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Omnicef (Cefdinir)
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Omnicef

Generic Omnicef is effective against susceptible bacteria causing infections of the middle ear (otitis media), tonsils (tonsillitis ), throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis), lungs (pneumonia), and skin and other soft tissues.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Amoxil, Bactrim, Ampicillin, Augmentin, Biaxin

 

Also known as:  Cefdinir.

Description

Generic Omnicef is a semi-synthetic (partially man-made) oral antibiotic in the cephalosporin family of antibiotics. Like other cephalosporins cefdinir stops bacteria from multiplying by preventing bacteria from forming walls that surround them. The walls are necessary to protect bacteria from their environment and to keep the contents of the bacterial cell together. Bacteria cannot survive without a cell wall. Generic Omnicef is active against a very wide spectrum of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Streptococcus pyogenes (the cause of strep throat); Hemophilus influenzae; Moraxella catarrhalis; E. coli ; Klebsiella; and Proteus mirabilis. It is not active against Pseudomonas. Therapeutic uses of cefdinir include otitis media (infections of the middle ear), infections of soft tissues, and respiratory tract infections.

Generic name of Generic Omnicef is Cefdinir.

Omnicef is also known as Cefdinir, Sefdin, Adcef.

Brand name of Generic Omnicef is Omnicef.

Dosage

Generic Omnicef is taken once or twice daily, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.

The capsules or suspension can be taken with or without food.

Patients with advanced renal disease may need to take lower doses to prevent accumulation of cefdinir since it is eliminated from the body by the kidneys.

For adult infections the usual dose is 300 mg every 12 hours or 600 mg per day for 5-10 days depending on the nature and severity of the infection.

The recommended dose for children 6 months to 12 years of age is 7 mg/kg every 12 hours or 14 mg/kg per day for 5-10 days depending on the infection.

For most infections once daily dosing is as effective as twice daily dosing, though once daily dosing has not been evaluated for the treatment of skin infections or pneumonia.

Do not stop taking Generic Omnicef suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Omnicef and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Omnicef are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not use Generic Omnicef if you are allergic to Generic Omnicef components.

Do not take Generic Omnicef while you are pregnant or have nurseling.

Try to be careful with Generic Omnicef usage in case of having asthma, emphysema or bronchitis along with asthma, certain heart problems (e.g., congestive heart failure, cardiogenic shock, heart block or any conduction or sinus node problems, very slow heartbeat), untreated blood mineral imbalance (electrolyte imbalance), very low blood pressure, kidney or liver problems.

Avoid alcohol.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Omnicef taking suddenly.

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Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are often simultaneously detected from many cases of non-bullous impetigo with atopic dermatitis.

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We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations of rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefdinir, plus a combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefdinir by broth microdilution for mainly wound isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. E. coli and K. pneumoniae susceptibilities increased by combining amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefdinir.

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This was an investigator-blind trial in young children 6-24 months old with no history of recurrent AOM who were randomly assigned to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (80 mg/kg/day amoxicillin) or cefdinir (14 mg/kg/day), both in two divided doses. The diagnosis of AOM was based on specific clinical criteria by validated otoscopists at two AOM research centres. The outcome measure for clinical cure was resolution of all symptoms and signs of AOM except for persistence of middle-ear effusion at test-of-cure (TOC) 11-14 days after initiation of antibiotic treatment. Clinical failure was defined as persistence of symptoms and signs of AOM and the need for additional antibiotic therapy. Subjects lost to follow up or who had not taken at least 80% of the prescribed medication were classified as having an indeterminate response. Compliance was monitored using Medical Electronic Monitoring System (MEMS) caps and antibiotic bottle volume measurement at the TOC visit. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the association of age with cure rate. Full interactions in terms of age with treatment were included to estimate any age gradient differential.

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Some antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations are able to alter bacterial surface structures and modulate adhesiveness by affecting the expression of microbial adhesins. An important mechanism of pulmonary defence against pathogens is SP-A, one of the proteins of the alveolar surfactant having opsonizing activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect that sub-inhibitory concentrations of different antibiotics and physiological concentrations of SP-A (1 and 5 microg/ml) could exert on the adherence of respiratory pathogens to the bronchial epithelial cell line, WI26VA4. Cefdinir and clarithromycin showed high efficacy, mainly at 1/2 MIC, in reducing the adherence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae strains to values lower or equal to 50% of the control; sparfloxacin showed the same effect on S. aureus and S. pneumoniae but teicoplanin only on S. pneumoniae. Other similar results were observed with netilmicin on Klebsiella pneumoniae (40%) and with cefepime and ciprofloxacin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (60%). Clarithromycin reduced the adherence of K. pneumoniae to 80% although it is not active against this strain. Adherence of the test strains was not modified by SP-A alone or in combination with any of the antibiotics used.

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The addition of antibiotics to therapeutic regimens for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition was associated with a significant improvement in recovery and mortality rates. (Funded by the Hickey Family Foundation and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01000298.).

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The effect of iron ion on the absorption of cefdinir, a new oral cephalosporin derivative, was evaluated in healthy male volunteers in a randomized three-way crossover study. The subjects received 200 mg cefdinir alone, 200 mg cefdinir and two tablets of iron ion concomitantly, and two tablets of iron ion preparation 3 hours after 200 mg cefdinir administration. The area under the concentration curve [AUC(0-12)] of cefdinir with concurrent iron was significantly smaller than that with cefdinir alone (mean +/- SD, 0.78 +/- 0.38 versus 10.3 +/- 1.35 micrograms.hr/ml). While there were no differences in AUC(0-3) between drug alone and drug with iron 3 hours later, the AUC(3-12) with delayed iron was significantly smaller than that of cefdinir alone (4.60 +/- 1.54 versus 8.03 +/- 1.72 micrograms.hr/ml). These findings suggest that the mechanism of interaction between cefdinir and iron ion preparation is the formation of a chelation complex and that this complex probably restricts gastrointestinal absorption.

omnicef pediatric dosage

Zosteriform cutaneous staphylococcal impetigo may be an example of Wolf's isotopic response in a cutaneous immunocompromised district.

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ss-Lactamase-producing (BLP) strains with the bla gene were identified in 16 (2.5%) of isolates. PGM strains were identified in 279 (43.3%) isolates. There were 242 (37.6%) PGM1-nonBLP strains with mutations in variable mutated locus of ftsI, 35 (5.4%) PGM2-nonBLP strains with mutations in highly mutated locus of ftsI, 2 (0.3%) BLP-PGM strains with mutations in ftsI and producing ss-lactamase. BLP-nonPGM strains producing ss-lactamase without mutations in ftsI were identified in 14 (2.2%) isolates. MICs of PGM1-nonBLP strains to AMP were 0.5-2.0 microg/ml. The MIC(90) of CDN to the PGM1-nonBLP strains was lowest (0.06 microg/ml). Proportions of PGM1-nonBLP strains rapidly increased during 1999 to 2002 and then decreased in 2003. In contrast, PGM2-nonBLP strains increased in 2003.

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In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the mosaic structure of penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2), composed of fragments of PBP 2 from Neisseria cinerea and Neisseria perflava, was significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, particularly oral cephalosporins. The aim of this study was to determine the affinity of mosaic PBP 2 for cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae.

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A high prevalence of penicillin-binding protein gene-mutated (PGM) strains of Haemophilus influenzae should be taken into account when treating otitis media in children.

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10 days of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid high dose and 5 days of cefdinir have been the preferred first- or second-line antibiotics for treatment of children with acute otitis media (AOM) since 2004, as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in the USA, but no head-to-head comparison study has been done.

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beta-Lactamase production was demonstrated in 67 (28.8%) of the H. influenzae isolates and varied by isolation site (38% acute otitis media, 36% sinusitis, and 21% lower respiratory tract infections). Regarding susceptibility, the rank order of the tested antimicrobials was ceftriaxone = cefixime (100%) > cefpodoxime (99.6%) > ceftibuten = amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (99.1%) > cefdinir (98.7%) > cefuroxime (97.4%) > cefprozil (93.1%) > cefaclor (92.3%) > amoxicillin (63.1%). The most active agents based on pharmacodynamic assessment (50% fT > MIC) were cefpodoxime (98.9%), ceftibuten (95.3%), and high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (90.4%). Several amoxicillin regimens also achieved a high likelihood of pharmacodynamic target attainment (91.8- 98.6%) when beta-lactamase-positive strains were excluded from the analysis.

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Clinical resolution of tympanic membrane signs and symptoms of AOM determined at end of therapy on Study Days 9 to 11.

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The aim of this study was to determine the current antimicrobial susceptibility of the principle anaerobic pathogens involved in dentoalveolar infection, to 13 oral antibiotics, and to assess the value of each antibiotic in the management of the infection.

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In this retrospective study (2003-2004), the authors compared the susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens to cefdinir and selected antibiotics in children who were evaluated for urinary tract infections in an urban tertiary academic pediatric emergency department. Pathogens (community acquired vs. opportunistic or nosocomial) were categorized as susceptible, indeterminate, or resistant on the basis of antibiotic susceptibility breakpoints. The frequency of these categorizations for individual drugs was determined.

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To examine the microbiologic and clinical efficacy of a 5-day course of cefdinir in the treatment of tympanocentesis-documented acute otitis media (AOM).

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Thirteen oral cephems (cefprozil, loracarbef, cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefetamet pivoxil, cefixime, cefdinir, cefadroxil, cephradine, cephalexin, cefatrizine, and cefroxadine), the cephalosporin class representative cephalothin, cefazolin, and the macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were compared for their antibacterial activities against 790 recent clinical isolates. These oral agents differed in their spectra and antibacterial potencies against community-acquired pathogens.

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The in vitro antibacterial activities of oral cephem antibiotics and ketolide telithromycin against major respiratory pathogens possessing beta-lactam-resistant mutations (within the pbp gene) and/or macrolide-resistant genes (erm and mef) were examined in clinical isolates collected at 66 institutes in all over the Japan between 2002 and 2003. Telithromycin showed the strongest antibacterial activity against methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without macrolide-resistant genes, such as ermA or ermC gene. All the cephem antibiotics showed potent antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.015 mg/L or lower. Cefdinir had a much higher MIC90 against genotypic penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (gPRSP) than cefditoren and cefcapene (8 mg/L cefdinir vs. 1 mg/L cefditoren and cefcapene). The majority of gPRSP harbored either ermB or mefA, and the antibacterial activity of telithromycin against these strains was decreased however some susceptibility was still sustained. Cefditoren exerted the strongest antibacterial activity against beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, with an MIC90 of 0.5 mg/L. These results underline the importance of checking the susceptibility and selecting an appropriate antibiotic against target pathogens.

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This comparative study determined the effect of blood on the antienterococcal activities of the newer cephalosporins. Standardized disk diffusion susceptibility tests were performed with 57 strains of enterococci (30 Enterococcus faecalis strains) on Mueller-Hinton agar with and without 5% sheep blood supplementation. Twelve cephalosporins representing five different structural groups (based on the 7-alpha position substitution) were tested. The greatest frequency of activity enhancement by blood was observed with cefdaloxime and cefdinir (7-alpha hydroxyimino group) against E. faecalis. Cephalosporins with a 7-alpha methoxyimino group (cefpodoxime, cefepime, and cefpirome) had marked increases in zone diameters (3 to > 9 mm) when tested with the blood supplement. Cephems with 7-alpha amino or carboxy substitutions did not demonstrate any enhanced activity. Awareness of this phenomenon is important for the interpretation and accuracy of cephalosporin susceptibility testing.

omnicef 300mg capsules

Children 6 months-4 years of age with AOM considered to be at risk for recurrent or persistent infection received large dosage cefdinir 25 mg/kg oral suspension once daily for 10 days. Children were evaluated pretreatment (day 1), on therapy (days 4-6), end of therapy (days 12-14) and at follow-up (days 25-28). All children had tympanocentesis at enrollment. In culture-positive children, tympanocentesis was repeated after 3-5 days (days 4-6) unless evidence of absence of middle ear effusion was documented.

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Cross-sectional survey.

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The Pharmacokinetics and clinical effectiveness of cefdinir (CFDN, FK482) were examined in pediatric patients. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretions of CFDN after administration of 5% fine granules were investigated on 4 children at a dose level of 6 mg/kg. Average plasma concentrations peaked at 4 hours after administration at 0.99 micrograms/ml with a half-life of 2.12 hours. The first 24-hour urinary recovery rates of CFDN in 3 children averaged 22.0%. 2. CFDN was given to 24 children (11 with pharyngitis, 3 with tonsillitis, 8 with scarlet fever, 1 with urinary tract infection and 1 with enteritis due to Salmonella); 15 were treated with 5% fine granules and 9 with 10% fine granules at daily doses of about 10 mg/kg in 2 to 3 divided portions. Clinical effects were excellent in 16, good in 7 and not evaluable in 1, with an overall efficacy rate of 100%. 3. Identified causative organisms were 12 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, 4 of Haemophilus influenzae, 5 of Haemophilus parainfluenzae, 1 of Escherichia coli, and 1 of Salmonella. Bacteriological effects were rated as "eradicated" for 19 strains, "unchanged" for 4 with an eradication rate of 82.6%. 4. No side effects were observed. As for abnormal laboratory test results, a transient decrease of white blood cells was observed in 1 patient. 5. The CFDN fine granule preparations were preferably accepted by the children. 6. The fine granular preparations of CFDN, a new oral antibiotic, were useful for the treatment of bacterial infections in pediatrics.

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Of 367 parents/guardians who completed the questionnaire, better ease of use (p = 0.009) and taste (p < 0.0001) were associated with cefdinir versus amoxicillin/clavulanate treatment, and children were significantly more likely to experience vomiting with amoxicillin/clavulanate (16% vs 8%; p = 0.016). Parents also reported that their children were much more likely to take all of their medication if receiving cefdinir (68% vs 53% for amoxicillin/clavulanate; p = 0.005). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in work/daycare missed.

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omnicef liquid storage 2015-03-26

To review the antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics, clinical buy omnicef efficacy, and tolerability of cefdinir, an expanded-spectrum oral cephalosporin.

omnicef dosing 2017-01-18

The synthesis of 7 beta-[(Z)-2-(aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-hydroxyiminoacetamido] cephalosporins (Ia-i) modified at the C-3 position of a cephem nucleus and the effect of the C-3 substituents on the antibacterial activity and oral absorbability are discussed. The cephems (Ie, h and i) having a C-3 substituent such as 1-propenyl, ethylthio and vinylthio group as well as FK482 (cefdinir) exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. However, those compounds showed poor absorption rate after oral administration in rats. It is concluded that the vinyl moiety at the 3-position is necessary to display fairly oral absorptivity in a series of 7 beta-[(Z)-(2- buy omnicef aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-hydroxyiminoacetamido]c eph ems.

omnicef 125 mg 2017-08-14

Cefdinir (CFDN) was administered to pediatric patients with acute infectious disease. A summary of the results obtained is as follows. 1. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined in a girl. In comparison to reported data in adults, Tmax was shorter, Cmax was slightly lower, and the plasma half life of CFDN was somewhat longer. 2. Clinical efficacy was studied in 11 children with acute tonsillitis (6 patients), scarlet fever (1 patient buy omnicef ), acute pharyngitis (1 patient), acute pneumonia (1 patient), acute otitis media (1 patient) and acute cervical lymphadenitis (1 patient). Responses to the treatment were excellent in 7 (63.6%) and good in 2 (18.2%). 3. No adverse reactions were noted in this study.

omnicef dosage calculator 2016-11-09

Although management of AOM without antibiotics has not increased after the publication of the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians clinical practice guideline, children who did not receive antibiotics were more likely to have mild infections. In accordance with the guideline, the prescribing of amoxicillin and analgesics has increased. Contrary to the guideline, the buy omnicef prescribing of amoxicillin/clavulanate has decreased, whereas the prescribing of cefdinir has increased.

omnicef elixir dosage 2016-01-19

We investigated the susceptibility to antibacterials, genotype of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes and macrolide resistant genes, and the serotypes against 377 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from medical facilities in Gifu and Aichi prefectures between June 2008 and April 2009. These results were compared with those against 160 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated in 2004. Referring to CLSI (M100-S17), the overall incidence of penicillin-susceptible (PSSP), penicillin-intermediate (PISP) and penicillin-resistant (PRSP) S. pneumoniae was 143 (38%), 185 (49%) and 49 (13%) strains, respectively. PISP and PRSP were isolated higher in the material of nasal cavity and throat, and PRSP was isolated higher in the area of Chuno district. The number of gPSSP with 3 normal PBP genes, gPISP with 1 or 2 normal PBP genes and gPRSP with 3 abnormal genes was 23 (6.1%), 173 (46%) and 181 (48%) strains, respectively. The isolates with no macrolide-resistant gene, only mefA, only ermB, and both mefA and ermB were 28 (7.4%), 138 (37%), 166 (44%) and 45 (12%). The prevalent pneumococcal serotypes were type 19 (92 strains; 24%), following by type 23 (60 strains; 16%) and type 6 (56 strains; 15%). The 80% of pneumococcal serotypes of PRSP were serotype 19 and 6. The MIC90 of each antibacterial was as follows; 0.1 microg/mL for imipenem, panipenem and garenoxacin, 0.2 microg/mL for moxifloxacin, 0.39 microg/mL buy omnicef for meropenem and tosufloxacin, 0.78 microg/ mL for amoxicillin, clavulanic acid/amoxicillin, cefditoren and cefcapene, 1.56 microg/mL for benzylpenicillin, piperacillin, cefteram and levofloxacin, 3.13 microg/mL for cefotiam, flomoxef and pazufloxacin, 6.25 microg/mL for cefdinir, 12.5 microg/mL for norfloxacin and minocycline, > 100 microg/mL for clarithromycin, and these MIC90s were about the same as those in 2004.

omnicef 300mg capsules 2016-05-16

A simple, fast, specific, stability-indicating, and precise reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of Cefdinir in its different dosage forms, i.e., capsules and suspensions. The method was developed and optimized by analyzing the placebo preparation, formulations, and degraded samples of the drug substance according to the International Conference on Harmonization. The proposed method can successfully separate the drug from degradation products formed under stress conditions along with pharmaceutical ingredients such as preservatives. The developed method was used successfully to determine Cefdinir in capsules and Insta-use suspensions. The developed method was found to be linear for a concentration range of 6-14 microg/mL. Average recoveries obtained with the method were 99.3 +/- 0.4 buy omnicef and 99.6 +/- 0.4% for Insta-use suspensions and capsules, respectively. The method was shown to be specific, precise, and robust.

omnicef 300 dosage 2015-11-27

L-084 (a prodrug of LJC 11,036 [L-036]) is a new oral carbapenem. Here we compared the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of L-036 with those of imipenem, faropenem, ceditoren-pivoxil, cefdinir, amoxicillin, and levofloxacin. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited of L-036 against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae including penicillin-resistant organisms, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae including ampicillin-resistant organisms, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis were equal to or less than 1 microg/ml. In pharmacokinetics studies of L-084 in lungs of mice, the maximum concentration in serum, half-life, and area under the concentration-time curve of this drug were 9.09 microg/g of tissue, 6.18 h, and 31.0 microg. h/ml, respectively. In murine respiratory infection models of penicillin-susceptible and -resistant S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, the efficacies of L-084 were better than those of reference drugs. Our results indicate that the in buy omnicef vitro high potency and good distribution in the lungs might be the underlying mechanisms of its efficacy in the murine model of pneumonia.

omnicef 600 mg 2015-02-10

With the exception of a few buy omnicef localized reports, resistance to moxifloxacin and other new fluoroquinolones in common respiratory pathogens is a rare occurrence, despite significant resistance to other compound classes. Surveillance will play a key role in tracking changes in fluoroquinolone susceptibility in European countries.

omnicef dosage 2015-12-28

LJC 11,036 is the active metabolite of L-084, a novel oral carbapenem that exhibits potent broad-spectrum activity. Antibacterial activities of LJC 11,036 against clinical isolates from respiratory infections, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 52), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 19), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 50), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 53), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 53), and from urinary-tract infections, such as Escherichia coli (n = 53) (MICs at which 90% of the isolates were inhibited [MIC(90)s], 0.1, buy omnicef . Moreover, against these bacterial species, except for H. influenzae, the MIC(90)s of LJC 11,036 were 4- to 512-fold lower than those of levofloxacin. LJC 11,036 showed bactericidal activity equal or superior to that of imipenem. Bactericidal activity against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) did not vary with the phase of growth. LJC 11,036 had potent activity against various beta-lactamase-producing strains, excluding carbapenemase producers. Against renal dehydropeptidase-I, LJC 11,036 was more stable than imipenem. Furthermore, LJC 11,036 produced in vitro postantibiotic sub-MIC effects against PRSP HSC-3 (6.0 h at one-fourth the MIC) and H. influenzae LJ5 (9.2 h at one-half the MIC). LJC 11,036 showed high binding affinities for PBP1A, -1B, -2A/2X, -2B, and -3 of PRSP and for PBP1B, -2, -3A, and -3B of H. influenzae.

omnicef and alcohol 2016-07-16

In order to investigate penicillin resistance (Pcr) in Streptococcus pneumoniae from clinical sources in Japan, a total 1,127 strains of S. pneumoniae was collected at random from 36 institutions participating to "Working group for Pcr S. pneumoniae" around the country in 1993-1994. These strains were isolated more frequently from sputum (38.2%), throat (31.4%), nasal discharge (16.4%), and otorrhea (5.7%). A small number of isolates from blood (19 strains; 1.8%), cerebrospinal fluid (11 strains; 1.0%), and pleural fluid (2 strains; 0.2%) were included respectively. Patients from whom S. pneumoniae was isolated have mostly been associated with children < or = 12 years of age and adults 60 < or = years olds. These isolates were tested for susceptibility to penicillin G, ampicillin, oxacillin, cefixime, cefdinir, imipenem, panipenem, erythromycin, clindamycin, minocycline, and vancomycin by an agar dilution method using Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with 10% sheep blood. Strains with the MICs > or = 0.125 micrograms/ml for penicillin G were defined as a Pc resistance. Of the 1,127 buy omnicef strains, 471 strains (41.8%) were identified as a Pc resistance. Pcr S. pneumoniae were almost resistant to other beta-lactams, including ampicillin, oxacillin, ceftizoxime, cefixime, cefdinir. Although, the MICs of imipenem and panipenem ragned from 0.004-2.0 micrograms/ml with 2 peaks distributions, these antibiotics inhibited the growth of most of Pcr S. pneumoniae at the lowest concentrations of < or = 0.5 microgram/ml. Only vancomycin resistant strain was not detected in these isolates. Most of the Pcr strains were simultaneously resistant to macrolides and minocycline. Further more, isolation frequencies of Pcr S. pneumoniae in west Japan, were relatively high compared with those of east Japan.

omnicef tablets 2016-02-06

Intestinal absorption of the orally active cephalosporin, cefdinir, was investigated using brush-border membrane vesicles prepared from rabbit small intestine. The initial uptake of cefdinir was pH-dependent, with increased uptake at acidic pH, and was not influenced by either sodium gradient or membrane potential difference. Cefdinir uptake was saturable with an apparent Michaelis constant of 8.1 mM. Initial uptake of cefdinir was inhibited by dipeptides (glycyl-L-proline and glycylsarcosine), beta-lactam antibiotics (cephradine, cefixime and penicillin V), and monocarboxylic acids (acetic acid and L-lactic acid buy omnicef ), whereas the uptake of cephradine and cefixime was not inhibited by monocarboxylic acids. Cefdinir significantly inhibited the initial uptake of cephradine, cefixime and [3H]acetic acid. From these results, it was suggested that cefdinir was transported across brush-border membranes by both dipeptide and monocarboxylic acid carriers.

omnicef 250 mg 2015-06-16

Horizontal gene transfer has been identified in only a small number of genes in Haemophilus influenzae, an organism which is naturally competent for transformation. This report provides evidence for the genetic transfer of the ftsI gene, which encodes penicillin-binding protein 3, in H. influenzae. Mosaic structures of the ftsI gene were found in several clinical isolates of H. influenzae. To identify the origin of the mosaic sequence, complete sequences of the corresponding gene from seven type strains of Haemophilus species were determined. Comparison of these sequences with mosaic regions identified a homologous recombination of the ftsI gene between H. influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus. Subsequently, ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae strains harboring identical ftsI sequences were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Divergent PFGE patterns among beta-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains from different hospitals indicated the potential for the genetic transfer of the mutated ftsI gene between these isolates. Moreover, transfer of the ftsI gene from BLNAR strains to beta-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin-susceptible (BLNAS) H. influenzae strains was evaluated in vitro. Coincubation of a BLNAS strain (a rifampin-resistant mutant of strain Rd) and BLNAR strains resulted in the emergence of rifampin- and cefdinir-resistant clones at frequencies of 5.1 x 10(-7) to 1.5 x 10(-6). Characterization of these doubly resistant mutants by buy omnicef DNA sequencing of the ftsI gene, susceptibility testing, and genotyping by PFGE revealed that the ftsI genes of BLNAR strains had transferred to BLNAS strains during coincubation. In conclusion, horizontal transfer of the ftsI gene in H. influenzae can occur in an intraspecies and an interspecies manner.

omnicef missed dose 2017-07-02

We studied pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of 5% and 10% fine granules of cefdinir (FK 482, CFDN), a new oral cephalosporin, in the pediatric field and the following results were obtained. 1. Pharmacokinetics (blood concentration and urinary excretion) Pharmacokinetics of CFDN in 163 children was investigated. Cmax and T 1/2 were 0.92 +/- 0.45 micrograms/ml and 1.95 +/- 1.06 hours, respectively, in the fasting state, and were 0.63 +/- 0.29 micrograms/ml and 2.26 +/- 0.65 hours, respectively, in the non-fasting state, at a dose level of 3 mg (potency)/kg. At a dose level of 6 mg (potency)/kg, Cmax and T 1/2 were 1.29 +/- 0.49 micrograms/ml and 2.11 +/- 1.85 hours, respectively, in the fasting state and were 1.28 +/- 0.48 micrograms/ml and 2.01 +/- 0.84 hours, respectively, in the non-fasting state. Data of Cmax and AUC showed that blood concentration of the drug depended on dose levels. Urinary recovery rates in the first 8 hours were 20.5 +/- 8.8% in the fasting state and 14.8 +/- 5.9% in the non-fasting at a dose level of 3 mg (potency)/kg and 16.5 +/- 6.7% and 17.8 +/- 2.4%, respectively, at 6 mg (potency)/kg. 2. Clinical effects Clinical effects of CFDN on various infections were studied in 612 children who were treated with 5% fine granules of CFDN (5% granule group) and in 208 with 10% fine granules of CFDN (10% granule group). CFDN granules were administered mainly at daily doses of 9.0-18.0 mg (potency)/kg in 3 divided portions. Clinical efficacy rates in 428 children of the 5% granule group and in 159 of the 10% granule group from whom causative bacteria were isolated, were 94.9% and 96.2%, respectively. The clinical efficacy rates for patients who were responsive to previous antibiotic therapy were 91.2% in the 5% granule group and 100% in the 10% granule group. Bacteriological eradication Lipitor 5 Mg rate was 82.1% for 491 strains in the 5% granule group, and was 84.0% for 175 strains in the 10% granule group. The incidences of side effects were 3.9% (24/608) in the 5% fine granule group and 5.8% (12/206) in the 10% granule group. All of the side effects were slight gastrointestinal disorders, and no serious side effects were found. As for clinical laboratory test results, slight elevations of eosinophile, platelet or transaminase were observed. Based on the above results, it is considered that the appropriate dose levels of CFDN for pediatric infections ranged from 9.0 to 18.0 mg (potency)/kg a day, divided into 3 portions.

omnicef pills 2017-08-03

Antimicrobial efficacy is measured in vitro by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of antimicrobials, but these values do not account for fluctuations of drug concentrations within the body or the time course of the drug's in vivo antibacterial activity. However, in vivo bacteriologic efficacy can be predicted by pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters, such as the time for which the serum drug concentration is above the MIC (T>MIC), the ratio of peak serum concentration to the MIC, and the ratio of the area under the 24-h serum concentration-time curve to the MIC (AUC/MIC). Different patterns of antibacterial activity correlate with different PK/PD parameters. For example, a T>MIC of 40-50% of the dosing interval is a good predictor of bacteriologic efficacy for penicillins, cephalosporins, and most macrolides, and an AUC/MIC ratio of at least 25 is required for efficacy with fluoroquinolones and azalides. The PK/PD breakpoint for susceptibility of an organism to a specific dosing regimen of an agent can be determined as the highest MIC met by the relevant PK/PD parameter for bacteriologic efficacy for that agent. These parameters have been validated extensively in animal models, as well as in many human studies where bacteriologic outcome has been determined. The PK/PD breakpoint of an agent is determined primarily by the dosing regimen, and generally applies to all pathogens causing disease at sites where extracellular tissue levels are similar to non-protein-bound serum levels. On this basis, many parenteral beta-lactams are active against almost all strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, including 'penicillin-non-susceptible' strains, in all body sites except for the central nervous system. Application of PK/PD breakpoints to standard dosing regimens of oral beta-lactams predicts that agents such as cefaclor and cefixime will have efficacy only against penicillin-susceptible strains of S. pneumoniae, while cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime and cefdinir will be effective against all penicillin-susceptible as well as many penicillin Zocor Dosage Elderly -intermediate strains. However, the most active oral beta-lactams, amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate, have predicted efficacy against all penicillin-susceptible and -intermediate pneumococci, as well as against most penicillin-resistant strains, at amoxicillin doses of 45-90 mg/kg per day in children and 1.75-4.0 g/day in adults. These predictions are supported by evidence from animal studies of bacteriologic efficacy. The use of PK/PD parameters to predict bacterial eradication therefore allows an evidence-based approach to the selection of appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

omnicef capsules 2015-08-23

Regarding Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the National Committee for Rulide Tablets Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) has not defined the breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for expanded spectrum cephems such as cefpodoxime and ceftizoxime, because of the absence of resistant strains to these antibiotics. To date, in gonococcal urethritis, after treatment with third generation cephems and aztreonam, clinical failures caused by resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains have not been reported. However, we experienced two clinical failures in patients with gonococcal urethritis treated with cefdinir and aztreonam. N. gonorrhoeae isolates from these two patients showed high-level MICs to these agents. The MIC of cefdinir was 1 microg/ml for both strains and that of aztreonam was 8 microg/ml for both strains, while the MICs of other beta-lactams were also higher than the NCCLS value, except for ceftriaxone, for which the MIC was 0.125 microg/ml for both strains. Moreover, the MICs of fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and erythromycin against these two isolates were higher than the NCCLS susceptibility value. These isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. In N. gonorrhoeae, the emergence of these beta-lactam-resistant isolates is of serious concern. However, a more serious problem is that these isolates were already resistant to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials. In Japan, ceftriaxone has not been permitted for clinical use against gonococcal infections. Therefore, in Japan, patients with gonococcal urethritis caused by these resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains should be treated with cefodizime or spectinomycin.

omnicef dose form 2017-07-15

The application of pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data in conjunction with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibacterial agents has been shown to allow for improved selection and appropriate dosing of antimicrobial agents for specific infections, increasing the likelihood of bacteriologic cure and, through this, Reglan 10 Mg reducing the risk for the development of resistant organisms.

omnicef medicine 2015-04-09

Two dosage regimens of cefdinir were compared with amoxicillin/ Astelin Generic clavulanate for the treatment of suppurative acute otitis media (AOM) in children.

omnicef overdose 2015-12-10

This was a prospective interventional before/after study conducted at an academic medical center in the United States. The participants of interest included emergency, family medicine, and pediatric physicians. Participants initially completed a brief survey for their primary oral liquid medication of choice for the treatment of selected disease states. These included otitis media, sinusitis, cellulitis, asthma, colitis, and pneumonia. Participants were asked to choose one of the medication options for each disease and then were given all medications to sample for a taste test. The prescribing preference survey was then repeated. The primary outcome was change in prescribing. McNemar's test was used to evaluate Diamox Medicine change in proportion of medications chosen before and after taste testing.

omnicef suspension cost 2015-12-13

The in vitro antibacterial activities of oral cephem antibiotics and ketolide telithromycin against major respiratory pathogens possessing beta-lactam-resistant mutations (within the pbp gene) and/or macrolide-resistant genes (erm and mef) were examined in clinical isolates collected at 66 institutes in all over the Japan between 2002 and 2003. Telithromycin showed the strongest antibacterial activity against methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without macrolide-resistant genes, such as ermA or Luvox Mg ermC gene. All the cephem antibiotics showed potent antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.015 mg/L or lower. Cefdinir had a much higher MIC90 against genotypic penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (gPRSP) than cefditoren and cefcapene (8 mg/L cefdinir vs. 1 mg/L cefditoren and cefcapene). The majority of gPRSP harbored either ermB or mefA, and the antibacterial activity of telithromycin against these strains was decreased however some susceptibility was still sustained. Cefditoren exerted the strongest antibacterial activity against beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, with an MIC90 of 0.5 mg/L. These results underline the importance of checking the susceptibility and selecting an appropriate antibiotic against target pathogens.

omnicef dose pediatric 2016-01-04

In order to evaluate antimicrobial activity of cefcapene (CFPN), minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CFPN and reference drugs were determined against clinical isolates from respiratory tract infection of out patients that were obtained in our Propecia Cost Usa laboratory from January to June of 1997. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The MIC90 of CFPN against penicillin (PC)-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP) was equal to those of benzylpenicillin (PCG), ampicillin (ABPC) and cefditoren (CDTR), and was lower than those of cefaclor (CCL), cefdinir (CFDN) and erythromycin (EM). 2. The MIC90 of CFPN against PC-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP)/PC-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) was equal to that of CDTR, and was lower than those of PCG, ABPC, CCL, CFDN and EM. CFPN showing strong antimicrobial activities against PISP. 3. CFPN showed strong antimicrobial activities against beta-lactamase producing and non-producing Haemophilus influenzae. The MIC90 of CFPN was stronger than those of ABPC, CCL, CFDN and EM, and was approximately equal to that of CDTR. CFPN also showed strong antimicrobial activities against strains which did not produce any beta-lactamase and were resistant to CCL with MIC of > or = 25 micrograms/ml. 4. Antimicrobial activities of CFPN against Moraxella subgenus Branhamella catarrhalis was stronger than that of ABPC and CCL, though the MIC90 of CFPN was rather high, 3.13 micrograms/ml. 5. CFPN showed strong antimicrobial activities against PISP and beta-lactamase producing H. influenzae, and also against the CCL-resistant H. influenzae indicative mutations of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). From those results, cefcapen-pivoxil was found to be clinically effective against community acquired respiratory tract infection.

omnicef dosage peds 2015-10-30

Bacterial adherence is reported to be antagonized by several classes of antibiotics including quinolones, beta-lactams and tetracyclines, based primarily on in-vitro studies in which bacterial cells are exposed to antimicrobials, incubated in the presence of uroepithelial cells (UECs) and assessed for adherence by light microscopy. Some problems associated with the use of this approach, include low sensitivity, high variability and, in the case of adherence of mannose-sensitive Escherichia coli interference by mannose-containing uromucoid. To avoid these problems, mannosylated agarose beads (MABs) were used as a model for UECs. Adherence of E. coli strain AAEC356, which is constitutive for type-1 fimbrial expression, was maximal with 3 x 10(4) beads/mL and 1 x 10(8) bacterial cells/mL co-incubated for 35 min at 37 degrees C. Those bacterial cultures showed 40-60% adherence to MABs but only 4-10% adherence to UECs. This study reports a novel method to detect mannose-sensitive bacterial adherence, using MABs, in order to determine the effects of quinolones, cefdinir and tetracycline on E. coli adherence. Cefdinir and the quinolones ciprofloxacin, enoxacin and PD131628 caused significant reductions in the adherence of AAEC356 to Moduretic 30 Tablet UECs at concentrations equivalent to 1/2 x MIC, while up to 1 x MIC of these antibiotics had no significant effect on adherence to MABs. A direct comparison of UEC to MAB-based techniques showed that PD131628, at concentrations equivalent to 1/16x, 1/4x, 1/2x and 1 x MIC, had no effect on bacterial adherence to MABs, while reductions of 34%, 38%, 87% and 85% respectively were seen in adherence to UECs. The anti-adherent effect mediated by quinolones may not therefore be related to the specific interaction between type-1 fimbriae and mannosylated receptors. While quinolones and cefdinir had no effect on overall bacterial adherence to MABs, there was a decrease in the ability of alpha-methyl-D-mannoside (alpha-MM) to inhibit competitively this adherence. Concurrent exposure of PD131628 or cefdinir with tetracycline prevented this, suggesting that protein synthesis is required for this effect.

omnicef 250 dosage 2016-01-21

The study included 14 infants who were observed for at least 6 Valtrex 300 Mg months following the first signs of infection (eight boys, six girls; mean age at admission [± SD]: 6.2 [± 7.4] months). Twelve patients had vesico-ureteric reflux (grade I, two; grade II, three; grade III, six; grade IV, one), and two patients had ureteropelvic junction stenosis.

omnicef pediatric dosing 2015-02-11

A new oral Cozaar Low Dose cephem, cefdinir (CFDN) was evaluated for its efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics in 13 children. The results are summarized as follows. Plasma concentration peaked at 3-4 hours after administration of 3 mg/kg of CFDN with Cmax ranging from 0.57-0.89 microgram/ml except 1 case in which the absorption of the drug was poor. Recovery rates in urine averaged at 13.4%, with a large individual variation. Ten children with 12 bacterial infections were treated with 9 mg/kg/day of CFDN fine granule. Clinical responses were good in 10 patients and fair in 1 patient, with an efficacy rate of 90.9%. No clinical adverse reactions nor abnormal laboratory findings were encountered.

omnicef uti dosage 2015-09-16

The aim of this study was to evaluate susceptibility to common paediatric antibiotics for Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolated from 2005 through 2007.

omnicef dosage chart 2015-11-04

Pneumococcal resistance to antimicrobials presents problems to physicians for empirical treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Three hundred thirty-three isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae selected for nonsusceptibility to penicillin (MIC >0.1 microg/ml) from the middle ear (n = 325) or mastoid (n = 8) of children seen between 1994 and 2000 at four children's hospitals in the United States were tested by broth microdilution for susceptibility to nine antibiotics. Using NCCLS 2002 breakpoints, resistance to the following drugs was as indicated: amoxicillin, 1%; azithromycin, 71%; cefprozil, 71%; ceftriaxone, 2%; cefdinir, 98%; erythromycin, 70%; levofloxacin, 0%; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 93%. Of the penicillin- and erythromycin-nonsusceptible isolates, 97% were inhibited by cethromycin (ABT-773) and 83% were inhibited by telithromycin at a concentration of

omnicef 150 mg 2017-08-29

This was an investigator-blind trial in young children 6-24 months old with no history of recurrent AOM who were randomly assigned to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (80 mg/kg/day amoxicillin) or cefdinir (14 mg/kg/day), both in two divided doses. The diagnosis of AOM was based on specific clinical criteria by validated otoscopists at two AOM research centres. The outcome measure for clinical cure was resolution of all symptoms and signs of AOM except for persistence of middle-ear effusion at test-of-cure (TOC) 11-14 days after initiation of antibiotic treatment. Clinical failure was defined as persistence of symptoms and signs of AOM and the need for additional antibiotic therapy. Subjects lost to follow up or who had not taken at least 80% of the prescribed medication were classified as having an indeterminate response. Compliance was monitored using Medical Electronic Monitoring System (MEMS) caps and antibiotic bottle volume measurement at the TOC visit. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the association of age with cure rate. Full interactions in terms of age with treatment were included to estimate any age gradient differential.

omnicef 100mg dosage 2015-01-13

A rare case of meningitis complicated by brainstem infarction is reported. A 64-year-old previously healthy female was admitted to our hospital because of a 1-week history of fever and headache. Cefdinir was orally administered for several days before admission. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on admission showed a white blood cell (WBC) count of 9,013 cells/ micro/(97% polynuclear cells), a protein level of 212.8 mg/d/, and a glucose level of 3 mg/d/. CSF culture was negative for bacteria, including tubercle bacilli, and fungi. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan on admission showed acute hydrocephalus. Six hours after admission the patient developed tetraplegia. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images on day 2 revealed elevated diffusion coefficients with high signal intensity in the pons and the medulla oblongata. MR angiography demonstrated a narrowing change of the cerebral arteries. Followup MR angiography two months after admission showed normalization of the cerebral arteries. The patient remained tetraplegic at eight months after admission. We speculated that brainstem infarction in our case might have been caused by vascultis or brain edema.

omnicef liquid dosing 2016-02-24

Coagulation by S. aureus cells was inhibited in plasma containing farnesol at a concentration of 1/12 of the MIC (100 microg/ml) after incubation for 24 h. The production of superantigenic exotoxins by S. aureus cells with farnesol (100 microg/ml) was about 10 times lower than that by S. aureus cells alone. The MICs of ampicillin and cefdinir against S. aureus were reduced to < or =0.06 microg/ml in Mueller-Hinton agar plates with farnesol (100 microg/ml). We suggest that farnesol at concentrations above the MIC had a suppressive effect against S. aureus cells in the exponential and stationary phase and acted on the cell wall of S. aureus cells in both phases.