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The long-term efficacy and safety of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have been established in large multicenter trials. Inhibition of this enzyme, however, results in decreased synthesis of cholesterol and other products downstream of mevalonate, such as CoQ10 or dolichol. This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study that examined the effects of CoQ10 and placebo in hypercholesterolemic patients treated by atorvastatin. Eligible patients were given 10mg/day of atorvastatin for 16 weeks. Half of the patients (n=24) were supplemented with 100mg/day of CoQ10, while the other half (n=25) were given the placebo. Serum LDL-C levels in the CoQ10 group decreased by 43%, while in the placebo group by 49%. The HDL-C increment was more striking in the CoQ10 group than in the placebo group. All patients showed definite reductions of plasma CoQ10 levels in the placebo group, by 42%. All patients supplemented with CoQ10 showed striking increases in plasma CoQ10 by 127%. In conclusion atorvastatin definitely decreased plasma CoQ10 levels and supplementation with CoQ10 increased their levels. These changes in plasma CoQ10 levels showed no relation to the changes in serum AST, ALT and CK levels. Further studies are needed, however, for the evaluation of CoQ10 supplementation in statin therapy.
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Although chronic inflammation contributes to the development of tendinopathy, study results advocate for a positive role of PGE2 in tendon healing during the acute inflammatory phase that follows tendon surgical repair. It is therefore suggested that ATV should be further investigated as a possible modality to improve tendon healing.
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Atorvastatin (ATV) is a specific competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Recently, statins have shown pleiotropic effects such as anti-inflammation and bone stimulation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effectiveness of 1.2% ATV as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of intrabony defects (IBDs).
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In well-controlled type 2 diabetic patients previously treated with fibrate, short-term (6 months) treatment with low-dose atorvastatin (10 mg/day) improves TC and LDL C levels, without any alteration in TG and HDL C levels.
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The ability to modify the enzymatic processes involved in promoting atherosclerotic plaque disruption and to serially monitor atherosclerotic evolution could provide novel information in the management of patients with atherosclerosis. We studied the effects of a statin (atorvastatin) and its combination with an acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor (avasimibe) on atherosclerotic regression and plaque stability as measured by matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 3 (MMP-1 and MMP-3) levels. Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits treated with atorvastatin alone experienced an attenuated increase in atherosclerotic burden versus controls as determined by MR imaging. The mean vessel wall area (VWA) prior to drug therapy was 5.57 +/- 0.01 mm2. The VWA increased to 6.71 +/- 0.03 and 7.16 +/- 0.03 mm2, respectively, in atorvastatin-treated and control groups (p < 0.0001 for both). The combination of atorvastatin and avasimibe induced a significant regression of the previously established atherosclerotic lesions, with the VWA decreasing to 4.54 +/- 0.04 mm2 (p = 0.009). Atorvastatin alone induced a nonsignificant reduction in the percent staining of MMP-1 in atherosclerotic lesions, but the combination treatment with avasimibe led to a significant reduction versus controls (p = 0.005). However, a reduction in MMP-3 staining was significant for rabbits treated with both atorvastatin alone (p = 0.007) and in combination with avasimibe (p = 0.04) versus controls. In this animal model, the addition of avasimibe to atorvastatin has beneficial effects on both atherosclerotic plaque regression and stabilization.
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We selected healthy normolipidaemic, elderly subjects (n = 8, mean age 80.1 years) and young subjects (n = 7, mean age 21.8 years). All had a normal electrocardiograph and blood pressure, and signs or symptoms of cardiovascular disease were absent. The subjects were studied for 2 days, with 6 weeks of atorvastatin treatment in between. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by computerized venous occlusion plethysmography upon intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh; 30 and 90 ng/kg/min) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; 0.3 and 0.9 ng/kg/min) as endothelium-dependent vasodilators, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 30 and 90 ng/kg/min) as an endothelium-independent vasodilator.
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In this before and after comparison study with controls, group one included 55 subjects aged > or =40 years requiring statins for cardiovascular indications who were started on atorvastatin (10 mg/day). Group two assigned to receive placebo were men and women chosen from the same geographical area and matched for age, sex, education and presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Assessment was done with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span, Picture Test (average and delayed), Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Digit Symbol Substitution Test and Auditory Vigilance and Digit Vigilance Test at baseline and after 6 months. Changes between baseline and 6 months in the above parameters of mental function were compared using suitable statistical tests in the atorvastatin and placebo groups. To limit experiment-wise error, performance scores were grouped into five cognitive domains, which were labeled as attention, psychomotor speed, mental flexibility, working memory and memory retrieval. Summary effect sizes were estimated as z-scores.
Treatment with atorvastatin and fenofibrate reduced serum cholesterol by 30 % and 21 % (p = 0.046) (p-values for differences between treatment groups), triglycerides by 32 % and 45 %, LDL cholesterol by 28 % and 16 %, and increased HDL cholesterol by 3 % and 6 %, respectively. Atorvastatin and fenofibrate treatment resulted in the following changes of apoB and LDL subfractions: LDL-1 (1.019 - 1.031 kg/L) - 31 % and + 15 % (p = 0.028); LDL-2 (1.031 - 1.034 kg/L) - 14 % and + 57 % (p = 0.028); LDL-3 (1.034 - 1.037 kg/L) - 20 % and + 30 % (p = 0.028); LDL-4 (1.037 - 1.040 kg/L) - 25 % and - 6 %; LDL-5 (1.040 - 1.044 kg/L) - 29 % and - 38 %; and LDL-6 (1.044 - 1.063 kg/L) - 39 % and - 55 % (p = 0.028). As a consequence, fenofibrate reduced LDL density significantly (p = 0.028 versus atorvastatin).
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ATV at doses of 1 and 5 mg/kg reduced mucosal damage and inflammation, as well as the levels of cytokines, nitrite and myeloperoxidase activity on the 5th and 10th day of OM and immunostaining for iNOS on the 5th day of OM.ATV at 1 mg/kg increased cheek pouch NP-SH when compared to 5-FU groups on the 10th day of OM. The association between ATV 5 mg/kg and 5-FU decreased the survival rate, amplified the leukopenia of animals, increased transaminase serum levels and caused liver lesions. We also detected the presence of Gram-negative bacillus in the blood of 100% of the animals treated with ATV 5 mg/kg + 5-FU.
Although statins vary in their effectiveness in lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, there is little evidence that the degree of these changes can explain cardiac risk reduction in Japan. Our objective was to compare the efficacy of statins on serum lipid levels and to explore the association between those changes and cardiac events in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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Recent data suggest that statin use may be associated with a reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer. However, the influence of statins on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and what effect this could potentially have on prostate cancer diagnosis are unknown.
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A total of 33 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, diabetic group, and diabetic group with atorvastatin treatment (receiving 50 mg/kg qd atorvastatin). Rats were sacrificed at the end of 4 weeks, and the aortas were obtained. The pathological changes were observed by Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. A cDNA microarray analysis was carried out, and the results were analyzed by the random variance model (RVM) t-test, Stc analysis, Stc-Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, Stc-pathway analysis, and GeneFunNet analysis. Then reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of Cathepsin S (Cat S),Which was one of the significant genes obtained by statistical analysis, in the aortas of rats in control group (Wistar rats), DM group (Goto Kakisaki rats) and atorvastatin treated DM group (Goto Kakisaki rats with 50 mg/kg qd atorvastatin) for 12 weeks.
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Patients previously not treated with a lipid-lowering agent (n = 20; mean age 49.15 +/- 3.28 years) were treated with either 10 mg/day of Simvastatin (n = 11), or Atorvastatin (n = 9) for 4 months. Fourteen additional patients were recruited from the same clinic at the same hospital as a control group. The medication of these latter patients was unaltered for 4 months and the same parameters were measured as for the statin groups. Serum concentrations of zinc, copper, caeruloplasmin, selenium, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured together with their lipid profiles pre- and post-treatment. In addition to reducing serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p < 0.0001), statin treatment was associated with a significant reduction in mean serum zinc (9%, p = 0.03), copper (9%, p < 0.01), caeruloplasmin (24%, p < 0.05), and median CRP (45%, p < 0.03). Similar changes were not observed in the control patients. No significant effects were observed for serum selenium, copper/caeruloplasmin ratio, or GPx (p > 0.05) in either statin or control groups. These changes may be related to the known anti-inflammatory properties of the statin class of drugs.
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(1) Simvastatin and pravastatin are the two reference statins for type IIA and type IIB hypercholesterolaemia because they have the best-documented protective effect against cardiovascular events. Simvastatin and pravastatin are also the reference statins for familial heterozygous hypercholesterolaemia, though there is no evidence that they prevent cardiovascular events in this group. Statins are not very effective in familial homozygous hypercholesterolaemia. (2) Rosuvastatin is the sixth statin to arrive on the French market. The fifth, cerivastatin, was withdrawn from the market in 2001 because of serious adverse effects. (3) Rosuvastatin has not been assessed in terms of morbidity or mortality. The results of comparative trials in type IIA and type IIB hypercholesterolaemia suggest that rosuvastatin is slightly more active than simvastatin, pravastatin and atorvastatin on some lipid parameters after a few weeks of treatment. (4) Rosuvastatin has not been compared with simvastatin or pravastatin in familial heterozygous hypercholesterolaemia. One trial showed it to be slightly more effective than atorvastatin on cholesterol levels. According to one trial, rosuvastatin does not appear to be more effective than atorvastatin in homozygous forms. (5) In clinical trials the adverse effects of rosuvastatin were similar to those of other statins, with the exception of renal adverse effects. We don't know whether rosuvastatin is more or less likely than other statins to cause rhabdomyolysis. (6) Clinical trials reported some cases of proteinuria and renal failure suggesting there is a need for more thorough assessment in long-term trials. (7) In practice, statins with the best-documented benefits (simvastatin and pravastatin) should be used first for cardiovascular prevention in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.
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In diabetic patients, the plasma concentration of atorvastatin lactone was significantly higher than that of atorvastatin acid throughout the 24-hour sampling period. The optimal population pharmacokinetic model for atorvastatin acid and atorvastatin lactone consisted of a two- and one-compartment model, respectively, with interconversion between atorvastatin acid and atorvastatin lactone. Parent drug was absorbed orally with a population estimate first-order absorption rate constant of 0.457 h(-1). The population estimates of apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of atorvastatin acid to atorvastatin lactone, intercompartmental clearance (Q/F), apparent central compartment volume of distribution after oral administration (V(1)/F) and apparent peripheral compartment volume of distribution after oral administration (V(2)/F) for atorvastatin acid were 231 L/h, 315 L/h, 325 L and 4910 L, respectively. The population estimates of apparent total clearance of atorvastatin lactone (CL(M)/F), apparent intercompartmental clearance of atorvastatin lactone (Q(M)/F) and apparent volume of distribution of atorvastatin lactone after oral administration (V(M)/F) were 85.4 L/h, 166 L/h and 249 L, respectively. The final covariate model indicated that the liver enzyme lactate dehydrogenase was related to CL/F and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was related to Q/F. Importantly, diabetic patients have 3.56 times lower CL(M)/F than nondiabetic patients, indicating significantly lower clearance of atorvastatin lactone in these patients. Moreover, in a multivariate population pharmacokinetics model, diabetes status was the only significant covariate predicting the values of the CL(M)/F. Correspondingly, the concentration of atorvastatin acid remaining in the microsomal incubation was not significantly different between nondiabetic and diabetic liver samples, whereas the concentration of atorvastatin lactone was significantly higher in the samples from diabetic donors. In vitro studies, using recombinant enzymes, revealed that cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is the major CYP enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of atorvastatin lactone.
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These results suggest that in vivo (1) statins directly increase PCSK9 expression while (2) fibrates affect PCSK9 expression indirectly through its modulation of cholesterol levels and (3) that these therapies could be improved by combination with a PCSK9 inhibitor, constituting a novel hypercholesterolemic therapy, since PCSK9 was significantly upregulated by both treatments.
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Prescribing of statins showed an increasing trend in all developed countries, during the last two decades. The aim of this study was to research the trends in statin consumption in the period from 2004 to 2012 as well as trends of cardiovascular mortality during the 1990 to 2012 period, and to compare them between Croatia and several neighbouring countries. Data on statin expenditures and consumption expresed in defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DDD/TID), were taken from annual reports of Croatian Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices (HALMED). Data on crude mortality rates and standardized cardiovascular mortality rates, were taken from the Croatian Health Statistics Yearbooks. The utilization of statins increased by 196.7% during the observed period, with the highest consumption of atorvastatin and simvastatin. Financial expenditure of statins expanded at much faster rate in comparison with overall drug costs. Cardiovascular mortality rates decreased slightly, while maintaining higher level in comparison with some neighbouring countries.
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No significant effects of statin therapy on arterial inflammation of the aorta were seen as measured by FDG-PET. However, statin therapy reduced non-calcified plaque volume and high-risk coronary plaque features in HIV-infected patients. Further studies should assess whether reduction in high-risk coronary artery disease translates into effective prevention of cardiovascular events in this at-risk population.
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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of administering a single dose of atorvastatin, simvastatin, or extended-release (ER) niacin on the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of fenofibrate Insoluble Drug Delivery-MicroParticle (IDD-P).
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(99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5, a single-domain antibody fragment directed against mouse or human vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), recently has been proposed as a new imaging agent for the detection of inflamed atherosclerotic lesions. Indeed, in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, (99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5 specifically bound to VCAM-1-positive lesions, thereby allowing their identification on SPECT images. The purpose of the present study was to investigate (99m)Tc-cAbVCAM1-5 imaging sensitivity using a reference statin therapy.
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To evaluate the effects of simvastatin and atorvastatin in elderly male patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) accompanied by metabolic syndrome (MetS).