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Lumboperitoneal (LP) shunting is considered an effective method of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Confirmation of flow out of the distal portion of the catheter once in its final position can be difficult, especially in obese individuals. A new technique to improve placement of the peritoneal catheter involves laparoscopic catheter insertion. We performed laparoscopic-assisted LP shunt placement for IIH on four patients. Improvement in preoperative IIH symptomatology was noted in all patients. No laparoscopic-procedure-related complications were noted. No problems were noted in shunt functioning and none of the shunts have required revision surgery at last follow-up. LP shunt related complications were noted in two of the four patients. Complications included bilateral lower extremity lumbar radiculopathy in one patient that resolved with a short course of gabapentin, spinal headache in one patient that resolved with bed rest and fluids, and development of a small intracranial subdural hygroma without mass effect in one patient that is asymptomatic and being followed without clinical consequence. Laparoscopic insertion of the abdominal catheter is safe and effective and does not appear to independently cause an increased risk of complications.
This was an open case series involving 11 postmenopausal women who were willing to take gabapentin for the relief of their hot flushes and were willing to keep a diary recording the number and intensity of their hot flushes, both before and during treatment. Gabapentin was started at a dose of 300 mg, to be taken at night, and the women were instructed to increase the dose up to 1,200 mg, according to symptom behavior.
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition affecting millions of people around the world and is defined as pain that follows a lesion or dysfunction of the nervous system. This type of pain is difficult to treat, but the novel compounds pregabalin (Lyrica) and gabapentin (Neurontin) have proven clinical efficacy. Unlike traditional analgesics such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs or narcotics, these agents have no frank antiinflammatory actions and no effect on physiological pain. Although extensive preclinical studies have led to a number of suggestions, until recently their mechanism of action has not been clearly defined. Here, we describe studies on the analgesic effects of pregabalin in a mutant mouse containing a single-point mutation within the gene encoding a specific auxiliary subunit protein (alpha2-delta-1) of voltage-dependent calcium channels. The mice demonstrate normal pain phenotypes and typical responses to other analgesic drugs. We show that the mutation leads to a significant reduction in the binding affinity of pregabalin in the brain and spinal cord and the loss of its analgesic efficacy. These studies show conclusively that the analgesic actions of pregabalin are mediated through the alpha2-delta-1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels and establish this subunit as a therapeutic target for pain control.
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To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacarbil (GEn) 1200 mg or 600 mg compared with placebo in subjects with moderate-to-severe primary restless legs syndrome (RLS).
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Chemotherapy induced neuropathy pain remains as a major dose limiting side effect of many commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs. Presently newer antiepileptic agents have been developed with improved safety and tolerability profiles in alleviating neuropathic pain.
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Recent studies showed effectiveness of gabapentin in improving the pain control in patients with neuropathic cancer pain, already treated with opiates. Moreover, gabapentin appeared promising in reducing the need for high total doses of opioids and avoiding unplanned treatment interruptions for patients with head and neck malignancies treated with radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Furthermore, the combination of gabapentin and morphine has been shown to effect better pain relief at lower doses of each drug when compared with gabapentin or morphine alone in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia. The combination of both drugs was associated with a beneficial effect on pain-related interference with daily activity, mood, sleep and quality of life.
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The sample (N = 6373) was primarily male (98%), white (79%), and exempt from medication copayments due to disability status; nearly 40% had a prior psychiatric or dementia diagnosis. Nearly half of the patients were poorly adherent, with rates ranging from 42% to 63% across AEDs. In multivariable models, patients on phenobarbital, valproate, and gabapentin were significantly less likely to be adherent on both outcomes, while lamotrigine and levetiracetam were positively associated with adherence per the MPR.
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Only in the last three decades, the restless legs syndrome (RLS) has been examined in randomized controlled trials. The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a task force to perform an evidence-based review of the medical literature on treatment modalities used to manage patients with RLS. The task force performed a search of the published literature using electronic databases. The therapeutic efficacy of each drug was classified as being either efficacious, likely efficacious, investigational, nonefficacious, or lacking sufficient evidence to classify. Implications for clinical practice were generated based on the levels of evidence and particular features of each modality, such as adverse events. All studies were classed according to three levels of evidence. All Level-I trials were included in the efficacy tables; if no Level-I trials were available then Level-II trials were included or, in the absence of Level-II trials, Level-III studies or case series were included. Only studies published in print or online before December 31, 2006 were included. All studies published after 1996, which attempted to assess RLS augmentation, were reviewed in a separate section. The following drugs are considered efficacious for the treatment of RLS: levodopa, ropinirole, pramipexole, cabergoline, pergolide, and gabapentin. Drugs considered likely efficacious are rotigotine, bromocriptine, oxycodone, carbamazepine, valproic acid, and clonidine. Drugs that are considered investigational are dihydroergocriptine, lisuride, methadone, tramadol, clonazepam, zolpidem, amantadine, and topiramate. Magnesium, folic acid, and exercise are also considered to be investigational. Sumanirole is nonefficacious. Intravenous iron dextran is likely efficacious for the treatment of RLS secondary to end-stage renal disease and investigational in RLS subjects with normal renal function. The efficacy of oral iron is considered investigational; however, its efficacy appears to depend on the iron status of subjects. Cabergoline and pergolide (and possibly lisuride) require special monitoring due to fibrotic complications including cardiac valvulopathy. Special monitoring is required for several other medications based on clinical concerns: opioids (including, but not limited to, oxycodone, methadone and tramadol), due to possible addiction and respiratory depression, and some anticonvulsants (particularly, carbamazepine and valproic acid), due to systemic toxicities.
Glutamate metabolism is associated with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, but it is not clear whether glutamate reveals ongoing ischemia (OI). We evaluated whether microdialysis would detect OI induced by coronary artery ligation in a rat cardiac transplantation model.
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Types of studies: double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTsTypes of participants: adults with a diagnosis of probable or definite ALSTypes of interventions: gabapentin, baclofen, or other GABA modulators compared with placebo, no treatment, or each otherPrimary outcome: survival at one year from study enrollmentSecondary outcomes: individual rate of decline of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), expressed as arm megascore; rate of decline of per cent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC); rate of decline of ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS); health-related quality of life; survival evaluated by pooling hazards; and adverse events DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently checked titles and abstracts identified by the searches. The review authors obtained and independently analyzed original individual participant data from each included study; additional review authors and the Cochrane Neuromuscular Managing Editor checked the outcome data. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias in included studies.
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Forty healthy volunteers were randomized to TPM, gabapentin (GBP), or placebo. Doses were escalated as tolerated to a maximum of 400mg/day for TPM or 3600 mg/day for GBP, over a 10-week period, followed by a minimum 2-week plateau period. Volunteers underwent an EEG, cognitive tests, and the AMT prior to starting an AED and again 12 weeks later. The EEG was captured using a structured recording protocol and quantified using the fast Fourier transform. Four target measures were derived from the averaged occipital electrodes (peak frequency of the dominant posterior rhythm, median frequency, percentage theta, and percentage delta). Test-retest changes for all measures were scored against similar test-retest distributions previously obtained from untreated healthy volunteers.
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We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, and observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
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Pharmacotherapy remains an important modality for the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, as monotherapy current drugs are associated with limited efficacy and dose-related side effects. Combining two or more different drugs may improve analgesic efficacy and, in some situations, reduce overall side effects (e.g. if synergistic interactions allow for dose reductions of combined drugs).
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We compared two high-volume surgeons' patients managed on our conventional pathway (CP) or our RRP. The CP analgesia consisted of intraoperative methadone and postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) until tolerating oral analgesics, with adjunctive diazepam. Analgesia on the RRP includes intraoperative methadone and postoperative PCA; patients also receive preoperative gabapentin and acetaminophen, intraoperative intravenous acetaminophen, and postoperative diazepam, gabapentin, acetaminophen, and ketorolac. Ambulation and full diet are permitted beginning postoperative day 1. The primary outcome was mean daily pain scores. Secondary outcomes were LOS, time to pathway milestone completions, and frequency of opioid-related side effects requiring treatment.
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Using phMRI and functional connectivity analysis approaches, the PD effects of gabapentin in a preclinical neuropathic pain state were characterized. Furthermore, the current results offer insights on which brain systems gabapentin directly or indirectly acts upon.
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We retrospectively reviewed the records of 498 patients treated on a single protocol for ALL to investigate the risk factors, the incidence, and the use of therapeutic and prophylactic gabapentin treatment for NP.
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Progressive tactile hypersensitivity (PTH) manifesting after sciatic nerve crush and spared nerve injury (SNI) are two distinct rodent experimental models of neuropathic pain. PTH develops months after recovery from the nerve crush in response to repeated intermittent low-threshold mechanical stimulation of the reinnervated sciatic nerve skin territory and represents a model of stimulus-induced pain. SNI is characterized by an early and sustained increase in stimulus-evoked pain sensitivity in the intact skin territory of the spared sural nerve after sectioning of the two other terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. We examined the effects of morphine (0.5-10 mg/kg), gabapentin (30-200 mg/kg), MK801 (0.01-0.02 mg/kg), amitriptyline (10-25 mg/kg), and carbamazepine (5-7.5 mg/kg) in both models. Morphine, gabapentin, and carbamazepine both reversed and prevented stimulus-induced PTH, whereas MK801 and amitriptyline reduced but did not prevent stimulus-induced PTH. In contrast, the stimulus-evoked behavioral hypersensitivity in the SNI model was poorly modified by these drugs. Independent neuropathic pain models show differential sensitivity to analgesic drug treatment. We suggest that this is due to the different mechanisms responsible for the neuropathic pain-related behavior. Multiple models are required, therefore, to study the mechanisms that contribute to neuropathic pain and to predict analgesic efficacy for different components of the neuropathic pain syndrome.
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The effects of treatment with the anti-convulsant agents, lamotrigine and riluzole were compared with gabapentin in a rat experimental model of neuropathic pain. Rats were treated intraperitoneally, with gabapentin (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg), lamotrigine (2, 10 and 50 mg/kg) or riluzole (6 and 12 mg/kg) prior to, and every 12 h for 4 days following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Mechanical and cold sensitivity were assessed prior to surgery (baseline) and then at 4, 8 and 12 days following CCI. The four-day treatment with each of the agents was effective at producing reductions in the development of mechanical and cold hypersensitivity for periods ranging from the fourth to 12th day. The highest doses of each of the agents were also assessed on formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors and on formalin-induced increases in extracellular glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) of awake behaving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Nociceptive scores in formalin test were significantly decreased by gabapentin (300 mg/kg i.p.) and riluzole (12 mg/kg i.p.), but not by lamotrigine (50 mg/kg i.p.). Formalin-induced increases in glutamate levels in SCDH were lowered significantly, as compared with the controls, with all drugs both in the first phase and second phases, with the greatest effects for riluzole and gabapentin. Similar suppressive effects of the drugs were observed on formalin-induced increases in spinal aspartate, except that gabapentin and lamotrigine produced effects only during the second phase. Riluzole produced profound and prolonged reductions in the spinal levels of glutamate and aspartate both for basal and formalin-stimulated release. In conclusion, the results suggest that the anti-convulsant agents gabapentin, lamotrigine and riluzole may reduce the development of hyperalgesia in a rat model of neuropathic pain by reducing the spinal release of glutamate. Riluzole's pronounced suppressive effects on spinal EAA levels is attributed to its established role as a glutamate release inhibitor and an enhancer of glutamate transporter activity.
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In the L5 spinal nerve-ligated rats, the intrathecal co-administration of gabapentin and clonidine exerted a synergistic action on the mechanical antiallodynic effect.
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This paper systematically reviews the available efficacy/effectiveness evidence for various anti-epileptic drugs (AED) as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures in children.