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In the present study, 19 antibiotics in combinations were tested against an MDRSP isolate. In vitro susceptibility studies including minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) and disk agar diffusion (DAD), tolerance to resistant antibiotics, checkerboard assay, time-kill curve, hemolytic assay, and autolysis assay were performed on the test strain to study its in vitro susceptibility to combination therapy.
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Out of the 125 samples investigated, 8 (6.4%) samples were positive for P. agglomerans and these were uniformly susceptible to tigecycline, chloramphenicol, cefepime, levofloxacin, minocycline and colistin. Fifty percent of isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, moxifloxacin, cotrimoxazole and ticarcillin.
In these studies, the authors tested 16 antimicrobial agents in a unique composite wound dressing (TheraGauze; Soluble Systems, LLC, Newport News, Virginia) against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates and Gram-negative organisms commonly associated with wound infections and antibiotic resistance. Disk diffusion susceptibility testing is used to quantify antimicrobial activity.
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As acknowledged by international CAP treatment guidelines, the combination of a third-generation cephalosporin and a macrolide is at least as efficacious as monotherapy with a fluoroquinolone with enhanced anti-pneumococcal activity, for hospitalized patients with moderate to severe CAP. Combined medication with a macrolide and third-generation cephalosporin may be preferred over fluoroquinolones as first-line therapy of hospitalized patients with CAP to minimize the development of multiresistant nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli.
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In preparing hospital antibiograms for individual organisms and antibiotics, laboratories often combine susceptibility data for isolates from a variety of sources and patient types. If results from patients with known resistance patterns that vary from normal are included, the overall susceptibility value for the institution could be misleadingly skewed.
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To investigate the genetic features of drug resistance to group A streptococcus(GAS) and macrolides antibiotics among pediatric patients in Beijing 2012.
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Rapid detection of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinant AAC(6')-Ib-cr in Enterobacteriaceae by measuring acetyltransferase activity against fluoroquinolones by MALDI-TOF MS analysis.
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The isolation of Aureimonas altamirensis (a rare opportunistic pathogen with a yet unresolved pathogenicity) from the ascites fluid of a patient with bacterial peritonitis is reported. The strain was first identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the result was confirmed using 16S rDNA sequencing. An antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) guidelines published in 2013, revealing sensitivity to all antibiotics tested. The patient was treated effectively with levofloxacin.
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Although the present study was under-powered by unexpectedly low overall incidence of febrile urinary tract infections, addition of one intravenous administration of amikacin to one oral administration of levofloxacin showed no advantage compared with levofloxacin alone as antimicrobial prophylaxis in TRUSB. Strikingly, all pathogens isolated from febrile patients were sensitive to amikacin in vitro. Therefore, further understanding of amikacin's drug kinetics in the prostate is necessary to develop a more efficient drug delivery system for amikacin.
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Significant weight loss of mice and increased fecal water content of were observed in MMF and MMF+LVFX but not in MMF+LVFX+HST groups. Serum MPA levels didn't differ in MMF-administered groups. Inflammatory changes in intestinal villi were observed in the cecum in MMF and MMF+LVFX groups. A change in fecal flora was observed in LVFX-administered groups.
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We retrospectively evaluated the records of 1,273 patients who underwent prostate biopsy at New York Harbor Veterans Affairs Hospital from January 2004 to December 2006. Patients received levofloxacin or gatifloxacin. Using the Veterans Affairs computerized patient record system we reviewed all patient visits within 1 month after prostate biopsy. Visits were queried for infective symptoms. Positive cultures were evaluated for resistance patterns. The annual and overall incidence of infective complications and fluoroquinolone resistant infections was calculated.
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The aim of the study was to compare the mid- and long-term effects of different treatments such as CT-guided percutaneous pulmonary paracentesis, tuberculoma perfusing chemotherapy and whole-body standard chemotherapy or extended chemotherapy on safety and effectiveness for pleural chemotherapy. A total of 60 subjects diagnosed to have pleural tuberculosis between February 2010 and February 2014 were prospectively selected for this study and were considered as the experimental group. Seventy pleural tuberculosis patients who underwent treatment between February 2006 and February 2010 were considered as the control group. The patients in the experimental group were treated with CT-guided percutaneous pulmonary paracentesis and tuberculoma perfusing chemotherapy of not more than three courses with each course consisting of administration of 0.1 g isoniazid, n 0.5 gkanamyci, 0.2 g levofloxacin, and 1 ml lidocaine once a week for four times. The patients in the control group were treated with whole-body standard or extended chemotherapy regimen 3~6HRZE(S)/6~12HR. The patients were followed up for 18 months and the treatment effects were compared. The diameter of tuberculoma in patients of the experimental group during 6, 12 and 18 months was shorter than that of the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate of treatment and the duration of treatment in experimental group during 18 months were higher than that of control group (P<0.05). The frequency of drug-related complications were lower in comparison with the control group (P<0.05). No surgically acquired complications were observed in the experimental group. Thus, treatments such as CT-guided percutaneous pulmonary paracentesis and tuberculoma perfusing chemotherapy for pleural tuberculosis are safe and effective, which has greater value and can be promoted for use in the clinical setting.
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The 7-day RLT achieved 84% (95% CI: 69-93%) and 86% (95% CI: 72-95%) eradication rates in intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses respectively. The shorter treatment obtained an 83% (95% CI: 69-93%) eradication rate in both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. Both regimens were well tolerated, although patients who received the 4-day RLT reported fewer side-effects.
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In this prospective, evaluator-masked, randomized clinical trial, 59 eyes of 50 patients who underwent cataract surgery were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive moxifloxacin 0.5% (n=32 eyes) or levofloxacin 0.5% (n=27 eyes). All patients instilled moxifloxacin or levofloxain four times daily for 1 week prior to surgery and 2 weeks after surgery. The epithelial wound healing status in the corneal incision site was scanned with a raster scan mode of fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). The number of eyes showing epithelial defect images and average number of corneal epithelial defect cuts per eye were compared between groups. All patients were evaluated on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, and 10.
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More than 3,000 consecutive clinical bacterial isolates from 10 U.S. medical centers were subjected to standard broth microdilution and disk diffusion tests to determine their susceptibilities to levofloxacin, ofloxacin, D-ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Levofloxacin was confirmed to be twice as active as ofloxacin and to have activity comparable to that of ciprofloxacin, with minor variations in activity against some species. The prevalence of resistant isolates was 7.1% to levofloxacin, 9.3% to ciprofloxacin, and 11.2% to ofloxacin. The susceptibilities of some species to the quinolones were less than those reported in previous studies. Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates had the greatest variability in their susceptibilities to the three drugs between the participating centers. Two proposed zone size breakpoints for levofloxacin disk tests yielded similar low error rates. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin susceptibility test results correlated reasonably well with those of levofloxacin and could be used as surrogate indicators of levofloxacin susceptibility, but that resulted in some serious errors, and thus, direct testing of levofloxacin susceptibility is preferable. Replicate testing of standard quality control strains confirmed the established and proposed quality control parameters for all three quinolones tested.
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The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) was established in 2004 to monitor longitudinal changes in bacterial susceptibility to numerous antimicrobial agents, specifically tigecycline. In this study, susceptibility among Gram-positive and Gram-negative isolates between 2004 and 2011 from the Middle East and Africa was examined. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) interpretive criteria, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution methods. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved breakpoints were used for tigecycline. In total, 2967 Gram-positive and 6322 Gram-negative isolates were examined from 33 participating centres. All Staphylococcus aureus isolates, including meticillin-resistant S. aureus, were susceptible to tigecycline, linezolid and vancomycin. Vancomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and levofloxacin were highly active (>97.6% susceptibility) against Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-non-susceptible strains. All Enterococcus faecium isolates were susceptible to tigecycline and linezolid, including 32 vancomycin-resistant isolates. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases were produced by 16.6% of Escherichia coli and 32.9% of Klebsiella pneumoniae. More than 95% of E. coli and Enterobacter spp. were susceptible to amikacin, tigecycline, imipenem and meropenem. The most active agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii were amikacin (88.0% susceptible) and minocycline (64.2% susceptible), respectively; the MIC90 (MIC required to inhibit 90% of the isolates) of tigecycline against A. baumannii was low at 2mg/L. Tigecycline and carbapenem agents were highly active against most Gram-negative pathogens. Tigecycline, linezolid and vancomycin showed good activity against most Gram-positive pathogens from the Middle East and Africa.
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To compare the effectiveness and security of levofloxacin treatment in front betalactamic therapy in patient with community-acquired pneumonia that require hospitalization (CAPH).
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Compared with amoxicillin, azithromycin resulted in a statistically significant increase in mortality and arrhythmia risks on days 1 to 5, but not 6 to 10. Levofloxacin, which was predominantly dispensed for a minimum of 10 days, resulted in an increased risk throughout the 10-day period.
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The patient was a 58-year-old woman with multiple myeloma and secondary diabetes complicated by listeria septicemia accompanied by central nervous system involvement. She initially received moxalactam and etimicin sulfate, but blood cultures detected Listeria monocytogenes. Levofloxacin was administered, but the symptoms did not improve. The patient ultimately died.
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin versus levofloxacin plus metronidazole in uncomplicated pelvic inflammatory disease (uPID) in Asia.