenching, sparging and light-filtering experiments suggested a direct reaction of mefenamic acid with excited triplet-state dissolved organic matter as the major photosensitization process. The persistence of the model photosensitizer suggests that the photosensitization by perinaphthenone occurs either by triplet-energy transfer or an electron transfer followed by rapid regeneration of the sensitizer. Due to its low quantum yield, the loss of mefenamic acid in sunlit natural waters is expected to depend on both direct and indirect photodegradation processes.

ponstel dosage dysmenorrhea 2016-04-12

The putative modulatory role of central prostaglandins (PGs) on peripheral inflammation has been explored by investigating the effects of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered PGD2, the major rodent brain PG, hydrocortisone, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor, and the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors, paracetamol and mefenamic acid, on carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in rats. PGD2 produced a dose-related inflammation-augmenting effect, whereas hydrocortisone and the PG synthesis inhibitors, paracetamol and mefenamic acid, induced attenuation of the peripheral oedema. These findings confirm an earlier report from this laboratory which had indicated that central PGs may modulate peripheral inflammation and that conventional anti-inflammatory agents exert at least part of their effect by inhibiting central PG synthesis.

ponstel tablets 2016-05-19

RESULTS from this study suggest that mefenamic acid as with other NSAIDs capable of producing nephrotoxicity. Therefore, the study of the exact mechanism of mefenamic acid induced severe nephrotoxicity can be done in this animal model.

ponstel syrup 2015-04-05

Interaction of various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and quinolone antimicrobials with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-Cl- channel complex was investigated in rat dissociated hippocampal CA1 neurons by using whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. Neither NSAIDs nor quinolones alone affected the GABA-induced chloride current (ICl). In the presence of norfloxacin (NFLX), one of quinolones, some NSAIDs suppressed the GABA response in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory potency of NSAIDs was 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPA), a metabolite of fenbufen much greater than indomethacin = naproxen greater than mefenamic acid greater than diclofenac greater than piroxicam. The results suggest that fenbufen, indomethacin and naproxen in the presence of quinolones may induce the epileptogenic neurotoxicities via pharmacological interaction with GABAA receptor.