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Micronase

Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Glucophage, Actos, Glucotrol, Avandia

 

Also known as:  Glyburide.

Description

Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.

Generic Micronase is a sulfonylurea antidiabetic medicine. It works by causing the pancreas to release insulin, which helps to lower blood sugar.

Brand name of Generic Micronase is Micronase.

Dosage

Take Generic Micronase by mouth with food.

If you are taking 1 dose daily, take Generic Micronase with breakfast or the first main meal of the day unless your doctor tells you otherwise.

High amounts of dietary fiber may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar.

Generic Micronase works best if it is taken at the same time each day.

Continue to take Generic Micronase even if you feel well.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Micronase and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Micronase are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Micronase if you are allergic to Generic Micronase components.

Do not take Generic Micronase if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Micronase can ham your baby.

Do not take Generic Micronase if you have certain severe problems associated with diabetes (eg, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma).

Do not take Generic Micronase if you have moderate to severe burns or very high blood acid levels (acidosis) you are taking bosentan.

Do not take Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, a severe rash, hives, itching, breathing difficulties, dizziness) to any other sulfonamide medicine, such as acetazolamide, celecoxib, certain diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), glipizide, probenecid, sulfamethoxazole, valdecoxib, or zonisamide.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of liver, kidney, thyroid, or heart problems.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have stomach or bowel problems (eg, stomach or bowel blockage, stomach paralysis), drink alcohol, or have had poor nutrition.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have type 1 diabetes, very poor health, a high fever, a severe infection, severe diarrhea, or high blood acid levels, or have had a severe injury.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of certain hormonal problems (eg, adrenal or pituitary problems, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone [SIADH]), low blood sodium levels, anemia, or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you will be having surgery.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan because liver problems may occur; the effectiveness of both medicines may be decreased; beta-blockers (eg, propranolol) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; they may also hide certain signs of low blood sugar and make it more difficult to notice; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril), anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), azole antifungals (eg, miconazole, ketoconazole), chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clofibrate, fenfluramine, insulin, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (eg, phenelzine), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen), phenylbutazone, probenecid, quinolone antibiotics (eg, ciprofloxacin), salicylates (eg, aspirin), or sulfonamides (eg, sulfamethoxazole) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; calcium channel blockers (eg, diltiazem), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), decongestants (eg, pseudoephedrine), diazoxide, diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogens, hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pills), isoniazid, niacin, phenothiazines (eg, promethazine), phenytoin, rifamycins (eg, rifampin), sympathomimetics (eg, albuterol, epinephrine, terbutaline), or thyroid supplements (eg, levothyroxine) because they may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar; gemfibrozil because blood sugar may be increased or decreased; cyclosporine because the risk of its side effects may be increased by Generic Micronase.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.

micronase dosing

Atrial fibrillation is self-perpetuating, suggesting that the tachyarrhythmia causes electrophysiological changes that contribute to the progressive nature of the disease. In animal models, pacing-induced rapid atrial rates result in sustained atrial fibrillation. This is mediated by shortening of refractory periods termed electrical remodeling. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the time course of electrical remodeling and to define mechanisms of the phenomenon.

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Multispecialty group practice HMO.

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Changes in short-circuit current (Isc) induced by the H(2)S-donor, NaHS, were measured in Ussing chambers. Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration was evaluated using fura-2.

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Potentially inappropriate prescribing of renally cleared medications is common in older VA NH patients. Intervention studies to improve the prescribing of primarily renally cleared medications in nursing homes are needed.

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The CORE Diabetes Model was used to simulate long-term outcomes for a cohort of individuals with type 2 diabetes treated with either repaglinide/metformin or nateglinide/metformin. HbA1c changes for each regimen were taken from a comparative study. At the end of the study, changes in HbA1c from baseline were -1.28% points and -0.67% points for repaglinide/metformin and nateglinide/metformin, respectively. Median final doses were 5.0 mg/day for repaglinide, 360 mg/day for nateglinide and 2000 mg/day metformin in each treatment arm. Costs were calculated as the annual costs for drugs plus costs of complications (US Medicare perspective) over a 30-year period. Life expectancy (LE) and quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) were calculated. Outcomes and costs were discounted at 3% annually.

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Acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of noradrenaline-stimulated segments of the rabbit basilar artery was accompanied by a small, transient hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle cell membrane which was diminished by repeated exposure to the agonist. In the presence of glibenclamide (10 microM) or high concentrations of potassium chloride (65 mM), the acetylcholine-evoked smooth muscle hyperpolarization was abolished, whereas the relaxation response was unaffected. Nitric oxide (NO gas in solution; 0.5-15 microM) evoked dose-dependent relaxation in noradrenaline contracted arterial segments, but had no effect on the smooth muscle membrane potential, even at a saturated concentration (150 microM), which was 10 times higher than required to stimulate maximal relaxation. Additionally, NO-evoked relaxations were unaffected by glibenclamide (10 microM), but the responses were significantly attenuated in the presence of 65 mM potassium chloride. These data show that, as in the rabbit middle cerebral artery, acetylcholine-evoked hyperpolarization in the rabbit basilar artery is mediated by glibenclamide-sensitive potassium channels. However, in contrast to the middle cerebral artery and to other vessels such as the rat mesenteric artery, the change in smooth muscle membrane potential does not make an important contribution to the relaxation evoked either by this agonist or by NO.

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MODY 3 belongs to monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus and is caused by monoallelic mutation in gene for transcription factor HNF-1alpha, essential for regulation of beta-cell function. Clinical presentation of MODY 3 is similar to that of type 1 diabetes. Although MODY 3 patients are not threatened by ketoacidosis, tight metabolic control is important for prevention of chronic diabetic complications. In the sibbling pair diabetes was manifested by osmotic symptoms resulting from hyperglycaemia at the age of 18 years (brother) resp. 15 years (sister) and both of them started being treated with intensified insulin treatment. Metabolic control of the brother was very tight with HbA1c 3.3 % but frequent hypoglycaemias occured. On the contrary metabolic control of the sister was very poor due to her non-compliance (HbA1c 10.9 %, IFCC). Molecular-genetic testing proved HNF-1alpha gene mutation (Arg200Gly). In accordance with the references treatment with sulphonylurea derivate glibenclamide was initiated [at the doses 1.25 (brother) resp. 7.5 (sister) mg/day] and insulin treatment was discontinued. The treatment change led to better quality of life and metabolic control in both the patients and suprisingly to the lower frequency of the hypoglycaemias in the brother (HbA1c decreased from 3.3 % to 2.8 % in three months in the brother resp. from 10.9 % to 10.0 % in two months in the sister). Molecular-genetic testing enables the change of treatment leading to better quality of life and metabolic control, although its longterm safety and efficacy will have to be confirmed.

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Administration of AN leaves extract showed hypoglycaemic and anti-platelet aggregation activity in diabetic rats as that of glyburide.

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1. In order to examine the mechanisms of cGMP-induced relaxation in airway smooth muscle, the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and 8-brom cGMP on muscle tone were studied by measuring isometric tension, while the effects on cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations were studied by measuring the spectra of fura-2 loaded in guinea-pig tracheal strips. 2. Atrial natriuretic peptide and 8-brom cGMP caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous tone in the guinea-pig trachea. The relaxant effects of these agents on spontaneous tone were markedly suppressed in the presence of iberiotoxin (IbTX), a selective inhibitor of large-conductance Ca2(+)-activated K+ (BKCa) channels. Iberiotoxin (30 nmol/L) markedly affected the maximal effect induced by ANP and 8-brom cGMP and augmented EC70 values for ANP and EC50 values for 8-brom cGMP approximately 27- and 17-fold, respectively. The inhibitory effects of IbTX on relaxation induced by these agents were diminished in the presence of 1 mumol/L nifedipine, an antagonist of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (VOCC). 3. The inhibitory action of ANP and 8-brom cGMP on spontaneous tone was not affected by the presence of 10 mumol/L glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, and 100 nmol/L apamin, an inhibitor of small-conductance Ca2(+)-activated K+ channels. When these agents were applied to tissues precontracted by high (40 mmol/L) K+, the relaxant effects of these agents markedly diminished. 4. The extracellular Ca2(+)-dependent contraction was inhibited in the presence of 0.3 mumol/L ANP or 0.1 mmol/L 8-brom cGMP. Concentration-response curves to extracellular Ca2+ (0.03-2.4 mmol/L) were markedly diminished by exposure to these agents. The maximal effect induced by extracellular Ca2+ was affected by these agents. 5. Atrial natriuretic peptide caused an inhibition of spontaneous tone accompanied by a reduction in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. In the presence of IbTX, the elimination of both muscle tone and cytosolic Ca2+ by ANP was suppressed. 6. We conclude that ANP and 8-brom cGMP activate BKCa channels and that the inhibition of Ca2+ influx through VOCC, mediated by BKCa channel activation, may be involved in cGMP-dependent bronchodilation.

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Pioglitazone was associated with a higher incidence of hospitalization for HF without an increase in cardiovascular mortality or worsening cardiac function (by echocardiography).

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Isolated middle cerebral arteries of rats were perfused and superfused simultaneously with physiological salt solution (PSS) equilibrated with control (21% O2) or with reduced O2 concentrations (15, 10, 5, or 0% O2). Arterial dilation in response to reduced PO2 was unaffected by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine (10 microM) but was inhibited by selective perfusion of the lumen with 21% O2 PSS (0% O2 in the superfusion), endothelial removal, and 1 microM indomethacin. Arterial dilation during reduced PO2 was unaffected by 1 mM tetraethylammonium to block the Ca(2+)-dependent "maxi-K+" channel but was eliminated by 1 microM glibenclamide, a blocker of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel. Glibenclamide also inhibited dilation of the vessels in response to the stable prostacyclin analogue, iloprost. The results of this study suggest that dilation of rat middle cerebral arteries in response to reduced PO2 is mediated by an endothelium-dependent cyclooxygenase product, which activates glibenclamide-sensitive K+ channels.

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The levels of blood sugar (221 mg/dl), HbA1c(10.2%), triglycerides (496 mg/dl) and cholesterol (323 mg/dl) were raised, while the concentration of somatotropic hormone was diminished, both before and after arginine administration. Fundoscopy revealed concentric diminution of the visual fields with left amblyopia. Visual evoked potentials and colour sense testing revealed bilateral optical atrophy, and the audiogram demonstrated deafness. These findings provided the diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome, namely insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, deafness, optical atrophy and small stature with somatotropic hormone deficiency.

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Mice treated with α, β-amyrin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) or glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) had significantly reduced STZ-induced increases in blood glucose (BG), total cholesterol (TC) and serum triglycerides (TGs). Unlike glibenclamide that showed significant reductions in BG, TC and TGs in normoglycemic mice, α, β-amyrin did not lower normal blood sugar levels but at 100 mg/kg, manifested a hypolipidemic effect. Also, α, β-amyrin effectively reduced the elevated plasma glucose levels during the oral glucose tolerance test. Moreover, the plasma insulin level and histopathological analysis of pancreas revealed the beneficial effect of α, β-amyrin in the preservation of beta cell integrity. In mice treated orally with α, β-amyrin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) or fenofibrate (200 mg/kg), the HFD-associated rise in serum TC and TGs were significantly less. The hypocholesterolemic effect of α, β-amyrin appeared more prominent at 100 mg/kg with significant decreases in VLDL and LDL cholesterol and an elevation of HDL cholesterol. Besides, the atherogenic index was significantly reduced by α, β-amyrin.

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The study was conducted on male albino Swiss mice. The animals were treated with carrageenan by subcutaneous (sc) injection into the right hind paw to induce acute inflammation. Animals were treated intraperitoneally (ip) with LA (30, 50 and 100 mg/kg) or indomethacin (20 mg/kg) 30 min before carrageenan administration. The control group was given ip the vehicle (1% Tween 80) 30 min before carrageenan administration. Additional experiment involved ip combined treatment of mice with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) or glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) and LA(100 mg/kg) 30 min before carrageenan administration. LA, indomethacin and glibenclamide were suspended in 1% Tween 80. At 1, 2 and 3 h after treatment with carrageenan the degree of the paw edema was evaluated by the measurement of the paw volume using aqueous plethysmometer.

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The properties of one ATP-inhibited and one Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channel were investigated by the patch-clamp technique in the soma membrane of leech Retzius neurons in primary culture. Both channels rectify at negative potentials. The ATP-inhibited K+ channel with a mean conductance of 112 pS is reversibly blocked by ATP (Ki = 100 microM), TEA (Ki = 0.8 mM) and 10 mM Ba2+ and irreversibly blocked by 10 nM glibenclamide and 10 microM tolbutamide. It is Ca2+ and voltage independent. Its open state probability (Po) decreases significantly when the pH at the cytoplasmic face of inside-out patches is altered from physiological to acid pH values. The Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channel with a mean conductance of 114 pS shows a bell-shaped Ca2+ dependence of Po with a maximum at pCa 7-8 at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. The Po is voltage independent at the physiologically relevant V range. Ba2+ (10 MM) reduces the single channel amplitude by around 25% (ATP, TEA, glibenclamide, tolbutamide, and Ba2+ were applied to the cytoplasmic face of the membrane). We conclude that the ATP-dependent K+ channel may play a role in maintaining the membrane potential constant--independently from the energy state of the cell. The Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channel may play a role in generating the resting membrane potential of leech Retzius neurons as it shows maximum activity at the physiological intracellular Ca2+ concentration.

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To determine whether the use of glyburide is associated with an increased risk of cancer compared with the use of other second-generation sulfonylureas among patients with type 2 diabetes.

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Manipulation of adenosine-5'-triphosphate release, supplemental adenosine-5'-triphosphate, and antibodies to red blood cell and endothelial adhesion receptors were used in vitro and in vivo to probe the roles of released adenosine-5'-triphosphate and adhesion in responses to (transfused) red blood cells.

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The results showed that the prepared AHAP beads were smaller in size and more spherical. The surface was highly corrugated with much and wider pore size. The beads showed a high drug loading capacity and efficacy that was affected by the polymer concentration. The drug release rate from AHAP beads reached 100% after 4, 8 and 12 hours in comparison to 75.3%, 73.2% and 69.2% from alginate beads at 3%, 2% and 1% polymer concentrations, respectively.

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The mode of antagonism by glibenclamide, a potassium channel blocker, of the negative inotropic effects of potassium channel openers, cromakalim, pinacidil and nicorandil, was investigated in canine atrial muscle. Glibenclamide shifted the concentration-negative inotropic effect curves for cromakalim, pinacidil and nicorandil to the right without affecting the basal force of contraction. Schild analysis yielded uniform pA2 values of 6.06-6.35 for glibenclamide against the three potassium channel openers. The force of contraction of atrial muscles previously reduced by cromakalim was also antagonized by increasing concentrations of glibenclamide. Glibenclamide affected neither the concentration-negative inotropic effect curves for carbachol, an opener of the muscarinic receptor-coupled potassium channel, nor those for nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker. From these results, it became evident that glibenclamide behaved as a pharmacological antagonist of cromakalim, pinacidil and nicorandil in cardiac inotropy. The antagonism seems to involve competition of glibenclamide and these potassium channel openers, presumably at the ATP-sensitive channel in canine right atrial muscles.

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Nicorandil is used clinically to treat angina and acts in part by opening ATP-sensitive K+ channels whose opening is also enhanced by metabolic compromise. We have therefore investigated whether treatments that mimic conditions in ischaemia can increase the potency of nicorandil to dilate coronary arteries.

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The possible participation of the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic GMP-protein kinase G (PKG)-K+ channels pathway in the antiallodynic action of resveratrol and YC-1 in spinal nerve injured rats was assessed. Ligation of L5/L6 spinal nerves produced a clear-cut tactile allodynia in the rats. Intrathecal administration of resveratrol (100-600 microg) and 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (0.1-2.7 microg, YC-1, a soluble guanylyl cyclase activator) decreased tactile allodynia induced by ligation of L5/L6 spinal nerves. Intrathecal treatment with NG-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (10-100 microg, L-NAME, a NO synthase inhibitor), 1H-(1,2,4)-oxadiazolo(4,2-a)quinoxalin-1-one (1-10 microg, ODQ, a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor), KT-5823 (5-500 ng, a PKG inhibitor) and iberiotoxin (5-500 ng, a large-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ channel blocker), but not NG-D-nitro-arginine methyl ester (100 microg, D-NAME, an inactive isomer of L-NAME), glibenclamide (12.5-50 microg, ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker) or vehicle, significantly diminished resveratrol (300 microg)- and YC-1 (2.7 microg)-induced spinal antiallodynia. These effects were independent of prostaglandin synthesis inhibition as indomethacin did not affect resveratrol-induced antiallodynia. Results suggest that resveratrol and YC-1 could activate the proteins of the NO-cyclic GMP-PKG spinal pathway or large-conductance Ca2+ -activated, but not ATP-sensitive, K+ channels at the spinal cord in order to produce at least part of their antiallodynic effect in this model of neuropathy.

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Multidrug resistance (MDR) driven by ABC (ATP binding cassette) membrane transporters is one of the major causes of treatment failure in human malignancy. MDR capacity is thought to be unevenly distributed among tumor cells, with higher capacity residing in tumor-initiating cells (TIC) (though opposite finding are occasionally reported). Functional evidence for enhanced MDR of TICs was previously provided using a "side population" assay. This assay estimates MDR capacity by a single parameter - cell's ability to retain fluorescent MDR substrate, so that cells with high MDR capacity ("side population") demonstrate low substrate retention. In the present work MDR in TICs was investigated in greater detail using a kinetic approach, which monitors MDR efflux from single cells. Analysis of kinetic traces obtained allowed for the estimation of both the velocity (V max) and affinity (K M) of MDR transport in single cells. In this way it was shown that activation of MDR in TICs occurs in two ways: through the increase of V max in one fraction of cells, and through decrease of K M in another fraction. In addition, kinetic data showed that heterogeneity of MDR parameters in TICs significantly exceeds that of bulk cells. Potential consequences of these findings for chemotherapy are discussed.

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Controls suffering large hemispheric infarction were obtained from the EPITHET and MMI-MRI studies. We first screened subjects for controls with the same DWI threshold used for enrollment into GAMES-Pilot, 82 cm(3). Next, to address imbalances, we applied a weighted Euclidean matching. Ninety day mRS 0-4, rate of decompressive craniectomy, and mortality were the primary clinical outcomes of interest.

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Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can leave patients with memory impairments that may not recover fully. Molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and no treatment is available. The sulfonylurea receptor 1-transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (Sur1-Trpm4) channel plays an important role in acute central nervous system injury. We evaluated upregulation of Sur1-Trpm4 in humans with SAH and, in rat models of SAH, we examined Sur1-Trpm4 upregulation, its role in barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation, and its consequences on spatial learning.

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This article describes the antihyperglycemic activity, in vivo antioxidant potential, effect on hemoglobin glycosylation, estimation of liver glycogen content, and in vitro peripheral glucose utilization of bacosine, a triterpene isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of the ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri. Bacosine produced a significant decrease in the blood glucose level when compared with the diabetic control rats both in the single administration as well as in the multiple administration study. It was observed that the compound reversed the weight loss of the diabetic rats, returning the values to near normal. Bacosine also prevented elevation of glycosylated hemoglobin in vitro with an IC₅₀ value of 7.44 µg/mL, comparable with the one for the reference drug α-tocopherol. Administration of bacosine and glibenclamide significantly decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and increased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver of diabetic rats. Bacosine increased glycogen content in the liver of diabetic rats and peripheral glucose utilization in the diaphragm of diabetic rats in vitro, which is comparable with the action of insulin. Thus, bacosine might have insulin-like activity and its antihyperglycemic effect might be due to an increase in peripheral glucose consumption as well as protection against oxidative damage in alloxanized diabetes.

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All-cause mortality in retrospective cohorts of 36 449 type 2 diabetes patients treated with glibenclamide, gliclazide or metformin monotherapy all of which were included at least in one of evaluation models: "first prescription" - 2 862 /257, "last prescription" - 34 818 / 4 224; "unchanged" - 8 786/680 and "treatment intervals" - 13 546/3 142 T2D patients / death cases respectively, were evaluated using Cox regression with gender, age, and diabetes duration adjusting. We compared the mortality risk (Hazard ratios -HRs) associated with Gliclazide or Metformin versus Glibenclamide monotherapy.

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Myogenic tone, an important regulator of vascular resistance, is dependent on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) depolarization, can be modulated by endothelial factors, and is increased in several models of hypertension. Intermittent hypoxia (IH) elevates blood pressure and causes endothelial dysfunction. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a recently described endothelium-derived vasodilator, is produced by the enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and acts by hyperpolarizing VSM.

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Our results shows that blockade of the KATP channel abolishes cardioprotective effects of isoflurane in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. The KATP channel may play a role in the ATP-sparing effect of isoflurane.

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The effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the electrophysiological activity of pacemaker cells of rabbit sino-atrial node were examined by using intracellular microelectrode technique. The results obtained were as follows: (1) With superfusion of ET-1 (1-30 nmol/l), the velocity of diastolic depolarization (VDD) of pacemaker cells was significantly decreased in a concentration dependent manner, resulting in a reduced rate of pacemaker firing (RPF). (2) The decreases in RPF and VDD induced by ET-1 could be virtually blocked by pretreatment with ET(A) receptor blocker BQ-123 (20 or 100 micrograms/L). It was strongly suggested that the electrophysiological effects of ET-1 on the pacemaker cells were mediated by the ET(A) receptor. (3) The negative chronotropic action of ET-1 on the pacemaker cells was totally abolished by pretreatment with a kind of KATP channel blocker glibenclamide (10 mumol/L). On the basis of above results, it appears that the binding of ET-1 with ET(A) receptor may induce an activation of KATP channels with resultant increase in K+ current so as to decrease the velocity of diastolic depolarization in the pacemaker cells.

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micronase drug information 2016-03-14

As an alternative to manual assays that track insulin secretion, we tested a silicon-based biosensor that allows automated monitoring of extracellular acidification. Glucose stimulation of INS-1 and HIT-T15 cells resulted in a rapid increase in extracellular acidification in a biphasic and concentration-dependent fashion much like insulin secretion (EC(50) INS-1=5 buy micronase mM and HIT-T15=1 mM). This response was attenuated by verapamil (10 microM) and stimulated by administration of glybenclamide (100 nM) or KCl-induced (40 mM) depolarization. These experiments suggest that automated monitoring of extracellular pH may be a useful assay and support the relevance of linking metabolic activity to insulin secretion.

micronase drug form 2016-02-19

The search for indigenous natural antidiabetic and antilipidemec agents is still ongoing. Medicinal plants are widely used for this purpose. These herbs are very rich sources of bioactive compounds as flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, alkaloids which have been reported as effective role to reduce blood glucose and lipid levels. Securigera securidaca seed is reputed in folk medicine for their value as antidiabetic and buy micronase antilipidemec drugs. In this research, the effect of solvent polarity in bioactive extraction contents of this plant was evaluated by GC-MS analysis. Then antidiabetic and antilipidemic activies of different extracts were investigated in streptozotocine-induced diabetic rats and compared to glibenclamide as known chemical drug for diabetes.The results indicated that, carbon tetrachloride extract of Securigera securidaca seeds showed the best and significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities compared to other extracts because of its more sterols and fatty acids content with beta cells protecting effect from high glucose-induced apoptosis and also increasing in insulin level and sensitivity.

micronase drug class 2015-07-05

Endothelin elicits long-lasting vasoconstriction in the coronary bed. This remarkable spastic response raises the question whether or not the metabolic adaptive mechanisms of the coronaries are activated under endothelin effect. The role of the compensatory mediators adenosine and inosine was investigated before and after intracoronary ( buy micronase i.c.) administration of endothelin-1 (ET-1, 1.0 nmol) using 1-min reactive hyperemia (RH) tests on in situ dog hearts (n=15) with or without blocking the ATP-sensitive potassium (K+(ATP)) channels by glibenclamide (GLIB, 1.0 micromol min(-1), i.c.). The release of adenosine and inosine via the coronary sinus was measured by HPLC during the first minute of RH. Endothelin-1 reduced baseline coronary blood flow (CBF) and RH response (hyperemic excess flow (EF) control vs. ET-1: 81.7+/-13.6 vs. 43.4+/-10.9 ml, P<0.01), while it increased the net nucleoside release (adenosine, control vs. ET-1: 58.9+/-20.4 vs. 113.7+/-39.4 nmol, P<0.05; inosine: 242.1+/-81.8 vs. 786.9+/-190.8 nmol, P<0.05). GLIB treatment alone did not change baseline CBF but also reduced RH significantly and increased nucleoside release (EF control vs. GLIB: 72.1+/-11.7 vs. 31.9+/-5.5 ml, P<0.01; adenosine: 18.8+/-4.6 vs. 63.0+/-24.8 nmol, P<0.05; inosine: 113.0+/-37.2 vs. 328.2+/-127.5 nmol, P<0.05). Endothelin-1 on GLIB-treated coronaries further diminished RH and increased nucleoside release (EF: 21.5+/-8.0 ml, P<0.05 vs. GLIB; adenosine: 75.3+/-28.1 nmol, NS; inosine: 801.9+/-196.6 nmol, P<0.05 vs. GLIB). The data show that ET-1 reduces metabolic adaptive capacity of the coronaries, and this phenomenon is due to decreased vascular responsiveness and not to the blockade of ischemic mediator release from the myocardium. The coronary effect of ET-1 may partially be dependent on K+(ATP) channels.

dosage of micronase 2017-07-17

Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator of mucosal defense with antiinflammatory effects that promote ulcer healing. The effects of H(2)S during the pathogenesis of colitis have not been established. We analyzed the contribution of H(2)S to inflammation buy micronase and ulceration of the colon in a rat model of colitis.

micronase buy cheap 2015-04-05

While both cromakalim and R-PIA are cardioprotective in isolated rat hearts, they are not pharmacologically linked, possibly explaining why preconditioning may be different buy micronase in this species.

micronase cost 2017-09-20

In rats and men the sulfonylurea glibenclamide augmented skeletal growth. However, with the design of the in vivo studies it was not possible to distinguish whether the growth promoting effect of glibenclamide was mediated by the augmented peripheral insulin or IGF-I levels or if the sulfonylurea had a direct effect on chondrocytes. We therefore measured clonal growth of isolated human chondrocytes in response to glibenclamide in vitro. Cells were isolated from human nose septal cartilage and incubated in a semi-solid medium. Colony formation in response to glibenclamide and IGF-I was determined. Glibenclamide stimulated clonal growth of chondrocytes in a bell-shaped fashion (p < 0.001). 50 ng/ml glibenclamide as the maximal dose augmented colony formation to 144 +/- 9% compared to clonal growth without glibenclamide in the incubation medium, which was designated as 100%. Basal values were obtained with 200 ng/ml glibenclamide. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) at 3 ng/ml (118 +/- 4%) and 25 ng/ml (149 +/- 8%, p < 0.02) stimulated growth of chondrocytes. To elucidate the possible mechanism of glibenclamide on clonal growth, chondrocytes were incubated with the sulfonylurea and the IGF-I receptor antibody alpha IR buy micronase -3. The antibody completely abolished the effect of glibenclamide on colony formation. The results suggest that the growth promoting effect of glibenclamide on isolated human chondrocytes is mediated by IGF-I dependent mechanisms.

micronase dosing 2015-05-03

In patients with type 2 diabetes, glibenclamide/metformin resulted in lower PPGE, suggesting buy micronase that the higher glibenclamide AUC(3) observed with this formulation may contribute to better postprandial glycaemic control than is attained by glibenclamide plus metformin separately.

micronase 50 mg 2016-01-20

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common complications in pregnancy. It affects 3-15% of women, depending on the background diabetes risk of the population and applied diagnostic criteria. GDM is associated with neonatal problems such as macrosomia and neonatal hypoglycemia as well as a long term increased risk of diabetes and obesity of offspring. Current therapy of GDM focuses on tightly controlling maternal glucose levels, resulting in insulin therapy in up to 50% of women to reach the fasting glucose target of< 90 mg/dl and 2h-postprandial glucose < 120 mg/dl. However, the rate of macrosomia and C-sections remains increased in pregnancy with GDM despite therapy. This review introduces the diagnosis and implications of GDM buy micronase and then examines two strands of research aimed at improving current therapy: first, research into predictive markers of GDM pregnancies requiring intensified insulin therapy, and second, research into hypoglycaemic agents for therapy or even prevention of GDM in high risk women such as women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Predictive markers include amniotic fluid insulin, which requires an invasive amniocentesis procedure, and measures of fetal abdominal circumference early in the third trimester, which have successfully been used to reduce rates of macrosomia. Potential hypoglycemic agents include glyburides and metformin, which have been shown not to have adverse outcomes on neonates, although oral agents are generally contra-indicated because of possible teratogenic and toxic effects observed in animal studies and missing long term outcome data.

micronase tablets 2015-01-07

The first goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that dilatation of the basilar artery in response to activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels is mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Diameter of the basilar artery (209 +/- 5 microns, mean +/- SE) was measured using a cranial window in anesthetized rats. Aprikalim (a direct activator of ATP-sensitive K+ channels) dilated the basilar artery under control conditions. Inhibition of endogenous NO production with NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10(-4) M) did not alter responses to aprikalim. The second goal was to determine whether vasodilatation in response to NO is dependent on activation of calcium-activated K+ channels. Tetraethylammonium (TEA, 10(-3) M), an inhibitor of calcium-activated K+ channels, did not affect dilator responses to sodium nitroprusside (an NO donor) under control conditions. Responses to nitroprusside (10(-8) and 10(-7) M) were augmented more than twofold during application of L-NNA. In the presence of L-NNA, the augmented portion of the response to nitroprusside was inhibited by TEA and iberiotoxin (5 x 10(-8) M, a highly selective inhibitor of calcium-activated K+ channels), but it was not inhibited by glibenclamide (10(-6) M), an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. These findings suggest that dilator responses of the basilar artery to an activator of ATP-sensitive potassium channels are not mediated by NO. Calcium-activated K+ channels may not buy micronase normally contribute to dilator responses of the basilar artery to nitroprusside. The effects of TEA and iberiotoxin suggest that when endogenous production of NO is inhibited, sodium nitroprusside causes the opening of calcium-activated K+ channels, contributing to an augmented vasodilator response.

micronase generic name 2017-04-01

There are scarce data dealing with the degree of postprandial lipaemia after sulphonylurea administration. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of acute glibenclamide administration on postprandial buy micronase lipaemia in Type 2 diabetic patients.

micronase 5 mg 2017-12-24

In the present study, we investigated if the relaxant effects of phosphodiesterase (PDE) III inhibitors on human vessels could be inhibited by a nitric oxide synthase blocker, L-NAME, or by a blocker of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP), glibenclamide. The experiments were performed using an isometric myograph buy micronase in isolated human s.c. small arteries obtained from healthy donors. After a priming procedure consisting of exposure to high potassium (120 mmol litre-1) solutions, phenylephrine 10 mumol litre-1 and an equilibrium period of 30 min, the preparations were contracted with a thromboxane A2 mimetic agent, U46619 1 mumol litre-1. Subsequently, cumulative concentration-response curves were constructed for the selective PDE III inhibitors amrinone, milrinone and enoximone, and for theophylline and dipyridamole, with and without the addition of L-NAME 100 mumol litre-1 or glibenclamide 1 mumol litre-1. Addition of L-NAME to the organ bath resulted in significantly higher pEC50 values (-log of the concentration required for 50% relaxation) for milrinone compared with the control: 2.77 (SEM 0.24) mol litre-1 (n = 5) vs 3.49 (0.17) mol litre-1 (n = 7) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between any other group. From our data we conclude that the relaxant properties of amrinone, enoximone, theophylline and dipyridamole are not dependent on nitric oxide release or on interaction with KATP channels. However, the effect of milrinone may be partly endothelium-dependent in human vessels in vitro.

micronase medication 2016-12-26

Intensive care buy micronase unit of a university hospital.

micronase 10 mg 2017-06-07

Four randomised controlled trials with up to three months duration and investigating 479 participants met the inclusion criteria. Risk of bias of these trials (only two studies were published as a full buy micronase peer-reviewed publication) was generally high. Two RCTs compared the effects of preparations from different parts of the momordica charantia plant with placebo on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. There was no statistically significant difference in the glycaemic control with momordica charantia preparations compared to placebo. When momordica charantia was compared to metformin or glibenclamide, there was also no significant change in reliable parameters of glycaemic control. No serious adverse effects were reported in any trial. No trial investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs.

micronase drug interactions 2017-03-02

Gliclazide, a second-generation sulfonylurea, has anti-oxidant properties as well as hypoglycemic activities. In the present study, we investigated whether gliclazide affected proliferation and/or differentiation of HW white and HB2 brown adipocyte cell lines. Gliclazide inhibited proliferation of HW and HB2 cells in the medium containing fetal calf serum or epidermal growth factor (EGF). Gliclazide inhibited phosphorylation of EGF receptor and of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 stimulated by EGF. Gliclazide increased lipid accumulation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) expression in the early stage of differentiation of adipocytes. A K(ATP) channel activator, diazoxide, did not inhibit the increase of lipid accumulation by gliclazide. Furthermore, gliclazide inhibited the DNA-binding activity of PPARgamma in mature Depression Drug Cymbalta adipocytes. On the other hand, glibenclamide, other sulfonylurea, did not show these effects. These results indicate gliclazide inhibits proliferation and stimulates differentiation of adipocytes via down-regulation of the EGFR signalling. Gliclazide may have preventive and therapeutic effects on obesity, as well as on type 2 diabetes.

micronase dosage 2016-10-24

We previously demonstrated that the novel benzimidazolone, 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO), stimulates a sustained Cl- secretory response across T84 monolayers by opening a Ca(2+)-dependent basolateral K+ channel. In the present work, we evaluated the effects on Cl-secretion of other benzimidazolones, NS-004 and NS-1619, which have been shown to open cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels. In contrast to 1-EBIO, neither NS-004 nor NS-1619 stimulated a significant Cl- secretory current (Isc). Neither NS-004 nor NS-1619 increased Isc subsequent to forskolin stimulation. However, when added after 1-EBIO, NS-004 and NS-1619 stimulated large sustained increases in Isc. In addition, NS-004 and NS-1619 potentiated the effects of carbachol. We used nystatin to permeabilize the apical or basolateral membrane to determine the effects of NS-004 and 1-EBIO on the basolateral K+ (IK) and apical Cl- (ICl) currents. Both NS-004 and 1-EBIO increased ICl, and the stimulated currents were inhibited by glibenclamide. In contrast, NS-004 failed to significantly affect IK, but subsequent addition of 1-EBIO induced a large increase in IK. The effects of 1-EBIO, NS-004, and NS-1619 on the Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channel (KCa) in T84 cells was determined in excised inside-out patches. Neither NS-004 nor NS-1619 affected K+ channel activity, whereas the subsequent addition of 1-EBIO produced a marked channel activation. Results similar to those observed in T84 monolayers were obtained from murine airway cell primary cultures: NS-004 or NS-1619 had no effect on Isc, whereas 1-EBIO stimulated a sustained Cl- secretory response. The results demonstrate that activation of CFTR alone is insufficient to evoke transepithelial Cl- secretion. Activation of the basolateral membrane K+ channel is a necessary component Amaryl Generic Name of the secretory response. Thus the basolateral membrane KCa may be a novel pharmacological target in cystic fibrosis therapy.

micronase brand name 2017-07-10

Prolonged exposure of pancreatic beta-cells in vitro to the sulphonylureas tolbutamide and glibenclamide induces subsequent desensitization of insulinotropic pathways. Clinically, the insulin Deltasone Tabs -sensitizing biguanide drug metformin is often administered alongside sulphonylurea as antidiabetic therapy. The present study examines the functional effects of metformin (200 µM) on tolbutamide- and glibenclamide-induced desensitisation.

micronase drug information 2015-01-18

To determine whether iptakalim inhibited endothelin-1(ET-1)-induced proliferation of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) through the activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel, the effect of iptakalim on the ET-1-induced proliferation of human PASMCs was examined by [3H]thymidine incorporation, staining with propidium iodide and flow cytometry analyses, measurement of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) and Western blot for the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in vitro. The results showed that iptakalim inhibited the ET-1-induced proliferation of human PASMCs, including [3H]thymidine incorporation and the transition of cell cycle phase, and blocked the ET-1-induced transient raise of [Ca2+]cyt, and the ET-1-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the human PASMCs. Iptakalim exerted a similar role as pinacidil did in human PASMCs and both inhibited the [3H] thymidine incorporation and the transition of cell cycle phase induced by ET-1 in the human PASMCs. Furthermore, we found that the inhibition of iptakalim and pinacidil on the ET-1-induced proliferation of human PASMCs was blocked by glyburide, a selective K(ATP) channel antagonist. These findings provide a strong evidence to support that iptakalim acts as a specific K(ATP) channel opener to antagonize the proliferating effect of ET-1 in the human PASMCs. This study provides further evidence that iptakalim may serve as another candidate drug to treat pulmonary Serevent Generic Drug hypertension.

micronase drug form 2016-06-22

HB 699 is a benzoic acid derivative similar to the non-sulphonylurea moiety of glibenclamide. The mechanisms whereby it affects B-cell function have been studied in vitro with mouse islets. In the presence of 3 mmol/l glucose, HB 699 decreased 86Rb+ efflux and accelerated 45Ca2+ efflux from islet cells, depolarized the B-cell membrane and induced an electrical activity similar to that triggered by stimulatory concentrations of glucose, and increased insulin release. The changes in 45Ca2+ efflux and insulin release, but not the inhibition of 86Rb+ efflux, were abolished in the absence of Ca2+. In the presence of 10 mmol/l glucose, HB 699 increased 86Rb+ and 45Ca2+ efflux from the islets, caused a persistent depolarization of the B-cell membrane with continuous electrical activity and markedly potentiated insulin release. All these changes were suppressed by omission of extracellular Ca2+. In the presence of 15 mmol/l glucose, diazoxide increased 86Rb+ efflux, hyperpolarized the B-cell membrane, suppressed electrical activity and inhibited insulin release. HB 699 reversed these effects of diazoxide. It is suggested that HB 699 decreases K+ permeability of Propecia 5mg Dosage the B-cell membrane, thereby causing a depolarization which leads to activation of voltage-dependent Ca channels and Ca2+ influx, and eventually increases insulin release. A sulphonylurea group is thus not a prerequisite to trigger the sequence of events that is also thought to underlie the releasing effects of tolbutamide and glibenclamide.

micronase drug class 2016-03-27

At baseline, the absolute postprandial BG concentrations and postprandial BG excursions after breakfast were high (Mix25 group: 15.3+/-4.8 mmol/l and 3.5+/-2.7 mmol/l, respectively; controls: 15.4+/-3.9 mmol/l and 4.7+/-2.7 mmol/l, respectively). In both groups improvement was observed at the endpoint, but it was greater with Mix25 (Mix25 group: 10.3+/-3.6 mmol/l, p<0.0001 vs. baseline, p<0.003 vs. controls, and 2.0+/-2.5 mmol/l, p<0.008 vs. baseline, p=ns vs. controls; control group: 13.3+/-2.9 mmol/l, p<0.006 vs. baseline, and 4.7+/- Feldene Dosage Forms 2.7 mmol/l, p<0.006 vs. baseline). The two Mix25 subgroups had similar postprandial BG levels and BG excursions after breakfast.

dosage of micronase 2017-02-20

The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning (PC) was investigated in the anesthetized ferret model of myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion. PC of 2, 5, or 10-min duration, followed by 10-min reflow, was studied in animals subjected to 60-min sustained LAD coronary artery ischemia followed by 5-h reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by tetrazolium staining. Sham PC ferrets had a mean infarct of 72% of risk zone. A 2-min or 5-min cycle of PC significantly reduced tissue damage to 54% (p < 0.05) and 44% (p < 0.01), respectively. Infarct reduction associated with 10-min ischemic PC was not significant (57% of AAR). The cardioprotective effects of 5-min PC were lost when sustained ischemia was prolonged to 75 or 90-min. Myocardial salvage afforded by 5-min PC was also abolished by both a) inhibition of ATP-sensitive potassium channels using either glyburide or 5-HD and b) blockade of adenosine receptors with the A1 selective agent DPCPX. In the absence of PC, activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels with the cardiac-selective agonist BMS-180448 significantly (p < 0.01) reduced infarct size from 66% to 37% of the risk zone. Cardioprotection, or its loss, was not the result of hemodynamic alterations occurring during PC, drug administration, or the coronary occlusion and reperfusion phases. Based upon its body size and lack of extensive myocardial collateral circulation the ferret offers a usefull alternative small species for study of ischemia and reperfusion salvage. It is concluded in the ferret that: a) the threshold for PC is less than in either the rat, rabbit, or dog; unlike the dog and pig, the beneficial effects of PC are b) reduced when the ischemic PC interval is extended to 10-min or c) lost if sustained coronary occlusion is maintained for a period of 75-min or longer; and last, a role in PC for both d) ATP-sensitive Tegretol 600 Mg potassium channels and e) adenosine A1 receptors can be demonstrated.