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FVX had a modest effect on the pharmacokinetics of ATX and 4-hydroxyatomoxetine-O-glucuronide. The presence or absence of any clinical consequences associated with this pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction needs to be established in future studies.
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Predicting the outcome of antidepressant treatment by pre-treatment features would be of great usefulness for clinicians as up to 50% of major depressives may not have a satisfactory response in spite of adequate trials of antidepressant drugs. In the present article we compared a linear multivariate model of predictors with a few artificial neural network (ANN) models differing from one another by outcome definition and validation procedure. The sample consisted of a reanalysis of 116 inpatients with a major depressive episode included in a 6-week open-label trial with fluvoxamine. With the original outcome definition (responders/non-responders), ANN performed better than logistic regression (90% of correct classifications in the training sample vs. 77%). However only 62% of new patients were correctly predicted by ANN for their outcome class. Length of the index episode, psychotic features and suicidal behavior emerged as outcome predictors in both models, while demographic characteristics, personality disorders and concomitant somatic morbidity were pointed to only by ANN analysis. Increase of classes in the outcome field resulted in a more elevated error: 46.4% for three classes, 60.4% for four classes and 70.3% for five classes. Overall, our findings suggest that antidepressant outcome prediction based on clinical variables is poor. The ANN approach is as valid as traditional multivariate techniques for the analysis of psychopharmacology studies. The complex interactions modelled through ANN may eventually be applied at the clinical level for individualized therapy. However, the accuracy of prediction is still far from satisfactory from a clinical point of view.
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Antidepressants detected by the National Department of Forensic Chemistry in 5281 suicides in Sweden during the period 1992-1994 were related to data on usage expressed in person-years of exposure. Antidepressants were detected in 874 subjects (16.5%). In relation to their use, fluvoxamine, citalopram, moclobemide, mianserin and trimipramine were found more often than the reference drug, amitriptyline (i.e. over-risks). Toxic concentrations of antidepressants were detected in 232 subjects (4.4%). Most people committing suicide were not taking antidepressants immediately before their death, even though 40-85% may have been depressed. Undertreatment and therapeutic failure are the main problems with antidepressants, not the risk of using antidepressants in overdose. Comparisons of new antidepressants should focus on efficacy in relation to reference tricyclics. The huge increase in the use of antidepressants in Sweden since 1990-1991 has been paralleled by a significant decrease in suicide rates.
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We find that U.S. health plans are using a variety of strategies to manage cost and utilization of newer branded antidepressant medications. Plans appear to be finding that approaches other than exclusion are adequate to meet their cost-management goals for newer branded antidepressants, although they have increased their use of administrative restrictions since 2003. Limitations include lack of information about how administrative restrictions were applied in practice, information on only six medications, and some potential for endogeneity bias in the regression analyses.
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Psychotic major depression is a clinical subtype of major depressive disorder. A number of clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the combination of an antidepressant (for example, a tricyclic antidepressant or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)) and an atypical antipsychotic or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in treating psychotic major depression. In several studies, monotherapy of SSRIs such as fluvoxamine has been shown to be effective in the treatment of psychotic major depression.
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It is generally believed that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs increase the risk of abnormal bleeding and decrease the risk of ischemic heart disease events by blocking the uptake of serotonin into platelets, leading to an impairment in the platelet hemostatic response.
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Although it is well established that the diagnosis and treatment of depression in the elderly are major health care problems, the relative efficacy of antidepressant treatment in the elderly compared with younger adults has not been definitively established. In this study, we analyzed antidepressant response in 528 nondemented consecutive inpatients affected by a major depressive episode. The sample was divided based on a cut-off of 60 years (< or = 60 n = 354; mean age 46.6 +/- 10.4 years; > 60 n = 174; mean age 66.1 +/- 4.2 years); all the patients were treated with fluvoxamine for at least 6 weeks and they were assessed weekly by using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Fluvoxamine proved to be effective in our elderly sample, even if antidepressant response was lower in the elderly compared with that of younger subjects (chi2 = 6.27, P = 0.01). Moreover, when compared with younger subjects, the older ones showed significantly slower reduction of depressive symptoms (P = 0.0006). This difference between the 2 age groups was evident since the 2nd week of treatment, and it appeared to be independent of other clinical variables.
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Warfarin, a commonly prescribed anticoagulant, has a very narrow therapeutic index. Because a multitude of drugs may potentially alter warfarin levels, primarily through the cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme system, in this edition of The Interface, we explore drug interactions between warfarin and the antidepressants. According to the available data, sertraline and citalopram appear to be the safest antidepressants to use in patients on warfarin, whereas fluvoxamine and fluoxetine pose the highest potential risks. The remaining antidepressants appear to lie somewhere in between, with most having little empirical data to guide the practitioner other than the potential interactions of these drugs and warfarin in the cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme system.
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, desipramine, effectively reduces obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients who do not respond to SSRIs.
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This study assesses the efficacy of fluvoxamine treatment on different domains of subjective sleep quality in Vietnam combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Medically healthy male Vietnam theater combat veterans (N = 21) completed a 10-week open label trial. Fluvoxamine treatment led to improvements in PTSD symptoms and all domains of subjective sleep quality. The largest effect was for dreams linked to the traumatic experience in combat. In contrast, generic unpleasant dreams showed only a modest response to treatment. Sleep maintenance insomnia and the item "troubled sleep" showed a large treatment response, whereas sleep onset insomnia improved less substantially. These therapeutic benefits contrast with published reports that have found activating effects of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors on the sleep electroencephalogram.
This work provides a simplified approach to predict the influence of genetic polymorphisms on the PK parameters and associated PD effect for CNS drugs. The impact of these polymorphisms on the drugs' PD requires further in vivo validation.
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Many psychotropics are involved in predictable interactions with warfarin. Drugs with a known low interaction potential should be chosen instead of those known or predicted to interact.
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FLV concentration-to-dose ratio was significantly different among 3435 C>T genotype groups at the 200 mg/d dose (P = 0.019). A post-hoc analysis revealed that FLV concentration-to-dose ratio was significantly higher in the TT genotype group as compared with the CC genotype group at the 200 mg/d dose (median value of concentration-to-dose ratio (ng/mL)/(mg/d), 0.861 vs 0.434, P = 0.026). FLV concentration-to-dose ratio was significantly higher in the CT + TT genotype group than the CC genotype group at the 200 mg/d dose (median value of concentration-to-dose ratio (ng/mL)/(mg/d), 0.618 vs 0.434, P = 0.031). At 50, 100, and 150 mg/d dose, FLV concentration-to-dose ratios were not significantly different among 3435 C>T genotype groups. At 50, 100, and 150 mg/d dose, no significant differences were found in FLV concentration-to-dose ratios between the CT + TT genotype group and CC genotype group.
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Elderly patients are at increased risk for elevated serum concentrations from treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The aim of this study was to examine the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of SSRIs in elderly compared with younger patients.
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Although SSRIs may demonstrate therapeutic benefit in autism spectrum disorders, methodological weaknesses of many of the clinical trials suggest the need for additional randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, given the increased awareness of the dangers associated with SSRI-induced activation and agitation, the presence of these side effects in the autistic population warrants closer attention to dosage, titration, and subject selection issues.
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The phenotype of 160 psychiatric inpatients was estimated by taking the urinary metabolic ratio (MR) of the concentrations of sparteine to 2- and 5-dehydrosparteine. Genotyping identified CYP2D6*1, *3, *4, *5 and *6 alleles as well as duplication of the CYP2D6 gene. All subjects underwent detailed drug history including drug dose and therapeutic drug monitoring to control compliance and abuse of other psychotropic drugs. These data were compared with those of 195 unmedicated healthy Germans.
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Accordingly, this study examined the ability of SSRIs to modulate the phase-setting properties of light on circadian activity rhythms in hamsters. Their actions were compared to those of the mixed serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), venlafaxine, the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine, and the dopamine reuptake inhibitor, bupropion.
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1 Antidepressant drugs produce significant changes in human brain function as reflected in the quantitatively analysed EEG. Two main types of pharmaco-EEG profiles may be differentiated: a thymeretic (desipramine-like) profile characterised mainly by an alpha increase suggesting activating properties and a thymoleptic (imipramine- or amitriptyline-like) profile showing a concomitant increase of slow and fast activities and a decrease in alpha activity indicating also sedative qualities. A small number of compounds exhibit still different profiles. 2 Aside from determining the type of EEG changes, the pharmaco-EEG method seems to be of value in determining time and dose efficacy relations at the target organ, the human brain. Moreover, the relationships between pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may be determined. 3 Fluvoxamine, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor from the new class of 2-aminoethyloximethers of aralkylketones, produced a typical thymoleptic pharmaco-EEG profile after oral doses of 75 mg in a double-blind placebo-controlled study involving 10 healthy volunteers. Fluvoxamine (75 mg) induced less augmentation of slow activity than 75 mg imipramine, indicating less sedative properties of fluvoxamine than imipramine. 4 After 75 mg fluvoxamine psychometric tests demonstrated a tendency towards an improvement in attention, concentration, psychomotor activity, after-effect and mood and a significant increase in critical flicker fusion frequency as compared with placebo. Comparison with the reference drug, 75 mg imipramine, revealed a significant superiority of fluvoxamine regarding concentration, psychomotor activity, tapping, reaction time, mood and affectivity. 5 Side-effects (mostly tiredness) were seen in five out of 10 subjects after 75 mg fluvoxamine and in eight out of 10 subjects after 75 mg imipramine. There were no clinically relevant changes in pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
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FLV disposition and dosing is unlikely to be affected by CYP2C19 polymorphism.
The psychopharmacological effects of fluvoxamine, 50 mg twice a day, were compared with those of mianserin, 20 mg twice a day, and placebo, each given for 8 days in a double-blind crossover design to 9 healthy human volunteers. At least one week was left between the 8-day courses of drugs. Testing was carried out before and 3 h after taking the morning dose on Days 1 (pre-drug), 4, and 8, and comprised EEG, cognitive and psychomotor tasks, and self-ratings of mood and bodily symptoms. Fluvoxamine had no effect on any of the EEG wavebands, but mianserin increased voltages in the slow wavebands as compared with placebo. This effect was particularly pronounced on Days 4 and 8. Mianserin significantly decreased critical flicker fusion frequency and speed of reaction time, and slowed down tapping rate; digit symbol substitution and symbol copying test performances were also impaired by mianserin. These effects were most marked after the first dose and had lessened somewhat later in the week. Symbol copying was the only task impaired by fluvoxamine as compared with placebo. Mianserin caused drowsiness after the first dose but this effect declined by Day 8. By contrast, fluvoxamine induced feelings of anxiety, sweatiness, trembling, nausea, loss of appetite, restlessness, muscle tension, irritability, tiredness, headache, and dizziness; these effects were most evident in the middle of the week and relatively reduced at the end of the week. Mianserin produced a few of these effects but they tended to be maximal on Day 1 or 4 and then to wear off.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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A Medline and hand search of published literature was complemented by contacting manufacturers.
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Antidepressant drugs are effective in the short-term treatment of patients suffering from OCD; although the increase in improvement rate over placebo was greater for clomipramine than for SSRIs, direct comparison between these drugs showed that they had similar therapeutic efficacy on obsessive-compulsive symptoms; clomipramine and fluvoxamine had greater therapeutic efficacy than antidepressant drugs with no selective serotonergic properties; concomitant high levels of depression at the outset did not seem necessary for clomipramine and for SSRIs to improve obsessive-compulsive symptoms.
This study investigated the alterations of the 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B autoreceptor function following chronic treatment with fluvoxamine using osmotic minipumps. The 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B autoreceptor function were studied using microdialysis in the dorsal hippocampus. The effect of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.3 mg/kg, SC) and the 5-HT1B receptor agonist RU-24969 (100 nM through the dialysis probe for 30 min) on 5-HT release was compared with rats chronically treated with saline. 8-OH-DPAT decreased 5-HT release to 55% and 60% of baseline, while RU-24969 decreased 5-HT release to 66% and 70% of baseline value in the saline and fluvoxamine group, respectively. In both cases, differences between the saline and fluvoxamine groups were not statistically significant. Plasma levels of fluvoxamine after 21 days of treatment ranged from 3 to 5 ng/ml. Fluvoxamine concentration in rat brain during treatment was estimated between 100 and 200 nM, which approximates to the IC50 value of fluvoxamine on the 5-HT transporter in synaptosomes and is 50 times higher than the Kd value for the 5-HT reuptake site. In conclusion, no evidence was found for changes in 5-HT1A,B receptor function using 8-OH-DPAT and RU-24969 as probes after continuous treatment with fluvoxamine by means of osmotic minipumps.
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CPSP patients present with diverse sensory symptoms and its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. Amitriptyline and lamotrigine are effective treatments. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiology and investigate newer therapeutic modalities.
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There is a growing body of evidence for the efficacy of memantine augmentation in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, to date, no double-blind study has addressed this issue. The objective of the present randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of memantine add-on treatment in patients with moderate to severe OCD. Forty-two patients with the diagnosis of OCD based on DSM-IV-TR who had a Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score of ≥21 were randomly assigned to memantine (10 mg/day for the first week, and 20 mg/day for the rest of the trial) or placebo in addition to fluvoxamine for eight weeks. Patients were assessed using Y-BOCS every two weeks. Thirty-eight patients completed the study. Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant effect for time × treatment interaction in total scale [F (2.096, 75.470) = 5.280, P = 0.006] and obsession [F (2.340, 94.547) = 5.716, P = 0.002] and near significant effect for compulsion subscales [F (2.005, 79.179) = 2.841, P = 0.065]. By week eight, all patients in the memantine group and six (32%) patients in the placebo group [P value of Fisher's exact test <0.001] met the criteria for partial and complete response. At the end of the trial, 17 (89%) patients in the memantine group compared with six (32%) patients in the placebo group achieved remission (χ(2)(1) = 13.328, P < 0.001). Frequency of side-effects was not significantly different between the two groups. In summary, we showed that memantine add-on to fluvoxamine significantly improved short-term outcomes in patients with moderate to severe OCD.