paxil 5mg tablet
Rats pretreated with tranylcypromine and given clomipramine, developed head and body twitches, forelimb flexor-extensor movements and wet dog shakes, phenomena which failed to develop when pretreatment incorporated p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) but were unabated when this included alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (AMPT). Locomotor activity, itself enhanced by tranylcypromine, was further and significantly elevated compared to saline, by clomipramine or imipramine in grouped rats (n = 3) but not in single or paired rats; desipramine lacked such action. This effect of clomipramine was prevented when PCPA was incorporated into the pretreatment and that of imipramine by including PCPA or AMPT. Brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) A inhibition was 92% and that of MAO B, 80%. Cortical hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenaline concentrations as well as hypothalamic 5-HT, were significantly elevated by tranylcypromine, as was dopamine in the striatum, nucleus accumbens and tuberculum olfactorium. Hyperthermia developed in tranylcypromine pretreated rats given paroxetine or fluoxetine. Myoclonic phenomena were elicited by paroxetine, fluoxetine, clomipramine or imipramine in nialamide pretreated rats but these were less intense than in rats pretreated with phenelzine or tranylcypromine. Fatalities were fewer than in rats pretreated with tranylcypromine or phenelzine. Brain MAO A inhibition was 92% and that of MAO B, 69%.
There is some empirical evidence that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduce suicidal ideas faster than other antidepressants. These findings are well in line with the theory of a serotonergic hypofunction in suicidal patients. To test this hypothesis the data of a 6-week double-blind control-group study comparing paroxetine versus amitriptyline were analyzed with respect to suicidality. The global antidepressive efficacy was comparable under dosages of 30 mg paroxetine or 150 mg amitriptyline per day. A differentiated analysis failed to confirm the hypothesis of a faster reduction of suicidal cognitions by paroxetine.
paxil cr dosage
As adults age, many changes in functioning occur, and dementia and/or depression may develop. Medications used to manage dementia and depression include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The challenge for nurses is recognizing which behaviors, signs, and symptoms are the result of the dementia or depression and which are the result of the drug therapy. The purpose of this article is to present information to increase awareness of the complexities of care for older adults with dementia and/or depression and identify possible implications for practicing nurses.
paxil 50 mg
Both enantiomers abolished the acute MDMA-induced hyperthermia and attenuated the subsequent neurotoxic loss of 5-HT, 5-HIAA and [3H]-paroxetine binding. When rats given the enantiomer plus MDMA were warmed to keep their rectal temperature elevated to near that of animals given only MDMA, the neuroprotective effect of (S)-(-)-AR-A008055 was still seen, while the effect of (R)-(+)-AR-A008055 was abolished. Protection was also seen when (S)-(-)-AR-A008055 (50 mg/kg) was given, a dose which produced only a modest attenuation of MDMA-induced hyperthermia.
paxil brand name
Numerous attempts have been made to develop suitable radiolabeled tracers for positron emission tomography or single photon emission computed tomography imaging of the serotonin transporter (SERT), but most often, negative outcomes are reported. The aim of this study is to define characteristics of a good SERT radioligand and to investigate species differences. We examined seven different selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and that except for one all have been previously tested as emission tomography ligands. The outcome of the ligands as emission tomography tracers was compared in relation with receptor density (Bmax) and/or ligand affinity (Kd) in rat and monkey cerebrum and cerebellum (reference region) membranes. [3H]-(S)-Citalopram and [3H]-(+)-McN5652 display statistically significantly lower affinity, whereas [3H]paroxetine displays statistically significantly higher affinity for SERT in monkey cortex when compared with the rat cerebrum. The affinity of [3H]MADAM, [123I]ADAM, and [11C]DASB for SERT obtained with rat cerebrum and monkey cortex are similar. In monkey cortex, Kd and Bmax could not be determined with [3H]fluoxetine. Of the seven SSRIs, [3H]-(S)-citalopram, [3H]MADAM, and [11C]DASB displayed significant specific binding to SERT in monkey cerebellum, with Bmax cortex:cerebellum ratios being 17, 3, and 4, respectively. In rat brain tissue the ratios were 12, 6, and 3, respectively. In conclusion, it can be estimated that imaging of the human SERT in a high-density region requires radioligands with Kd values between 0.03 and a maximum of 0.3 nM (at 37 degrees C). The differential specific cerebellar binding raises the question of the suitability of cerebellum as a reference region for nonspecific binding.
paxil 25 mg
26 suicides and 330 episodes of self-harm were identified within 120 days of an antidepressant prescription. On univariate analysis the association, expressed as OR (95% CI), between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and self harm and suicide were 2.26 (1.27-4.76) and 1.92 (0.77-4.83), respectively. When corrected for the confounding effects of age, gender and depression/suicidal ideation there was an association between SSRIs and self harm, OR 1.66 (95% CI 1.23-2.23), but not for suicide, 1.28 (0.38-4.35). Paroxetine was a significant risk factor for suicide on univariate analysis, 4.23 (1.19-14.95), but not when corrected for age, gender and depression/suicidal ideation, 2.76 (0.30-24.87).
paxil depression medicine
An open, non-comparative 7 week study entered 60 patients (mean age 36.6 +/- 3.22 years) with panic disorders and agoraphobias with panic disorders. Paroxetin was given in a single daily dose 20-60 mg/day in the morning. The results were assessed by Hamilton and Sihan scales, scale of clinical impression, by reduction of panic attacks.
paxil typical dosage
Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients have an increased risk for depression. Despite the high potential for drug-drug interactions, limited data on the combined use of antidepressants and antiretrovirals are available. Theoretically, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors may inhibit CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of paroxetine. We wanted to determine the effect of fosamprenavir-ritonavir on paroxetine pharmacokinetics and vice versa and to evaluate the safety of the combination. Group A started with 20 mg paroxetine every day for 10 days; after a wash-out period of 16 days, subjects received paroxetine (20 mg every day) plus fosamprenavir-ritonavir (700/100 mg twice a day) from days 28 to 37. Group B received the regimens in reverse order. On days 10 and 37, pharmacokinetic curves were recorded. Twenty-six healthy subjects (18 females, 8 males) were included. Median (range) age and weight were 44.4 (18.2 to 64.3) years and 68.8 (51.0 to 89.4) kg. Three subjects were excluded (two because of adverse events; one for nonadherence). Addition of fosamprenavir-ritonavir to paroxetine resulted in a significant decrease in paroxetine exposure: the geometric mean ratios (90% confidence intervals) of paroxetine plus fosamprenavir-ritonavir to paroxetine alone were 0.45 (0.41 to 0.49) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24)), 0.49 (0.45 to 0.53) for the maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (C(max)), and 0.75 (0.71 to 0.80) for the apparent elimination half-life (t(1/2)). The free fraction of paroxetine showed a median (interquartile range) increase of 30% (18 to 42%) after the addition of fosamprenavir-ritonavir. The AUC(0-12), C(max), C(min), and t(1/2) of amprenavir and ritonavir were similar to those of historical controls. No serious adverse events occurred. Fosamprenavir-ritonavir reduced total paroxetine exposure by 55%. This is partly explained by protein displacement of paroxetine. We think that this interaction is clinically relevant and that titration to a higher dose of paroxetine may be necessary to accomplish the needed antidepressant effect.
paxil 10mg reviews
The cumulative percentage of responders receiving milnacipran reached over 80% after 4 weeks, but it did reach this level for fluvoxamine or paroxetine until after 6 weeks.
paxil online pharmacy
To test the hypothesis that in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), the response for specific Hamilton Depression Rating Scale items will differ for duloxetine compared with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and that patterns of response will differ based on symptom severity at baseline.
A solid state electrochemical method for screening different families of adulterant chemicals illegally added to commercial phytotherapuetic formulations is described. The proposed method, based on the voltammetry of microparticles approach, permits a fast and sensitive way to distinguish between anorexics (amfepramone, fenproporex, sibutramine), benzozodiazepinic anxiolytics (clonazepam, flurazepam, alprazolam, midazolam, medazepam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam), antidepressants (bupropione, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine), diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide, chlortalidone, amiloride, spironolactone), and hypoglycemics (glimepiride, chlorpropamide, glibenclamide) based on characteristic voltammetric signals recorded on solid micro- or nanosamples attached to graphite electrodes immersed into aqueous electrolytes.
paxil 70 mg
All cases of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) involving sexual disorders, spontaneously reported to the French Pharmacovigilance Database from 1 January 1985 to December 2009, were reviewed. Cases of sexual disorders in SRI users were described. We calculated the rate of reported sexual disorders as a percentage of the total ADRs reported for each drug. The association between reported cases and the use of SRIs was assessed using reporting odds ratios (ROR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs).
paxil dose reduction
The majority of opioid dependent patients suffer from various psychiatric and somatic comorbid diseases like mood and anxiety disorders, psychotic diseases, personality disorders, HIV infection, Hepatitis B and C. If medical treatment is needed, grouping active substances to FDA Pregnancy Categories (A, B, C, D or X) may be helpful. The majority of substances reported here only fulfill the FDA-categories C or D, which means that they could have teratogenic effects, but with probably different rank order. First of all, referring to mood, personality and anxiety disorders, the focus should be laid on non-pharmacological treatment by offering psychotherapeutic and supporting psychosocial interventions to the patients. However, opioid dependent pregnant patients who suffer from severe diseases such as psychosis, bipolar affective disorder or severe depression, may need psychoactive medication like antipsychotics, antidepressants or mood stabilizers to prevent them from harm caused by psychotic ideas and actions and/or suicidality. However these medications may comprise fetal risks, especially when taken together, and therefore should only be used when benefit and risks are considered together with patients and their relatives. It is important to avoid acute or renewed psychiatric decompensation. We present the current differentiated knowledge for therapy of opioid dependent patients with antipsychotics, antidepressants (e.g. higher fetal risk in case of treatment with fluoxetine and paroxetine) or mood stabilizers. All of them should only be used after considering benefit and risks. During pregnancy, there should not be switched between different antidepressant drugs. Referring mood stabilizers, the intake of valproic acid should be avoided in pregnancy or at least, dosage should be kept as low as possible since severe teratogenetic effects are known. In addition the specific drug treatment of HIV and hepatitis B during pregnancy is described. During childbirth HIV-infected patients should receive zidovudine intravenously to prevent vertical transmission. Co-infection with hepatitis C cannot be treated during pregnancy, since interferons are associated with a severe risk of fetal malformations and ribavirin has teratogenic effects; for this reason interferon therapy should be started after delivery.
paxil 40 mg
In a previous investigation, we observed altered expression of sepiapterin reductase (SPR) in cultured neural cells chronically exposed to paroxetine. SPR is an enzyme, which catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). BH4 is an essential cofactor for synthesis of many neurotransmitters including serotonin. Given the pivotal role of SPR in neurotransmitter production, we sought to test the hypothesis that SPR would influence susceptibility to mood disorders and patient response to antidepressants.
paxil user reviews
Previously it was found that both acute and chronic antidepressant pre-treatment enhanced the locomotor hyperactivity induced by a challenge injection of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (MK-801). In the present study the effects of acute and chronic antidepressant administration on phencyclidine (PCP)-induced locomotor hyperactivity were examined. Phencyclidine (PCP), a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist increased locomotor activity in rats. Fluoxetine given acutely increased and prolonged the PCP-induced locomotor hyperactivity, while citalopram, sertraline and paroxetine had no effect on the PCP-induced behavioural effect. Repeated treatment with fluoxetine, citalopram and paroxetine increased the PCP-induced locomotor hyperactivity. In contrast, chronic sertraline administration attenuated the locomotor response to a PCP challenge. These results indicate that these antidepressants which are presumed to have a similar pharmacological profile, differ in their ability to alter PCP-induced hyperactivity. Whether these differences have any bearing on the therapeutic or adverse effects of these drugs remains to be shown.
paxil 80mg dosage
Ten publications, comprising a total of 2,046 patients, evaluated the efficacy of four SSRIs (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline and citalopram) in child and adolescent depression. It is noted that an additional 6 trials (with a total of 1,234 patients) were not reported by the industry because of a lack of efficacy or problematic side effects, including suicidal behaviors. Meta-analyses revealed no data supporting the use of SSRIs, except for fluoxetine. To formulate recommendations for clinical practice, it is necessary to examine specific issues such as (1) the link between SSRIs, depression and suicidal risk; (2) SSRI age-related specific effects, and (3) the high placebo response in child and adolescent depression.
lowering paxil dose
The effect of sibutramine and dexfenfluramine on 5-HT re-uptake sites, labelled with [(3)H]paroxetine, have been determined in various rat brain regions. In addition, the ability of fluoxetine and sibutramine to protect against the changes in [(3)H]paroxetine binding produced by dexfenfluramine was examined. Sibutramine (9 mg/kg, p.o.) and dexfenfluramine (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered twice daily (before 09.00 h and after 16.00 h) for four days, followed by a 14 day drug-free period. In the protection studies, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and sibutramine (9 mg/kg, p.o.) were given 1 h prior to dexfenfluramine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) using the same dosing regimen as described above. Sibutramine (9 mg/kg, p.o.; three times its ED(50) to inhibit food intake at 2 h) had no significant effect on the number or affinity of 5-HT re-uptake sites the brain regions studied. In contrast, dexfenfluramine at an equivalent dose (3 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased the number of 5-HT re-uptake sites in frontal cortex (by 35%), hippocampus (by 47%) and hypothalamus (by 27%). This effect was dose-dependent with marked decreases (by 58-84%) in the number of sites following 10 mg/kg, p.o. These effects were not associated with changes in binding affinity. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) completely blocked the effect of dexfenfluramine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) without having any significant effect alone. Sibutramine (9 mg/kg, p.o.) also blocked the effects of dexfenfluramine, although the reversal was only partial in frontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. Thus sibutramine, unlike dexfenfluramine, does not alter brain 5-HT re-uptake sites. Furthermore, sibutramine and fluoxetine protect against the deficits in 5-HT re-uptake sites produced by dexfenfluramine. These data provide further evidence that sibutramine is a 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor and it does not have neurotoxic potential.
paxil 20 mg
Seventeen (45%) subjects had "much" or "very much" improvement and achieved at least a 40% decrease in their total Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score. Responders had lower obsessive-compulsive scores on the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, had a lower checking score on the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, were less likely to have had prior drug therapy, and in general suffered more obsessive-compulsive symptoms. They were significantly less likely to have hoarding obsessions and corresponding compulsions. The latter finding was confirmed using multiple regression analysis.
paxil 15 mg
The agents p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) and p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) deplete brain serotonin (5-HT) levels by two different mechanisms; PCPA inhibits the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase, whereas PCA has a neurotoxic action on certain 5-HT neurons. The parameters of [3H]paroxetine binding to homogenates prepared from the cerebral cortex of rats treated with PCPA, PCA, or saline; vehicle were investigated. The tissue concentrations of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) were also determined by HPLC in the same brain samples. After PCPA treatment, neither the maximum binding capacity (Bmax) nor the dissociation constant (KD) of [3H]paroxetine for the 5-HT uptake recognition site differed from controls despite a substantial reduction in the concentration of 5-HT and 5-HIAA. In contrast, significant changes in both the Bmax and KD values were observed in the cerebral cortex of rats treated with PCA. Furthermore, [3H]paroxetine binding and tissue concentrations of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured in the following different regions of the rat brain: cingulate, parietal, and visual cortical areas; dorsal and ventral hippocampus; rostral and caudal halves of neostriatum; ventral mesencephalic tegmentum; and midbrain raphe nuclei region after administration of PCPA, PCA, or saline vehicle. There was an excellent correlation between regional 5-HT levels and specific [3H]paroxetine binding in control and PCA-treated rats although this correlation was lost after PCPA treatment. Under these conditions, the 5-HT innervation remains unchanged whereas the concentration of 5-HT and 5-HIAA is greatly reduced. Thus, [3H]paroxetine binding appears to provide a reliable marker of 5-HT innervation density within the mammalian CNS.
paxil 10mg medication
Pharmacy claims data from a commercial managed care health plan covering 19,000 lives and national drug data were used to compile a list of frequently prescribed medications. Excluding medications in which packaging, formulation, and potential adverse pharmacologic outcomes prohibited splitting, we performed a cost analysis of medications amenable to splitting.
Sexual dysfunction is a common adverse effect of antidepressant treatment. Physicians should monitor their patients for antidepressant-induced sexual adverse effects, as these may affect compliance with therapy and ultimate treatment success. In addition to the consequences for patient health and well-being, managed-care organizations should be concerned with sexually related adverse effects of antidepressants, insofar as additional healthcare resources may be required to treat depressed patients in whom these adverse effects arise.
paxil maximum dosage
Since 2003, fewer children and adolescents have been prescribed antidepressants in primary care. However, fluoxetine and non-SSRI antidepressant prevalences have not risen, implying that they are not prescribed as alternative treatments. This study shows that the CSM advice has had a significant effect in reversing the rising prevalence of antidepressant prescribing to children and adolescents in primary care.
paxil 30mg generic
We examined the role of 5-hydroxytryptamine(2C) (5-HT(2C)) receptors in marble-burying behavior in mice. When administered alone, the selective 5-HT(2C) agonist WAY161503 (3 mg/kg) inhibited marble-burying behavior. Moreover, the selective 5-HT(2C) antagonist SB242084 (3 mg/kg) reversed the inhibition of marble-burying behavior by 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) (1 mg/kg) or WAY161503 (3 mg/kg). Similarly, SB242084 (1 mg/kg) reversed the inhibition of marble-burying behavior by fluvoxamine (30 mg/kg) or paroxetine (3 mg/kg). These results suggest that 5-HT(2C) receptors play a role in marble-burying behavior in mice.
paxil usual dosage
Depression is a serious and widespread emotional disorder among the elderly. This study compared the efficacy and safety of bupropion sustained release (SR) with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine in the treatment of major depression in elderly outpatients.
paxil 30 mg
A total of 100 normally potent men suffering from PE were enrolled in a randomized single-blinded comparative study of fluoxetine, paroxetine and escitalopram Patients were randomized into 3 treatment groups. Group 1 comprised 33 men who received fluoxetine 20 mg daily, group 2 comprised 37 men who received escitalopram 10 mg and group 3 comprised 30 men who received paroxetine 20 mg daily. All drug regimens were given in early morning dose and continued for 4 weeks.
paxil lowering dosage
Our results suggest that SPS can reproduce behavioral alteration similar to that observed in patients with PTSD, and this elevated fear response can be alleviated by the chronic administration of PRX at doses producing clinically relevant serum concentrations.
A .6 mg/kg dose of methylphenidate improves stopping performance and directly targets a stop-related brain mechanism that has been reported before to be compromised in a group of ADHD patients. This mechanism was not influenced by acute serotonergic reuptake inhibition.
paxil low dose
Sixty-five patients prescribed benzodiazepines from prescription day 1 were analyzed for the primary outcome. The percentage of benzodiazepine users was significantly lower in the mirtazapine than in the SSRIs group at weeks 6, 12, and 24 (21.4 vs. 81.8 %; 11.1 vs. 85.7 %, both P < 0.001; and 12.5 vs. 81.8 %, P = 0.0011, respectively). No between-group difference was observed in HDRS score changes. Serum proBDNF levels were significantly decreased (χ(2) = 8.5, df = 3, P = 0.036) and serum mature BDNF levels were temporarily significantly decreased (F = 3.5, df = 2.4, P = 0.027) in the responders of both groups at week 24.
paxil generic equivalent
The syntheses of some 3-substituted-2-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-4-phenylquinolines are reported. The title compounds were tested for their potential activities on 5-HT receptor subtypes and 5-HT uptake site; compounds 4b-d showed micromolar affinity for 5-HT3 and 5-HT uptake site.
paxil high dosage
Data from 22 randomized, controlled trials comparing escitalopram with SSRIs, SNRIs, or placebo in the treatment of adult MDD or GAD were included. Both last observation carried forward (LOCF) and repeated measurements (MMRM) were used to analyze the sleep item of the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) or Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) after 8 weeks of treatment. Sleep-related treatment-emergent adverse events were also compared across groups.