mobic 25 mg
Although there were some differences in PK parameters among the three East Asian groups, the present study performed under strictly controlled conditions did not reproduce the major ethnic differences observed in previous studies.
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Meloxicam (an oxicam derivative), a relatively new cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, is a member of enolic acid group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. It is generally used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and other joint pains. Meloxicam is practically insoluble in water (8µg/ml), which directly influences the C(max), T(max), as well as the bioavailability of the drug. In the present study, an attempt has been made to improve the dissolution of Meloxicam by preparation of its solid dispersion using β-cyclodextrin blended with various water soluble polymer carriers i.e., HPMC (methocel IH), methylcellulose (400cps), PVP K30, HPMC (K(4)M), HPMC (50cps). It is reported that when small amount of water soluble polymer is added to β-cyclodextrin, its nature of solubilization significantly increases due to increase in the apparent complex stability constant. Phase solubility studies were carried out to evaluate the solubilizing power of β-cyclodextrin along with various water soluble polymers. The solid dispersion was prepared and formulated into tablets and suspension, which were evaluated on the basis of various official tests. All the studies suggest that formulations of Meloxicam utilizing solid dispersion technique significantly enhances solubility (90 µg/ml) of the drug and results in superior formulations of the drug by using β-cyclodextrin blended with 0.12% w/w HPMC (Methocel IH). Ternary complexation is a valuable tool for solubility enhancement of drugs.
mobic the drug
In ruminants, the elongating conceptus secretes interferon tau (IFNT), the pregnancy recognition signal, and prostaglandins (PGs). Progesterone from the ovary induces prostaglandin synthase two (PTGS2) and hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) in the endometrial epithelia, and PTGS2-derived PGs regulate endometrial functions and conceptus elongation. The enzyme HSD11B1 interconverts inactive cortisone and active cortisol. These studies determined the effects of pregnancy, IFNT, and PGs on endometrial HSD11B1 expression and activity in the ovine uterus. Study one found that HSD11B1 activity was present in both the endometrium and conceptus during early pregnancy. In study two, ewes received intrauterine infusions of vehicle as a control (CX) or meloxicam (MEL), a PTGS2 inhibitor, from Days 8 to 14 of pregnancy. Endometrial HSD11B1 activity and cortisol in the uterine lumen were substantially lower in MEL-infused ewes. In study three, cyclic ewes received intrauterine infusions of vehicle as a CX, MEL, recombinant ovine IFNT, or IFNT and MEL. Infusion of IFNT increased endometrial HSD11B1 expression and activity and cortisol in the uterine lumen, and this effect was diminished by coinfusion of MEL. In study four, cyclic ewes were infused with vehicle as a CX, IFNT, PGE2, PGF2 alpha, or PGI2. Infusion of all the PGs and IFNT increased endometrial HSD11B1 expression and activity, and IFNT and PGI2 infusion increased cortisol in the uterine lumen. These studies support the idea that IFNT and PGs from the conceptus regulate endometrial HSD11B1 expression and activity that regenerates bioactive cortisol in the ovine uterus during early pregnancy to influence endometrial functions and conceptus elongation.
mobic 40 mg
A feedback loop mediated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma is discussed as being responsible for the up-regulation of COX-2
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To investigate the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the cerebrovascular coupling, hemodynamic and neuronal responses to forepaw stimulation were measured in alpha-chloralose-anesthetized rats (N = 18) before and after intravenous administration of Meloxicam (MEL), a preferential COX-2 inhibitor, and following a bolus of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a prominent vasodilatatory product of COX-2 catalyzed metabolism of arachidonic acid. The cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response was quantified using continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. Neuronal activity was measured by recording somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) via intracranial electrodes. Both MEL and PGE(2) had a significant effect on the activation-elicited CBF (P < 10(-6)) and BOLD (P < 10(-6)) responses, without affecting the baseline perfusion. Meloxicam decreased brain COX enzymatic activity by 57 +/- 14% and decreased the stimulation-induced CBF response to 32 +/- 2% and BOLD to 46 +/- 1% of their respective pre-drug amplitudes. In turn, PGE(2) bolus resulted in a partial recovery of functional hyperemia, with the CBF response recovering to 52 +/- 3% and the BOLD response to 56 +/- 2% of their values prior to MEL administration. There was no concomitant decrease in either amplitudes or latencies of SEP components. These findings suggest a modulatory role of COX-2 products in the cerebrovascular coupling and provide evidence for existence of a functional metabolic buffer.
mobic 600 mg
Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) might favour non-enzymatic formation of cardiodepressive isoprostanes from arachidonic acid by radicals generated during reperfusion. This could explain deleterious effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on cardiac function. We examined the influence of COX inhibition on myocardial function after low-flow ischaemia and reperfusion, employing either ASA (100 micromol/l), the partially selective COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam (0.3 micromol/l and 3.0 micromol/l), or the highly selective COX-2 inhibitor SC 58125 (1.0 micromol/l and 3.0 microgmol/l). Isolated, buffer-perfused guinea pig hearts, performing pressure-volume work before and after consecutive low-flow ischaemia and reperfusion, were used for the study. Measurement of coronary and aortic flow, ejection time and heart rate served to calculate external heart work (EHW), before and after ischaemia. Additionally, release of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2, production of lactate, consumption of pyruvate and tissue concentration of the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha were measured. ASA significantly reduced recovery of EHW (46+/-18% vs. 82+/-15% for controls), whereas meloxicam and SC 58125 did not (64+/-15% and 74+/-13% recovery, respectively). Paradoxically, ASA increased reactive hyperaemia and consumption of pyruvate in the early reperfusion phase in comparison to all other groups, while lactate production did not differ. Prostacyclin production did not increase during reperfusion and was not significantly different between groups at any time point. In contrast, thromboxane A2 release increased about fivefold in the 2nd min of reperfusion under control conditions and in the presence of SC 58125, but was inhibited by ASA and by meloxicam in both concentrations. Isoprostane content of heart tissue was not detectably influenced under the mild reperfusion conditions used here. We conclude that ASA can aggravate postischaemic cardiac dysfunction, independent of COX inhibition. The deleterious effect in the present model might be due to uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation rather than to direct effects of reduced eicosanoid release or radical induced formation of isoprostanes.
mobic tablets uses
The present report addresses the development of cutaneous and ocular reactions possibly related to meloxicam administration in a dog. Based on clinical signs and absence of laboratory data compatible with the other differential diagnoses considered, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction (ADR) due to meloxicam was considered. Skin biopsy revealed haemorrhage of the superficial and deep dermis, associated with hyperplasia of endothelial cells and epidermal sloughing. Vasculitis in the deep dermis was also noted. Such lesions were considered compatible with an ADR. Although the owner was not aware of any previous allergic reaction to drugs, the animal had a clinical history of atopic dermatitis. Meloxicam is a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) in the oxicam family, indicated for the control of inflammation and pain in acute and chronic musculoskeletal disorders in dogs. Although meloxicam is usually well tolerated, the present clinical case represents an alert to practitioners about the potential role of NSAIDS in ADRs in dogs with a history of allergic cutaneous diseases.
Although, codeine was among the safest alternative drugs and none of the patients had an anaphylactic reaction to it, thus a challenge with codeine may be considered especially in patients with dermographism. The results of this preliminary study should be confirmed in a prospective study including a control group.
mobic 30mg tablets
Bacterial DNA containing unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanosine motif (CpG-DNA) has been identified as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, which is recognized by Toll-like receptors and activates immune cells to produce cytokines. The aim of the study was to characterize the ability of CpG-DNA to induce fever in mice. Intravenous administration of unmethylated CpG-DNA 1826 triggered an elevation of body temperature (T(b)) lasting several hours. The magnitude of T(b) elevation increased with an increase of dose of the oligonucleotide (administered in a range from 0.01 mg/kg to 1.0 mg/kg). A fever-like increase of T(b) in mice was partially dependent on IL-6, as IL-6 deficient mice responded with reduced fever to the CpG-DNA 1826. Meloxicam and sulindac sulfide, inhibitors of cyclooxygenases, reduced fever in mice challenged with CpG-DNA 1826, indicating that the process may also depend on prostaglandins. In fact, plasma levels of prostaglandin E(2), as well as IL-6, increased at 4 h postinjection of CpG-DNA 1826 into mice. These data demonstrate that the pathophysiological mechanism of the increase of T(b) induced by CpG-DNA 1826 is similar to fever induced by LPS. Both LPS and CpG-DNA 1826 failed to produce elevation of T(b) in mice deficient for a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) gene, further supporting the hypothesis that the two pyrogens provoke fever, using the same components of the cellular signaling metabolism. However, parthenolide, an inhibitor of I-kappaB kinase reduced fever due to CpG-DNA 1826, and did not affect fever to LPS, suggesting that the two structurally dissimilar pyrogens may affect different intracellular pathways leading to the upregulation of NF-kappaB. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that C3H/HeJ mice, known to exhibit a mutation in the Toll-like receptor-4 gene, do not respond with fever to LPS. They respond, however, with fever after injection of CpG-DNA 1826. We conclude that bacterial DNA shares with components of the bacterial wall the capacity to elicit fever and may, consequently, be part of a novel class of exogenous pyrogens.
mobic 10 mg
Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively).
mobic 5 mg
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are well known to induce gastric mucosal damage including bleeding, ulceration and perforation in humans and animals too. These effects are related with the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which is the main established mechanism of action for these drugs. Fasted rats were given piroxicam, preferential COX-1 inhibitor (10-20 mg/kg) or meloxicam, preferential COX-2 inhibitor (7.5-15 mg/kg) orally. Six or nine hours (h) later, respectively, the stomach was excised, the severity of the damage assessed and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity measured, as well as prostaglandin PGE(2) content. Furthermore, in order to assess the effects of these oxicams over previously damaged gastric mucosa, 1 ml of 0.6 N HCl was administered p.o. followed, 1 h after, of the correspondent dose of each NSAID, and the same parameters were determined. Oral administration of both drugs dose-dependently caused acute gastric haemorrhage erosions. Myeloperoxidase activity was significantly increased by piroxicam administration. In addition, PGE(2) content was significantly reduced. The association between the administration of the acid and NSAID caused a worsening of the damage and, while myeloperoxidase activity did not modify by both piroxicam and meloxicam, PGE(2) levels were reduced. These results suggest that the PG derived from both COX-1 and COX-2 pathway plays a beneficial role in the gastroprotection, and thus caution should be exercise in the clinical use of preferential COX-2 inhibitors.
mobic pain medicine
Wistar rat colon cancer model was induced by 1-2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (40 mg x kg(-1), sc) + 1% dextran sodium sulfate solution (DSS) (freely drinking). All rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: Control (DMH + DSS + solvant), meloxicam (Mel) (DMH + DSS + Mel 1.35 mg x kg(-1)), berberine (Ber) (DMH + DSS + Ber 100 mg x kg(-1)). The drugs were given orally once a day for 5 day per week. The body weight, the number of colon ACFs, the incidence and number of colon cancer in rats, as well as the morphological changes of rat colon tissues were evaluated. Human colon cancer lovo cell line was treated by either Ber or Mel in various concentrations (1 10(-6) mol x L(-1), 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1), 1 x 10(-4) mol x L(-1), 1 x 10(-3) mol x L(-1)) for 6, 12 and 24 h, respectively, and the cell growth was assayed by MTT method. RT-PCR and western-blot were used to evaluate the mRNA and protein expressions of COX-2 from lovo cells treated with Ber and Mel.
mobic pill identifier
10 hound-crossbred dogs.
mobic tablets 15mg
Prospective randomized experimental trial.
Animals were assigned to one of four groups, according to anaesthetic premedication and induction agent: buprenorphine 20 μg kg(-1) with either dexmedetomidine (dex) 250 μg m(-2) or acepromazine (acp) 0.03 mg kg(-1), followed by alfaxalone (ALF) or propofol (PRO). Meloxicam was administered preoperatively to all animals and anaesthesia was always maintained using isoflurane. Physiological measures and assessments of pain, sedation and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) were made before and after premedication, intraoperatively, and for up to 24 hours after premedication. Data were analyzed with one-way, two-way and mixed between-within subjects anova, Kruskall-Wallis analyses and Chi squared tests. Results were deemed significant if p ≤ 0.05, except where multiple comparisons were performed (p ≤ 0.005).
mobic drug meloxicam
The study included NSAID-hypersensitive patients with and without concurrent asthma, rhinitis, and chronic urticaria that presented to the allergy clinic between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 2010. Patient data were collected from the allergy clinic computer database. Patients challenged with codeine were included in the codeine group. The non-codeine group included those patients that were tested with analgesics other than codeine.
mobic medication interactions
Anaphylactic reaction to meloxicam has never been reported to date. We report 2 cases of meloxicam-induced anaphylactic reaction with no sensitivity to another selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor. A thorough drug allergy work-up should be done before other cyclooxygenase inhibitors are prescribed.
mobic 60 mg
Veterinary use of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug diclofenac in South Asia has resulted in the collapse of populations of three vulture species of the genus Gyps to the most severe category of global extinction risk. Vultures are exposed to diclofenac when scavenging on livestock treated with the drug shortly before death. Diclofenac causes kidney damage, increased serum uric acid concentrations, visceral gout, and death. Concern about this issue led the Indian Government to announce its intention to ban the veterinary use of diclofenac by September 2005. Implementation of a ban is still in progress late in 2005, and to facilitate this we sought potential alternative NSAIDs by obtaining information from captive bird collections worldwide. We found that the NSAID meloxicam had been administered to 35 captive Gyps vultures with no apparent ill effects. We then undertook a phased programme of safety testing of meloxicam on the African white-backed vulture Gyps africanus, which we had previously established to be as susceptible to diclofenac poisoning as the endangered Asian Gyps vultures. We estimated the likely maximum level of exposure (MLE) of wild vultures and dosed birds by gavage (oral administration) with increasing quantities of the drug until the likely MLE was exceeded in a sample of 40 G. africanus. Subsequently, six G. africanus were fed tissues from cattle which had been treated with a higher than standard veterinary course of meloxicam prior to death. In the final phase, ten Asian vultures of two of the endangered species (Gyps bengalensis, Gyps indicus) were dosed with meloxicam by gavage; five of them at more than the likely MLE dosage. All meloxicam-treated birds survived all treatments, and none suffered any obvious clinical effects. Serum uric acid concentrations remained within the normal limits throughout, and were significantly lower than those from birds treated with diclofenac in other studies. We conclude that meloxicam is of low toxicity to Gyps vultures and that its use in place of diclofenac would reduce vulture mortality substantially in the Indian subcontinent. Meloxicam is already available for veterinary use in India.
mobic common dosage
Sedation scores, induction agent dose, pain scores at all time points and rescue analgesia were not statistically different between groups. In methadone treated cats there was no significant variation in MNT over time, suggesting a possible anti-hyperalgesic action, whereas in the other two groups lower thresholds were recorded at various time points after surgery compared to baseline. No cats required rescue analgesia after the second dose of methadone. No perioperative adverse effects occurred.
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Doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity overshadows its anticancer effectiveness. This study is aimed at assessing the possible modulator effects of meloxicam, a cyclooxigenase-2 inhibitor, on doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice and exploring some of the modulator mechanisms. Forty male mice were divided for treatment, for 2 weeks, with saline, meloxicam (daily), doxorubicin (twice/week), or both meloxicam and doxorubicin. Doxorubicin induced a significant increase in relative kidney weight to body weight, kidney lipid perooxidation, plasma levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, kidney caspase-3 activity, and kidney prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content. Doxorubicin disturbed kidney histology, abrogated renal function tests (serum creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen), induced a significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. The administration of meloxicam with doxorubicin mitigated all doxorubicin-disturbed parameters. Meloxicam ameliorated doxorubicin-induced renal injury via inhibition of inflammatory PGE2, inflammatory cytokines, caspase-3 activity, antioxidant effect, and free radical scavenging activity.
mobic usual dose
The proliferation and apoptosis of SGC7901 cells were measured by 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA and the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay (TUNEL) separately. The expression of PCNA and COX-2 of gastric adenocarcinoma cells were detected by immunocytochemistry. Human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC7901 cells were implanted orthotopically in the stomach of nude mice. Rofecoxib (30 mg.kg-1.d-1) was administrated i.g. for eight weeks.
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We analysed data on age, sex and dispensed drugs for people>or=75 years of age registered in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register from October to December 2005 (n=732,230) and located 41,626 NSAID/COX-2-selective inhibitor users. Logistic regression analysis was used for analysing the association between the use of different NSAIDs/COX-2-selective inhibitors and gastroprotective drugs, and between individual characteristics and use of gastroprotective drugs.
mobic and alcohol
Meloxicam [4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(5-methyl-2-thiazolyl)-2H- 1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide-1,1-dioxide] is a new nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug belonging to the enolic acid group. In a crossover study, 30 mg 14C-labeled meloxicam was administered to four male healthy volunteers as a short-term infusion and as an oral solution. The objectives of the study were to determine the mode of elimination, the excretion balance, the in vivo binding characteristics to serum proteins, and to investigate the metabolic pattern in plasma, urine, and feces. A comparison of plasma concentration measurements of unchanged drug by a specific HPLC assay and total radioactivity by liquid scintillation counting revealed a very close conformity. Over 90% of the plasma radioactivity was represented by unchanged drug. Its terminal and dominant half-life of elimination from plasma, as determined from plasma and urinary data in this study, ranged from 12 to 17 hr in the volunteers. The serum protein binding of the radioactivity from in vivo samples was very high (99.1-99.7%). The excretion balance was complete after 6 days. Average urinary excretion of 14C-radioactivity accounted for 43% of the dose, with the remainder appearing with the feces. Meloxicam was extensively metabolized, with only traces of the drug appearing unchanged in urine and feces. The main metabolites were formed by hydroxylation and further oxidation of the methyl group of the thiazolyl moiety. In addition, two further metabolites were found, particularly in urine. Altogether, > 95% of the dose excreted could be accounted for by the metabolites identified or the parent compound itself.
mobic oral tablet
Meloxicam administered PO at 1.0 mg/kg has good bioavailability with slow elimination kinetics in sheep. These data suggested that meloxicam may be clinically useful, provided the safety and analgesic efficacy of meloxicam as well as feed-related influences on its pharmacokinetics are established in ruminants.