Recently approved single-enantiomer drugs showed no evidence of superior efficacy over the older racemic precursors in the pivotal trials leading to their approval, and in a majority of cases, they were not directly compared.
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We randomly assigned patients with H pylori infection to groups that were given 5 days of concomitant therapy (esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, levofloxacin 500 mg twice daily, and tinidazole 500 mg twice daily; n = 90) or 10 days of sequential therapy (esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1g twice daily for 5 days followed by esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily, levofloxacin 500 mg twice daily, and tinidazole 500 mg twice daily for 5 more days; n = 90). Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by the E-test. Efficacy, adverse events, and costs were determined.
A total of 270 naive H. pylori-positive patients were randomized to receive: SQT for 8 days (SQT-8, n=90) or 10 days (SQT-10, n=90) including esomeprazole 20 mg twice daily (bid) associated with amoxicillin 1000 mg bid (early 4 and 5 d, respectively), followed by esomeprazole 20 mg bid associated with clarithromycin 500 mg bid plus tinidazole 500 mg bid (last 4 and 5 d, respectively); STT (n=90) including esomeprazole 20 mg bid plus amoxicillin 1000 mg bid and clarithromycin 500 mg bid for 7 days. Tolerability was assessed by scoring the severity of symptoms.
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The authors describe a 42-year-old woman with previously normal sexual function who gradually developed loss of libido during treatment with esomeprazole. While taking esomeprazole, the patient's loss of libido improved with oral testosterone supplementation and deteriorated after testosterone withdrawal. There was steady improvement in both sexual function and serum free testosterone concentration after discontinuation of esomeprazole. Due to the temporal relationship between esomeprazole intake and sexual dysfunction, the authors postulate that esomeprazole causes induction of testosterone metabolism. The authors believe this to be the first case of female sexual dysfunction associated with esomeprazole described in the literature. They discuss a number of possible mechanisms for this effect.
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In a well-characterized population of primary care patients with frequent upper-gastrointestinal symptoms of any type, the PPI test has limited ability to identify patients with GERD, diagnosed by current standard tests. (ClinicalTrials.gov Number, NCT00291746.).
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In the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system, a formulary-based approach without beneficiary cost-share incentives is used to limit the pharmacy cost of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, the effectiveness of this approach in reducing the cost of PPIs is unknown.
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Between June 2004 and January 2006, 27 patients suffering from LPR diagnosed by dual-probe pH monitoring were treated with esomeprazole 40 mg once daily. After 13-54 days (mean 28 days) while still under PPI-treatment, the 24-h pH-study was repeated in order to control the effectiveness of therapy. Patients with at least a reduction of the reflux area index (RAI) compared to the result before treatment were categorized as responders. Furthermore, the number of patients with a measurable reduction of proximal reflux episodes under PPI-treatment was quantified.
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Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are common nosocomial pathogens responsible for biofilm-associated infections. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI), such as esomeprazole, may have novel antimicrobial properties. The objective of this study was to assess whether esomeprazole prevents sessile bacterial growth and biofilm formation and whether it may have synergistic killing effects with standard antibiotics. The antibiofilm activity of esomeprazole at 0.25 mM was tested against two strains each of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Bacterial biofilms were prepared using a commercially available 96-peg-plate Calgary biofilm device. Sessile bacterial CFU counts and biomass were assessed during 72 hours of esomeprazole exposure. The killing activities after an additional 24 hours of vancomycin (against S. aureus) and meropenem (against P. aeruginosa) treatment with or without preexposure to esomeprazole were also assessed by CFU and biomass analyses. P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains exposed to esomeprazole displayed decreased sessile bacterial growth and biomass (P < 0.001, each parameter). After 72 h of exposure, there was a 1-log(10) decrease in the CFU/ml of esomeprazole-exposed P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains compared to controls (P < 0.001). After 72 h of exposure, measured absorbance was 100% greater in P. aeruginosa control strains than in esomeprazole-exposed strains (P < 0.001). Increased killing and decreased biomass were observed for esomeprazole-treated bacteria compared to untreated controls exposed to conventional antibiotics (P < 0.001, each parameter). Reduced biofilm growth after 24 h was visibly apparent by light micrographs for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus isolates exposed to esomeprazole compared to untreated controls. In conclusion, esomeprazole demonstrated an antibiofilm effect against biofilm-producing S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.
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Circumferential ablation was performed at baseline and repeated at 4 months if there was residual IM. Follow-up biopsy specimens were obtained at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 30 months. Specimens were reviewed by a central pathology board. Focal ablation was performed after the 12-month follow-up for histological evidence of IM at the 12-month biopsy (absolute indication) or endoscopic appearance suggestive of columnar-lined esophagus (relative indication). Subjects received esomeprazole for control of esophageal reflux.
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A 26-year-old small bowel transplant recipient presented for prenatal care. She previously had undergone bariatric surgery and later experienced small bowel necrosis and resection. The resulting short gut syndrome was treated with an isolated small bowel transplant. Medications during this pregnancy included prednisone, esomeprazole, diphenoxylate-atropine, ascorbic acid, tacrolimus, and magnesium supplementation. Throughout her pregnancy, her creatinine level was elevated. Labor was induced at 39 3/7 weeks and resulted in a spontaneous vaginal delivery of a healthy female neonate. Twelve weeks after delivery, the mother was admitted for a rejection reaction that was treated successfully.
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Of 172 asymptomatic GERD patients, 75 (43.6 %) achieved symptomatic remission with once-daily dosing PPI, and 97 (56.4 %) patients required twice-daily dosing. Of the entire cohort, 93 (54.1 %) had abnormal and 79 (45.9 %) had normal esophageal pH profiles, with mean percent time pH < 4.0 of 14.3 and 2.4, respectively (p < 0.0001). The percent time esophageal pH was abnormal did not correlate with the percent time gastric pH was abnormal (p = 0.17). Different PPI formulations demonstrated differences in gastric--not esophageal--pH times, with esomeprazole exhibiting superior gastric pH suppression (p < 0.0001). Overall, gastric pH control remained suboptimal, with pH < 4.0 ranging between 30 and 50 %. Among patients with sequential pH studies, those with higher PPI dose had improved esophageal pH profiles (p < 0.01).
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To observe the efficacy and safety of oral sanhuangwuji powder, anti-rheumatic drugs (ARDs), and ginger-partitioned acupoint stimulation at zusanli (ST 36) on the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) complicated by peptic ulcer.
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The aim of this article is to determine the severity of esophagitis and the response to treatment with proton-pump inhibitors in patients with and without evidence of Helicobacter pylori infection.
The association of lupus erythematosus and erythema multiforme first described in 1963 is known as Rowell's syndrome. While diagnostic criteria have been established in the literature, the reality of this entity is still contested. The annular lesions of subacute lupus erythematosus may be confused with the lesions of erythema multiforme. As suggested in the above section, other authors consider Rowell's syndrome to be a singular entity. Indeed, our patient developed lesions distinct from those initially suggesting subacute lupus erythematosus, in particular: the target-like aspect of the elementary lesions, mucosal involvement, a distinct histological aspect, and dissociated outcomes. Ultimately, the definition of Rowell's syndrome remains highly debated.
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In vitro inhibition of oxycodone metabolism to noroxycodone and oxymorphone and R- and S-methadone metabolism to R- and S-2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) was measured for four H2-receptor antagonists and five proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) using human liver microsomes (HLM) and cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450s (rCYPs). Inhibitors were first incubated with HLM at three concentrations with and without preincubation of inhibitor, enzyme source and reducing equivalents to also screen for time-dependent inhibition (TDI). Cimetidine and famotidine (10-1,000 µM) inhibited all the four pathways >50%. Nizatidine and ranitidine did not. All the five PPIs (1-200 µM) inhibited one or more pathways >50%. Half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were then determined using rCYPs. Cimetidine and famotidine both inhibited CYP3A4-mediated formation of noroxycodone and CYP2D6-mediated formation of oxymorphone, and famotidine inhibited CYP3A4-mediated formation of R- and S-EDDP, but IC50s were so high that only >10× therapeutic concentrations may have potential for reversible in vivo inhibition. The PPIs were more potent inhibitors; many have the potential for reversible in vivo inhibition at therapeutic concentrations. Omeprazole, esomeprazole and pantoprazole had greater effects on CYP3A4-mediated reactions, whereas lansoprazole was selective for CYP2D6-mediated formation of oxymorphone. Preincubation enhanced cimetidine inhibition of noroxycodone formation and rabeprazole inhibition of all pathways. Future studies will explore irreversible TDI.
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Ten-day sequential therapy was significantly better than 7-day triple therapy in a clinical setting with low rates of clarithromycin and dual resistance. Concomitant therapy was significantly better than standard triple therapy in the subgroup of patients with clarithromycin-resistant strains.
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Proton pump inhibitors should not be administered during methotrexate treatment.
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To assess gastric acid suppression (determined by intragastric pH) and pharmacokinetics of twice-daily vs. once-daily esomeprazole.
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This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a one-week triple therapy with esomeprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in the absence of antimicrobial resistance.
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More than 20% of GERD patients with SIM+ in this study were found to have BE/SIM+ within 2-5 years. This finding supports the hypothesis that SIM+ at the cardia could be the missing link explaining increased cancer risk in GERD patients without overt BE and merits further investigation in a prospective study.
Proton pump inhibitors (e.g. omeprazole/esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole) have a prominent role in the short- and long-term management of acid-related intestinal disease. They are eliminated by the hepatic route and the polymorphic CYP2C19 is involved in their metabolism. Three phenotypes have been identified in various populations: extensive metabolizers (homEM), poor metabolizers (PM) and individuals carrying one wild type and one mutant allele (hetEM). Therefore, systemic drug exposure (AUC) varies widely between these three populations and the AUC for omeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole are approximately 7.5-, 4.5- and 4-fold higher in PM than in homEM. Since the pharmacodynamic response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is related to their AUC, intragastric pH is much more elevated in PM (median around 6) and hetEM (4 - 5) than in homEM (3 - 4). This genotype-dependent increase in AUC and intragastric pH has clinical consequences because the healing rate in peptic ulcer (PU, target pH > or = 3) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, target pH > or = 4) and the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) depend on a long-lasting (> or = 16 hours) and effective inhibition of acid secretion. Several clinical studies have shown that PM and hetEM benefit from an approximately 18% higher Hp eradication rate compared to homEM when standard dosages of PPIs are administered orally. In our own study with lansoprazole (+ amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole) the eradication rates were 100, 98 and 80% in PM, hetEM and homEM, respectively, and in patients with GERD treated with lansoprazole (30 mg/day) the healing rates after 8 weeks were much higher in PM (85 - 100%) and hetEM (68 - 95%) than in homEM (46 - 77%). In a further study with esomeprazole (40 mg/day) in 205 patients with GERD we were surprised to observe that the healing rate after 4 weeks was not dependent on the CYP2C19 genotype. In an accompanying pharmacokinetic trial in 10 patients with GERD, both esomeprazole and 5-OH-esomeprazole (formed by CYP2C19) plasma levels and those of omeprazole-sulfone (formed by CYP3A4) were determined. Based on the calculated metabolic ratios it could be shown that CYP3A4 plays a major role in kinetics of esomeprozale, particularly after multiple dosing when there is a metabolic shift in favor of the formation of the sulfone. In conclusion, for most PPIs the activity of CYP2C 19 determines the level of drug exposure (AUC), pharmacodynamic response (elevation of intragastric pH and serum levels of gastrin) and clinical outcome (Hp eradication, healing rates of PU and GERD). Thus, a genotype-adjusted dosage regimen will improve therapeutic efficacy of PPIs.
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To evaluate the use of aspirin plus esomeprazole vs. clopidogrel in the prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding.
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Data were obtained from a sub-group of patients (no visible BE at presentation, but SIM+) included in the ProGERD study, a prospective evaluation of the clinical course of GERD under routine clinical care. They had esomeprazole 20-40 mg/day for 2-8 weeks. Symptom assessment was performed annually, and endoscopy with biopsy was planned at baseline, after healing treatment and after 2 and/or 5 years.
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We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination therapy in erosive reflux disease (ERD) patients by comparing endoscopic healing rate according to the Los Angeles classification for esomeprazole alone and esomeprazole plus mosapride.
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main etiologic factor for duodenal ulcer (DU). Bleeding is still a frequent and sometimes severe complication, with unacceptable mortality despite modern therapeutic modalities. The importance of diagnosing and treating H. pylori infection in bleeding DU is underlined by the fact that eradication therapy is effective in preventing recurrent bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of H. pylori infection by means of 13C urea breath test (13C-UBT) in patients with bleeding DU.