Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus are often simultaneously detected from many cases of non-bullous impetigo with atopic dermatitis.
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We determined minimum inhibitory concentrations of rifampicin, nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefdinir, plus a combination of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefdinir by broth microdilution for mainly wound isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. E. coli and K. pneumoniae susceptibilities increased by combining amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefdinir.
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This was an investigator-blind trial in young children 6-24 months old with no history of recurrent AOM who were randomly assigned to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (80 mg/kg/day amoxicillin) or cefdinir (14 mg/kg/day), both in two divided doses. The diagnosis of AOM was based on specific clinical criteria by validated otoscopists at two AOM research centres. The outcome measure for clinical cure was resolution of all symptoms and signs of AOM except for persistence of middle-ear effusion at test-of-cure (TOC) 11-14 days after initiation of antibiotic treatment. Clinical failure was defined as persistence of symptoms and signs of AOM and the need for additional antibiotic therapy. Subjects lost to follow up or who had not taken at least 80% of the prescribed medication were classified as having an indeterminate response. Compliance was monitored using Medical Electronic Monitoring System (MEMS) caps and antibiotic bottle volume measurement at the TOC visit. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the association of age with cure rate. Full interactions in terms of age with treatment were included to estimate any age gradient differential.
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Some antibiotics at sub-inhibitory concentrations are able to alter bacterial surface structures and modulate adhesiveness by affecting the expression of microbial adhesins. An important mechanism of pulmonary defence against pathogens is SP-A, one of the proteins of the alveolar surfactant having opsonizing activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect that sub-inhibitory concentrations of different antibiotics and physiological concentrations of SP-A (1 and 5 microg/ml) could exert on the adherence of respiratory pathogens to the bronchial epithelial cell line, WI26VA4. Cefdinir and clarithromycin showed high efficacy, mainly at 1/2 MIC, in reducing the adherence of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae strains to values lower or equal to 50% of the control; sparfloxacin showed the same effect on S. aureus and S. pneumoniae but teicoplanin only on S. pneumoniae. Other similar results were observed with netilmicin on Klebsiella pneumoniae (40%) and with cefepime and ciprofloxacin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (60%). Clarithromycin reduced the adherence of K. pneumoniae to 80% although it is not active against this strain. Adherence of the test strains was not modified by SP-A alone or in combination with any of the antibiotics used.
The addition of antibiotics to therapeutic regimens for uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition was associated with a significant improvement in recovery and mortality rates. (Funded by the Hickey Family Foundation and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01000298.).
The effect of iron ion on the absorption of cefdinir, a new oral cephalosporin derivative, was evaluated in healthy male volunteers in a randomized three-way crossover study. The subjects received 200 mg cefdinir alone, 200 mg cefdinir and two tablets of iron ion concomitantly, and two tablets of iron ion preparation 3 hours after 200 mg cefdinir administration. The area under the concentration curve [AUC(0-12)] of cefdinir with concurrent iron was significantly smaller than that with cefdinir alone (mean +/- SD, 0.78 +/- 0.38 versus 10.3 +/- 1.35 micrograms.hr/ml). While there were no differences in AUC(0-3) between drug alone and drug with iron 3 hours later, the AUC(3-12) with delayed iron was significantly smaller than that of cefdinir alone (4.60 +/- 1.54 versus 8.03 +/- 1.72 micrograms.hr/ml). These findings suggest that the mechanism of interaction between cefdinir and iron ion preparation is the formation of a chelation complex and that this complex probably restricts gastrointestinal absorption.
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Zosteriform cutaneous staphylococcal impetigo may be an example of Wolf's isotopic response in a cutaneous immunocompromised district.
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ss-Lactamase-producing (BLP) strains with the bla gene were identified in 16 (2.5%) of isolates. PGM strains were identified in 279 (43.3%) isolates. There were 242 (37.6%) PGM1-nonBLP strains with mutations in variable mutated locus of ftsI, 35 (5.4%) PGM2-nonBLP strains with mutations in highly mutated locus of ftsI, 2 (0.3%) BLP-PGM strains with mutations in ftsI and producing ss-lactamase. BLP-nonPGM strains producing ss-lactamase without mutations in ftsI were identified in 14 (2.2%) isolates. MICs of PGM1-nonBLP strains to AMP were 0.5-2.0 microg/ml. The MIC(90) of CDN to the PGM1-nonBLP strains was lowest (0.06 microg/ml). Proportions of PGM1-nonBLP strains rapidly increased during 1999 to 2002 and then decreased in 2003. In contrast, PGM2-nonBLP strains increased in 2003.
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In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the mosaic structure of penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP 2), composed of fragments of PBP 2 from Neisseria cinerea and Neisseria perflava, was significantly associated with decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, particularly oral cephalosporins. The aim of this study was to determine the affinity of mosaic PBP 2 for cephalosporins in N. gonorrhoeae.
A high prevalence of penicillin-binding protein gene-mutated (PGM) strains of Haemophilus influenzae should be taken into account when treating otitis media in children.
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10 days of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid high dose and 5 days of cefdinir have been the preferred first- or second-line antibiotics for treatment of children with acute otitis media (AOM) since 2004, as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics in the USA, but no head-to-head comparison study has been done.
beta-Lactamase production was demonstrated in 67 (28.8%) of the H. influenzae isolates and varied by isolation site (38% acute otitis media, 36% sinusitis, and 21% lower respiratory tract infections). Regarding susceptibility, the rank order of the tested antimicrobials was ceftriaxone = cefixime (100%) > cefpodoxime (99.6%) > ceftibuten = amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (99.1%) > cefdinir (98.7%) > cefuroxime (97.4%) > cefprozil (93.1%) > cefaclor (92.3%) > amoxicillin (63.1%). The most active agents based on pharmacodynamic assessment (50% fT > MIC) were cefpodoxime (98.9%), ceftibuten (95.3%), and high-dose amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (90.4%). Several amoxicillin regimens also achieved a high likelihood of pharmacodynamic target attainment (91.8- 98.6%) when beta-lactamase-positive strains were excluded from the analysis.
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Clinical resolution of tympanic membrane signs and symptoms of AOM determined at end of therapy on Study Days 9 to 11.
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The aim of this study was to determine the current antimicrobial susceptibility of the principle anaerobic pathogens involved in dentoalveolar infection, to 13 oral antibiotics, and to assess the value of each antibiotic in the management of the infection.
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In this retrospective study (2003-2004), the authors compared the susceptibility patterns of urinary pathogens to cefdinir and selected antibiotics in children who were evaluated for urinary tract infections in an urban tertiary academic pediatric emergency department. Pathogens (community acquired vs. opportunistic or nosocomial) were categorized as susceptible, indeterminate, or resistant on the basis of antibiotic susceptibility breakpoints. The frequency of these categorizations for individual drugs was determined.
To examine the microbiologic and clinical efficacy of a 5-day course of cefdinir in the treatment of tympanocentesis-documented acute otitis media (AOM).
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Thirteen oral cephems (cefprozil, loracarbef, cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime proxetil, cefetamet pivoxil, cefixime, cefdinir, cefadroxil, cephradine, cephalexin, cefatrizine, and cefroxadine), the cephalosporin class representative cephalothin, cefazolin, and the macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin were compared for their antibacterial activities against 790 recent clinical isolates. These oral agents differed in their spectra and antibacterial potencies against community-acquired pathogens.
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The in vitro antibacterial activities of oral cephem antibiotics and ketolide telithromycin against major respiratory pathogens possessing beta-lactam-resistant mutations (within the pbp gene) and/or macrolide-resistant genes (erm and mef) were examined in clinical isolates collected at 66 institutes in all over the Japan between 2002 and 2003. Telithromycin showed the strongest antibacterial activity against methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains with and without macrolide-resistant genes, such as ermA or ermC gene. All the cephem antibiotics showed potent antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.015 mg/L or lower. Cefdinir had a much higher MIC90 against genotypic penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (gPRSP) than cefditoren and cefcapene (8 mg/L cefdinir vs. 1 mg/L cefditoren and cefcapene). The majority of gPRSP harbored either ermB or mefA, and the antibacterial activity of telithromycin against these strains was decreased however some susceptibility was still sustained. Cefditoren exerted the strongest antibacterial activity against beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae, with an MIC90 of 0.5 mg/L. These results underline the importance of checking the susceptibility and selecting an appropriate antibiotic against target pathogens.
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This comparative study determined the effect of blood on the antienterococcal activities of the newer cephalosporins. Standardized disk diffusion susceptibility tests were performed with 57 strains of enterococci (30 Enterococcus faecalis strains) on Mueller-Hinton agar with and without 5% sheep blood supplementation. Twelve cephalosporins representing five different structural groups (based on the 7-alpha position substitution) were tested. The greatest frequency of activity enhancement by blood was observed with cefdaloxime and cefdinir (7-alpha hydroxyimino group) against E. faecalis. Cephalosporins with a 7-alpha methoxyimino group (cefpodoxime, cefepime, and cefpirome) had marked increases in zone diameters (3 to > 9 mm) when tested with the blood supplement. Cephems with 7-alpha amino or carboxy substitutions did not demonstrate any enhanced activity. Awareness of this phenomenon is important for the interpretation and accuracy of cephalosporin susceptibility testing.
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Children 6 months-4 years of age with AOM considered to be at risk for recurrent or persistent infection received large dosage cefdinir 25 mg/kg oral suspension once daily for 10 days. Children were evaluated pretreatment (day 1), on therapy (days 4-6), end of therapy (days 12-14) and at follow-up (days 25-28). All children had tympanocentesis at enrollment. In culture-positive children, tympanocentesis was repeated after 3-5 days (days 4-6) unless evidence of absence of middle ear effusion was documented.
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The Pharmacokinetics and clinical effectiveness of cefdinir (CFDN, FK482) were examined in pediatric patients. The results are summarized as follows. 1. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretions of CFDN after administration of 5% fine granules were investigated on 4 children at a dose level of 6 mg/kg. Average plasma concentrations peaked at 4 hours after administration at 0.99 micrograms/ml with a half-life of 2.12 hours. The first 24-hour urinary recovery rates of CFDN in 3 children averaged 22.0%. 2. CFDN was given to 24 children (11 with pharyngitis, 3 with tonsillitis, 8 with scarlet fever, 1 with urinary tract infection and 1 with enteritis due to Salmonella); 15 were treated with 5% fine granules and 9 with 10% fine granules at daily doses of about 10 mg/kg in 2 to 3 divided portions. Clinical effects were excellent in 16, good in 7 and not evaluable in 1, with an overall efficacy rate of 100%. 3. Identified causative organisms were 12 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, 4 of Haemophilus influenzae, 5 of Haemophilus parainfluenzae, 1 of Escherichia coli, and 1 of Salmonella. Bacteriological effects were rated as "eradicated" for 19 strains, "unchanged" for 4 with an eradication rate of 82.6%. 4. No side effects were observed. As for abnormal laboratory test results, a transient decrease of white blood cells was observed in 1 patient. 5. The CFDN fine granule preparations were preferably accepted by the children. 6. The fine granular preparations of CFDN, a new oral antibiotic, were useful for the treatment of bacterial infections in pediatrics.
Of 367 parents/guardians who completed the questionnaire, better ease of use (p = 0.009) and taste (p < 0.0001) were associated with cefdinir versus amoxicillin/clavulanate treatment, and children were significantly more likely to experience vomiting with amoxicillin/clavulanate (16% vs 8%; p = 0.016). Parents also reported that their children were much more likely to take all of their medication if receiving cefdinir (68% vs 53% for amoxicillin/clavulanate; p = 0.005). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in work/daycare missed.