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Karela

Karela is a herbal medication of high-quality which helps regulate blood sugar levels. Karela is a perfect remedy for diabetic patients as it checks the level of sugar in body, regulates the same and stops its recurrence. Karela is also a wonderful herbal remedy indicated for people suffering from heart diseases such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction etc as it helps in thinning of blood.

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Description

Karela is a perfect remedy for diabetic patients as it checks the level of sugar in body, regulates the same and stops its recurrence.

Karela helps to control blood glucose naturally. It is proved to be a boon for patients suffering from high glucose levels.

Karela is known to be a wonderful product for the purification of the blood and increasing immunity to prevent any infection.

Karela is alsox a wonderful herbal remedy indicated for people suffering from heart diseases such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction etc as it helps in thinning of blood.

Karela's main ingredient is: Bitter Lemon.

Dosage

Karela is available in capsules which are taken by mouth.

It is recommended to take 1 Karela capsule twice a day after meals.

Overdose

If you overdose Karela and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Karela are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Karela if you are allergic to Karela components.

Be careful with Karela if you are pregnant. Consult your doctor first.

Always give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.

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To evaluate in vitro the antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities of 80% methanol extract from 45 medicinal plants collected in Sankuru (Democratic Republic of Congo) against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and the chloroquine-sensitive Ghanaian strain of Plasmodium falciparum, and MRC-5 cell lines respectively.

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An ethanol extract of leaves from M. charantia was prepared. To research in vitro antiepimastigote activity, T. cruzi CL-B5 clone was used. Epimastigotes were inoculated at a concentration of 1 × 10(5) cells/mL in 200 µl tryptose-liver infusion. For the cytotoxicity assay, J774 macrophages were used. The antifungal activity was evaluated by microdilution using strains of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei.

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Diabetes, a common metabolic disorder, is characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin is the principal mediator of glucose homeostasis. In a previous study, we identified a trypsin inhibitor, named Momordica charantia insulin receptor (IR)-binding protein (mcIRBP) in this study, that might interact with IR. The physical and functional interactions between mcIRBP and IR were clearly analyzed in the present study. Photo-cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry showed that three regions (17-21, 34-40, and 59-66 residues) located on mcIRBP physically interacted with leucine-rich repeat domain and cysteine-rich region of IR. IR-binding assay showed that the binding behavior of mcIRBP and insulin displayed a cooperative manner. After binding to IR, mcIRBP activated the kinase activity of IR by (5.87 ± 0.45)-fold, increased the amount of phospho-IR protein by (1.31 ± 0.03)-fold, affected phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways, and consequently stimulated the uptake of glucose in 3T3-L1 cells by (1.36 ± 0.12)-fold. Intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 nmol/kg mcIRBP significantly decreased the blood glucose levels by 20.9 ± 3.2% and 10.8 ± 3.6% in normal and diabetic mice, respectively. Microarray analysis showed that mcIRBP affected genes involved in insulin signaling transduction pathway in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mcIRBP is a novel IRBP that binds to sites different from the insulin-binding sites on IR and stimulates both the glucose uptake in cells and the glucose clearance in mice.

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All the patients used their regular conventional medications together with herbal remedies. The most commonly used medication was metformin (91.4%). Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis) was the most commonly used herbal remedy (32%), followed by crepe ginger (Costus speciosus) (25%) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) (20%). Herbal remedies used less frequently were finger millet (Eleusine corocana) (5%), anguna leaves (Wattakaka volubilis) (5%), goat weed (Scoparia dulcis) (4%), Salacia reticulata (4%), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) (3%) and tree turmeric (Coscinium fenestratum) (0.5%). None of the patients used commercially available over-the-counter herbal products. The common preparations were salads (72.8%), curries (12.8%), herbal tea (6%), and herbal porridges (6%).

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This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic effects of bitter melon aqueous extracts (BMAE) in vitro, the inhibitory effects of BMAE on pancreatic cholesterol esterase (CEase) and incorporation of cholesterol into micelles were investigated. BMAE decreased the in vitro micellar solubility of cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. The conformation of CEase was investigated by means of circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence. The result revealed the decrease of α-helix contents, increase of β-sheet and exposure of aromatic amino acid residuals. The incorporation of cholesterol into micelles was inhibited by BMAE. A complex was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which indicated interaction between cholesterol and BMAE. The result revealed that BMAE can play a role in decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption via inhibition of CEase, and of micelle formation.

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TST led to significant development of cold allodynia, mechanical and heat hyperalgesia, dynamic mechanical allodynia, and functional deficit in walking along with rise in the levels of TBARS and TNF-alpha. Administration of MC (200, 400, and 800 mg/kg) significantly attenuated TST-induced behavioural and biochemical changes. Furthermore, pretreatment of BADGE (120 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) abolished the protective effect of MC in TST-induced neuropathic pain.

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Serine proteinase inhibitors of the squash family were isolated from bitter gourd (Momordica charantia LINN.) seeds by the conventional purification method. Heat treatment of the extract of the seeds allowed removal of large amounts of protein without loss of trypsin and elastase inhibitory activities. From the supernatants thus obtained, the inhibitors were isolated to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and reversed phase chromatography. One trypsin inhibitor (Momordica charantia trypsin inhibitor-III; MCTI-III) and three elastase inhibitors (Momordica charantia elastase inhibitor-II, -III, and -IV; MCEI-II, -III, and -IV) were newly isolated in addition to trypsin inhibitors MCTI-I and -II and elastase inhibitor MCEI-I previously reported [Hara, S. et. al. (1989). J. Biochem. 105, 88-92]. The primary structures of the four new inhibitors were determined as follows. [sequence: see text] The dissociation constants, Ki, of MCTI-III complex with bovine beta-trypsin, and of MCEI-II, -III, -IV with porcine elastase were determined to be 1.9 x 10(-7) M, 9.4 x 10(-9) M, 4.0 x 10(-9) M, and 4.7 x 10(-9) M, respectively. Although MCTI-III differed from MCTI-I in only two amino acids, having Gly(3) and Gln(13) in place of Arg(3) and Arg(13), the Ki value of MCTI-III was 20-fold larger than that of MCTI-I. Addition of an amino terminal Glu residue, a dipeptide (Glu-Glu-), and a tripeptide (Glu-Glu-Glu-) to MCEI-I strengthened its elastase inhibitory activity by 200-fold.

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The aim of the study was to examine whether Momordica fruit extract (MFE) and Momordica leaves extract (MLE) might exert any chemopreventive effect in a two stage protocol in skin carcinogenesis with Swiss albino mice. The tumour incidence, tumour yield, tumour burden and cumulative no. of papillomas were found to be higher in the controls (without either extract) as compared to the MFE or MLE treated experimental groups. In a melanoma model, the mice which received fruit and leaf extracts of Momordica at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days showed increase in life span of animals and tumour volume was significantly reduced as compared to control values. In cytogenetic studies, a single application of Momordica extracts at doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight, 24 hours prior the i.p. administration of cyclophosphamide, significantly prevented micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations in a dose dependent manner in bone marrow cells of mice. The present study demonstrate chemopreventive potential of Momordica fruit and leaf extracts on DMBA induced skin tumorigenesis, melanoma tumour and cytogenicity.

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Ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc and Rg1 inhibited steroidogenesis induced by a maximally active dose of corticotropin in isolated rat adrenal cells. The galactose-binding lectins from Momordica charantia seeds and Trichosanthes kirilowii tubers and mannose-binding concanavalin A did not affect basal corticosterone production. The lectins potentiated steroidogenesis induced by a submaximal dose of corticotropin but were without effect on steroidogenesis induced by a maximally active dose of corticotropin. Momordica charantia insulin-like peptide did not affect steroidogenesis.

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Graded concentrations (1.25-100 μg/mL) of the crude methanolic and water extracts and fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and water) were evaluated for abilities to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide (SO) radicals and to inhibit lipoxygenase and formation of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) in vitro. The MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide) cytotoxicity test was performed on 3T3 cell line.

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Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also observed.

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Salt-fractionated bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) proteins were employed for the decolorization of disperse dyes in the presence of H2O2. The effect of various experimental conditions such as concentration of enzyme, H2O2, phenol, reaction time, pH and temperature on the decolorization of dyes was investigated. Dyes were recalcitrant to the decolorization catalysed by bitter gourd peroxidase. However, these dyes were decolorized significantly in the presence of a redox mediator, phenol. Bitter gourd peroxidase (0.215 U/mL) could decolorize about 60% of Disperse Red 17 in the presence of 0.2 mM phenol, whereas Disperse Brown 1 was decolorized by only 40% even in the presence of 0.4 mM phenol. Maximum decolorization of dyes was achieved in the presence of 0.75 mM H2O2 in a buffer ofpH 3.0 and 40 degrees C within 30 min. The K(m) values obtained were 0.625 mg/(L x h) and 2.5 mg/(L x h) for Disperse Red 17 and Disperse Brown 1, respectively. In all the experiments, Disperse Brown 1 was found to be more recalcitrant to decolorization catalysed by bitter gourd peroxidise, as compared to Disperse Red 17.

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Our survey showed significant retention of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in rural Trinidad. More interestingly, a large remnant of medico-cultural concepts such as "cooling/cleanser", "afterbirth", "stoppage-of-water" and "womb infection" persist in the rural population. Although the scientific literature show that some of the cited plants possessed antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities in laboratory studies, these results must be taken with caution until clinical trials are conducted to establish safety and efficacy.

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MAP30 is an anti-HIV plant protein that we have identified and purified to homogeneity from bitter melon (Momordica charantia). It is capable of acting against multiple stages of the viral life cycle, on acute infection as well as replication in chronically infected cells. In addition to antiviral action, MAP30 also possesses anti-tumor activity, topological inactivation of viral DNA, inhibition of viral integrase and cell-free ribosome-inactivation activities. We have cloned and expressed the MAP30 gene. The objective of this study is to characterize recombinant MAP30 (re-MAP30) and to determine its anti-HIV, anti-tumor and other activities. We report here that re-MAP30 inhibits HIV-1 and certain human tumors to the same extent as its native counterpart, natural MAP30 (nMAP30). The anti-HIV activity was measured by quantitative focal syncytium formation on CEM-ss cell monolayers, viral core protein p24 expression and viral-associated reverse transcriptase activity in HIV-1-infected H9 cells. The anti-tumor activity was measured by metabolic labeling of protein synthesis in tumor cells. In the dose range of the assay, re-MAP30 exhibits little toxicity to the uninfected viral target cells and other normal human cells. Identical to nMAP30, re-MAP30 is also active in topological inactivation of viral DNA, inhibition of viral DNA integration and cell-free ribosome inactivation. The cloning and expression of the gene encoding biologically active re-MAP30 provides an abundant source of homogeneous material for clinical investigations, as well as structure-function studies of this novel antiviral and anti-tumor agent.

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In total, 72 Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the study. The animals were subdivided into two groups: a nondiabetic group (n = 36) and a group with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (n = 36). Both groups were subdivided further into a nontreated control group (n = 18), and a topically treated group with MC extract administered daily (n = 18). The wound was inflicted with a 6-mm punch-biopsy needle on the dorsal aspect of the thoracolumbar region. The animals were killed on the days 1, 5 and 10 after wound creation. The rate of wound closure and the total protein content was estimated. Histological study of the wound tissue at days 5 and 10 was also performed.

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The leaf extracts increased the intracellular accumulation of [3H]-vinblastine in KB-V1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but extracts from the fruits and tendrils had no effect. By modulating Pgp-mediated vinblastine efflux, the leaf extracts decreased the [3H]-vinblastine efflux in KB-V1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, but not in KB-3-1 cells. Treatment of drug-resistant KB-V1 cells with bitter melon leaf extracts increased their sensitivity to vinblastine, but similar treatment of KB-3-1 cells showed no modulating effect. The fruit and tendril extracts did not affect the MDR phenotype in either cell line.

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Effects of three different varieties (Koimidori, Powerful-Reishi, and Hyakunari) of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and those of methanol fraction extract of Koimidori variety on serum and liver triglycerides were studied in rats. Feeding of diets containing either bitter melon or various fractions isolated by organic solvents caused no adverse effects on food intake or growth of rats. When the effect of three different varieties of bitter melon was compared, the Koimidori variety was found to be the most effective in lowering hepatic triglyceride levels as compared to the other two varieties, suggesting a variety-dependent difference in their activity. Furthermore, the active component(s) responsible for the liver triglyceride lowering activity of Koimidori variety was assumed to be concentrated in the methanol fraction, but not in other fractions such as the n-hexane, the acetone, or the residual fraction. The triglyceride lowering activity was furthermore confirmed by the dose-dependent reduction of hepatic triglyceride, resulting the lowest level in rats fed 3.0% supplementation. In these experiments, the effects on serum lipids were marginal. The results of the present and previous studies clearly show that bitter melon, especially Koimidori variety, exhibits a potent liver triglyceride-lowering activity.

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In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control. In this study, essential oils extracted by steam distillation from leaves of five plant species Centella asiatica L., Ipomoea cairica L., Momordica charantia L., Psidium guajava L. and Tridax procumbens L. were evaluated for their topical repellency effects against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi in mosquito cages. All essential oils were tested at three different concentrations (2, 4 and 6%). Of these, the essential oils of I. cairica, M. charantia and T. procumbens exhibited relatively high repellency effect (>300 minutes at 6% concentration), followed by C. asiatica and P. guajava which showed less effective (< 150 minutes at 6 % concentration). However, the ethanol applied arm served as control provided maximum 8.0 minutes repellency in this study. In general, clear dose-response relationships were established in all essential oils, with the highest concentration of 6% provided high repellency effect. The results obtained from this study suggest that essential oils of I. cairica, M. charantia and T. procumbens are promising as repellents at 6% concentration against An. stephensi and could be useful in the search for new natural repellent compounds.

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New York University School of Medicine.

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Based on the sequence reported by Lee-Huang,S, we cloned the MAP30 gene of Momordica charantia (balsam pear) into a prokaryotic expression vector pET28a (+). A method by using PCR for rapid identification of positive clone was developed. Result showed this screening method can be used to detect positive colonies from samples of bacterial, purified plasmid, liquid culture,and liquid culture treated with mixture of phenol/Chloroform. The result from liquid-culture-treated- PCR (LCT-PCR) is very close to that of by plasmid-PCR. LCT-PCR is reliable and much easier to used than plasmid-PCR, therefore the LCT-PCR can be used for clone screening during the molecular cloning.

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Compared to baseline, mean reduction in HbA1-c at the endpoint was significant among patients of group I, group II and group III (p ≤ 0.05, p ≤ 0.02 and p < 0.005 respectively) and same was the case for FPG (p ≤ 0.05, p < 0.04, p < 0.003 respectively), but the improvement in 2 hour OGTT was significant only in group III (p < 0.03). The decrease in PSA was observed only among group I and group II with the later showing significant reduction from baseline (p < 0.01). In group III, the level slightly increased. Parameters including blood lipids, atherogenic index, body weight and SBP improved among patients of group I and group II but deteriorated among group III patients.

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Momordica charantia L., also known as bitter melon, has been shown to ameliorate obesity and insulin resistance. However, metabolic changes regulated by M. charantia in obesity are not clearly understood. In this study, serums obtained from obese and M. charantia-treated mice were analyzed by using gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and multivariate statistical analysis was performed by Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. The results from this study indicated that body weight fat and insulin levels of obese mice are dramatically suppressed by 8 weeks of dietary supplementation of M. charantia. Metabolomic data revealed that overproductions of energy and nutrient metabolism in obese mice were restored by M. charantia treatment. The antiinflammatory and inhibition of insulin resistance effect of M. charantia in obesity was illustrated with the restoration of free fatty acids and eicosanoids. The findings achieved in this study further strengthen the therapeutic value of using M. charantia to treat obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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PEGylation could reduce the hepatotoxicity of alpha-MMC to rats.

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Previous studies showed that the two forms of momorcharins which are isolated from seeds of Momordica charantia L. are effective in inducing early and midterm abortions in the mouse. Momorcharins were found to be teratogenic to the cultured mouse embryos at the early organogenesis stage. Morphological abnormalities were seen in the head, trunk and limbs. Ultrastructural studies on the visceral yolk sac of the momorcharin-treated embryos showed that the endodermal layer was deranged, membrane invaginations at the apical surface were decreased and intercellular space became distended. It is likely that the teratogenic action of momorcharins on mouse embryos in vitro is mediated through the deleterious effects on the visceral yolk sac, which functions as a vital transport organ for the conceptus at the immediate post-implantation period.

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Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae), also called bitter melon, has traditionally been used as a natural anti-diabetic agent for anti-hyperglycemic activity in several animal models and clinical trials. We investigated the differences in the anti-diabetic properties and mechanism of action of Taiwanese M. charantia (MC) between type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. To clarify the beneficial effects of MC, we measured non-fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin levels in KK/HIJ mice with high-fat diet-induced diabetes (200 mg/kg/day of charantin-rich extract of MC [CEMC]) and in ICR mice with STZ-induced diabetes. After 8 weeks, all the mice were exsanguinated, and the expression of the insulin-signaling-associated proteins in their tissue was evaluated, in coordination with the protective effects of CEMC against pancreatic β-cell toxicity (in vitro). Eight weeks of data indicated that CEMC caused a significant decline in non-fasting blood glucose, plasma glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in the KK/HIJ mice, but not in the ICR mice. Furthermore, CEMC decreased plasma insulin and promoted the sensitivity of insulin by increasing the expression of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle and of IRS-1 in the liver of KK/HIJ mice; however, CEMC extract had no effect on the insulin sensitivity of ICR mice. In vitro study showed that CEMC prevented pancreatic β cells from high-glucose-induced cytotoxicity after 24 h of incubation, but the protective effect was not detectable after 72 h. Collectively, the hypoglycemic effects of CEMC suggest that it has potential for increasing insulin sensitivity in patients with T2D rather than for protecting patients with T1D against β-cell dysfunction.

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Lectin isolated from the seeds of Momordica charantia (MCL) is a galactose-specific glycoprotein. To investigate the effects of MCL on cell activation, we analyzed the responses of BALB/c splenocytes, thymocytes, T cells and B cells on MCL stimulation. Proliferation assays showed that MCL selectively stimulates the B cell subset of splenocytes (p<0.05) in a dose and time dependent manner and that this activation proceeds without the involvement of T cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled MCL binds to B cells, which was inhibited by specific sugars, including galactose. Mouse immunoglobulin (Ig) was able to inhibit MCL-induced proliferation of mouse B cells, suggesting MCL stimulates B cell activation via membrane Ig in the B cell surface. Moreover, after 96-h co-culture, MCL triggered splenocytes to produce a large amount of non-specific IgM in culture supernatants (p<0.01). Additionally, MCL was shown to up-regulate the cell activation marker CD86, in a B cell subpopulation distinct from that affected by LPS. These data suggest that MCL is a T cell-independent B cell activator and a polyclonal Ig inducer, and provide further information on the immunomodulatory effect of MCL.

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The binding of 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-galactopyranoside (MeUmb-Galp), to Mormordica charantia lectin was studied by equilibrium dialysis and quenching of ligand fluorescence. The fluorescence of MeUmb-Galp decreases as a function of solvent polarity. On binding to M. charantia lectin, its fluorescence was nearly 100% quenched, showing that the binding of the glycoside takes place in hydrophobic environment. The binding of the fluorescent sugar was saccharide-specific as evidenced by reversal of MeUmb-Galp fluorescence quenching by lactose. The association constant is independent of the experimental method used and at 25 degrees C the value is (1.96 +/- 0.05) X 10(4) M-1. The number of binding sites as determined by equilibrium dialysis and fluorescence quenching agree very well with each other; n being equal to 1.98 +/- 0.02. The Ka value for the glycoside was also determined by competition studies employing reversal of fluorescence quenching of MeUmb-Galp by lactose. The value of ka obtained for lactose is 1.21 X 10(4) M-1 at 30 degrees C. The internal consistency of the association constant and number of binding site values at low and high saturation indicates the absence of additional subsite on M. charantia lectin. The thermodynamic parameters do not differ greatly with change in temperature; the values of - delta H degrees and - delta S degrees are equal to 30 +/- 9.63 kJ mol-1 and 21 +/- 0.3 J mol-1 K-1 respectively in the range of 15--35 degrees C indicting that the binding of M. charantia lectin to saccharide is exothermic in nature.

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Momordica charantia fruits are used as a vegetable in many countries. From time immemorial, it has also been used for management of diabetes in the Ayurvedic and Chinese systems of medicine. Information regarding the standardization of this vegetable for its usage as an antidiabetic drug is scanty. There are many reports on its effects on glucose and lipid levels in diabetic animals and some in clinical trials. Reports regarding its mechanism of action are limited. So in the present review all the information is considered to produce some concrete findings on the mechanism behind its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects. Studies have shown that M. charantia repairs damaged β-cells, increases insulin levels, and also enhance the sensitivity of insulin. It inhibits the absorption of glucose by inhibiting glucosidase and also suppresses the activity of disaccharidases in the intestine. It stimulates the synthesis and release of thyroid hormones and adiponectin and enhances the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Effects of M. charantia like transport of glucose in the cells, transport of fatty acids in the mitochondria, modulation of insulin secretion, and elevation of levels of uncoupling proteins in adipose and skeletal muscles are similar to those of AMPK and thyroxine. Therefore it is proposed that effects of M. charantia on carbohydrate and fat metabolism are through thyroxine and AMPK.

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Our previous short-term experiment demonstrated that seed oil from bitter melon (Momordica charantia) (BMO), which is rich in cis(c)9, trans(t)11, t13-conjugated linolenic acid (CLN), inhibited the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). In our study, the possible inhibitory effect of dietary administration of BMO on the development of colonic neoplasms was investigated using an animal colon carcinogenesis model initiated with a colon carcinogen AOM. Male F344 rats were given subcutaneous injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 2 weeks to induce colon neoplasms. They also received diets containing 0.01%, 0.1% or 1% BMO for 32 weeks, starting 1 week before the first dosing of AOM. At the termination of the study (32 weeks), AOM induced 83% incidence (15/18 rats) of colonic adenocarcinoma. Dietary supplementation with 0.01% and 0.1% BMO caused significant reduction in the incidence (47% inhibition by 0.01% BMO, p<0.02; 40% inhibition by 0.1% BMO, p<0.05; and 17% inhibition by 1% BMO) and the multiplicity (64% inhibition by 0.01% BMO, p<0.005; 58% inhibition by 0.1% BMO, p<0.02; and 48% inhibition by 1% BMO, p<0.05) of colonic adenocarcinoma, though a clear dose response was not observed. Such inhibition was associated with the increased content of CLA (c9,t11-18:2) in the lipid composition in colonic mucosa and liver. Also, BMO administration in diet enhanced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma protein in the nonlesional colonic mucosa. These findings suggest that BMO rich in CLN can suppress AOM-induced colon carcinogenesis and the inhibition might be caused, in part, by modification of lipid composition in the colon and liver and/or increased expression of PPARgamma protein level in the colon mucosa.

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karela 1250 mg 2015-03-06

Diet is now one of the well established means in the management of diabetes. Bitter gourd and spent turmeric at 10% level were tested for their efficacy on glycosaminoglycan metabolism in various tissues viz., liver, spleen, lungs, buy karela heart and testis in control, diabetic and treated rats. The glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were isolated from defatted and dried tissues. The contents of sulfated GAGs decreased in all the tissues and the decrease was more prominent in heart and testis. In the isolated GAGs, contents of total sugar, amino sugar, uronic acid and sulfate were studied. Decrease in total sugar content was maximum in testis. Amino sugar content decreased considerably in testis (38%) and lungs (15%). The content of uronic acid also decreased in testis (33%) besides heart (29%) and liver (25%). Sulfate groups in GAGs perform pivotal functions in many biological events and decrease in sulfate content was significant in heart (40%), testis (37%) and liver (37%). GAGs profile on the cellulose acetate electrophoresis revealed that heparan sulfate (HS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) were present in liver, spleen and lungs. HS, CS were present in heart, DS/CS was observed in testis. The observed beneficial effects in GAGs metabolism during diabetes may be due to the presence of high amounts of dietary fibres present in bitter gourd and spent turmeric, besides, possible presence of bioactive compounds in one or both of them.

karela powder dosage 2015-05-15

Five new cucurbitacins, kuguacins II-VI (1-5), along with five known analogues (6-10), were obtained from the fruit of Momordica charantia. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated as 5β,19-epoxycucurbit-23-en-7- buy karela on-3β,25-diol (1), 5β,19-epoxycucurbit-7,23-dion-3β,25-diol (2), 5β,19-epoxycucurbit-6-en-19,23-dion-3β,25-diol (3), 5β,19-epoxy-23,24,25,26,27-pentanorcucurbit-6-en-7,19-dion-3β,22-diol (4), and cucurbit-5-en-7,23-dion-3β,19,25-triol (5) by extensive spectroscopic and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Some cucurbitane compounds from this species were screened for their potential antidiabetic properties in terms of antigluconeogenic activity. As a result, compounds 1, 10, 11, and 12 (at 25-100 µM) showed concentration-dependent inhibition on glucose production from liver cells. In addition, compounds 11 and 12 (at 100 µM) showed around 20-30 % inhibition on PEPCK activity.

karela powder online 2016-06-19

This review describes the nature and applications of ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Momordica charantia (bitter melon). RIPs buy karela from the plant kingdom have received much attention in biomedical research because they target conserved host protein synthesis machinery and show specificity towards human and animal cell targets. Recent studies aimed at unravelling the enzymatic activities of the M charantia RIPs provide a structural basis for their activities. It has been reported that RIPs are member of the single chain ribosome inactivating protein (SCRIP) family which act irreversibly on ribosome by removing adenine residue from eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Various activities of RIPs include anti-tumor, broad anti-viral, ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease. MAP30 (Momordica Anti-HIV Protein), alpha- and beta-momorcharins inhibit HIV replication in acutely and chronically infected cells and thus are considered potential therapeutic agent in HIV infection and AIDS. Further, MAP30 improved the efficacy of anti-HIV therapy when used in combination with other anti-viral drugs. MAP30 holds therapeutic promise over other RIPs because not only it is active against infection and replication of both HSV and HIV but is non toxic to normal cells. Here we review the nature, action, structure function relationship and applications of RIPs from Momordica charantia and evaluate their potential for anti-cancer and anti-viral therapy.

karela pills 2016-09-13

MAP30 is a 30 kDa single-stranded, type-I ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) possessing anti-tumor and anti-HIV activities. It binds both ribosomal RNA and the HIV-1 long-terminal repeat DNA. To understand the structural basis for MAP30 activities, we undertook the study of MAP30 by solution NMR spectroscopy. We report nearly complete 1H, 13C, and buy karela 15N chemical shift assignments of its 263 amino acids. Based upon an analysis of secondary 13C chemical shifts, 3J(HNHA) coupling constants, hydrogen exchange data, and nuclear Overhauser effect patterns, we find that the secondary structure and beta-sheet topology of MAP30 are very similar to those of the ricin A chain, a subunit of the well-known type-II RIP, even though two proteins display distinct activities. We therefore suggest that MAP30 and ricin A chain share a similar three-dimensional fold, and that the reported functional differences between two proteins arise primarily from differences in local three-dimensional structure and other structural properties such as surface electrostatic potentials.

karela capsules uk 2015-05-14

MTB showed varying degrees of susceptibility to each plant extract. This effect was dependent upon the plant species, dose and time of buy karela exposure. Evidence is provided suggesting that: (1) Six crude plant extracts (12%) tested possessed inhibitory capacity at the amount of 500 micrograms per disc; (2) Mammea americana extract yielded the strongest inhibitory effect at 50 micrograms per disc, followed by Marchantia polymorpha, Mangifera indica, Callistemon citrinus, Syzygium jambos and Momordica charantia; (3) the bactericidal inhibitory pattern of MTB growth, exposed to Mammea americana extract, was comparable to streptomycin; and (4) the transitory reduction pattern of MTB growth, produced by Callistemon citrinus, Marchantia polymorpha extracts at 100 micrograms and 250 micrograms, was similar to that of bacteriostatic agents.

karela capsules 2016-12-21

The anti-HIV agent MAP30 (Momordica anti-HIV protein, 30 kDa) inhibits the proliferation of BC-2, an AIDS-related primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell line derived from an AIDS patient. BC-2 cells are latently infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), also known as human herpes virus 8 (HHV8). We examined the effect of MAP30 on the expression of viral and cellular genes in BC-2 during latent and buy karela lytic states of the viral life cycle. By Northern analysis and RT-PCR, we found that MAP30 downregulates the expression of viral cyclin D (vCD), viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), and viral FLIP (vFLIP), genes involved in cell cycle regulation, viral pathogenesis, and apoptosis. By pathway-specific cDNA microarray analysis, we found that BC-2 cells express high levels of egr-1, ATF-2, hsp27, hsp90, IkappaB, mdm2, skp1, and IL-2, cellular genes involved in mitogenesis, tumorigenesis, and inhibition of apoptosis in NFkappaB and p53 signaling pathways. These results define for the first time the specific cellular pathways involved in AIDS-related tumorigenesis and suggest specific novel targets for the treatment. Furthermore, we found that MAP30 downregulates the expression of egr-1, ATF-2, hsp27, hsp90, IkappaB, mdm2, and Skp1, while it upregulates the pro-apoptotic-related genes Bax, CRADD, and caspase-3. Thus, MAP30 modulates the expression of both viral and cellular genes involved in KS pathogenesis. These results provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms of MAP30 anti-KS action and suggest its utility as a therapeutic agent against AIDS-related tumors.

karela tablets himalaya 2016-08-21

The weightof transdermal patches of M. charantia (2 cm(2); 10 mg buy karela /patch) and was found to be 0.03 gm.Thickness of patches of M. charantia (2 cm(2); 10 mg/patch) was found to be satisfactory. The percentage release of active constituents from transdermal patches of M.charantia (2 cm(2); 10 mg/patch) was found to be 47.59% in 10% hydroalcoholic phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at the end of 6 h.The transdermal route exhibited negligible skin irritation and in vivo results revealed that the patches successfully decrease the blood glucose level.

karela medicine 2016-05-23

Hyperglycemia is a pathological condition associated with prediabetes and diabetes. The incidence of prediabetes and diabetes is increasing and imposes great burden on healthcare worldwide. Patients with prediabetes and diabetes have significantly increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and other complications. Currently, management of hyperglycemia includes pharmacological interventions, physical exercise, and change of life style and diet. Food supplements have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat hyperglycemia, especially for subjects with mild hyperglycemia. This review summarized current patents and patent applications with relevant literature on five commonly used food supplements with claims of hypoglycemic effects, including emblica officinalis (gooseberry), fenugreek, green tea, momordica charantia (bitter melon) and cinnamon. The data from human clinical studies did not support a recommendation for all five supplements to manage hyperglycemia. Fenugreek and composite supplements containing emblica officinalis showed the most consistency in lowering fasting blood sugar (FBS) or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in diabetic patients. The hypoglycemic effects of cinnamon and momordica charantia were demonstrated in most of the trials with some exceptions. However, green tea exhibited limited benefits in reducing FBS or HbA1c levels and should not be recommended for managing hyperglycemia. Certain limitations are noticed in a considerable number of clinical studies including small sample size, poor experimental design and considerable variations in participant population, preparation format, daily dose, and buy karela treatment duration. Future studies with more defined participants, standardized preparation and dose, and improved trial design and size are warranted.

karela capsule 2017-01-02

The ethanolic and water extracts of those herbs were tested. For antioxidant method was measured using DPPH buy karela radical scavenging assay, anti-microbial activity using disc diffusion assay and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using the modified resazurin assay against four species of micro-organisms: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteau colorimetric method.

karela capsule benefits 2017-01-15

The prevalence of CAM use was high among diabetics. Islam faith is predictor buy karela for CAM use among Type 2 DM patients. The most-common herbs used were bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia) and Misai Kucing (Orthosiphon Stamineus, Benth). Further studies on the anti-glycemic activity of the isolated compound may be needed in the future.

karela tablets 2017-03-14

Extracts of bitter melon, soybean, dokudami and welsh onion by 40% methanol increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 by Caco-2 cells, suggesting that these extracts inhibited P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The extract of bitter melon was separated in a buy karela tC18 cartridge column and the eluate from 80% acetonitrile most markedly increased the [(3)H]-daunomycin accumulation by Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory compounds in the bitter melon fraction were isolated by HPLC with Pegasil C4 and Pegasil ODS columns. The HPLC fraction having the highest activity was analyzed by (1)H-NMR and FAB-MS, and the active compound was identified as 1-monopalmitin. The inhibitory activities of 1-monopalmitin and its related compounds suggested that the inhibition of P-gp activity was not dependent on the degree of unsaturation of fatty acid in the monoglyceride, but on the chain length. It was also suggested that the monoglyceride structure played an important role in the inhibition of P-gp activity. Monoglycerides could therefore alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs by inhibiting the P-gp-mediated efflux.

karela herbal capsules 2017-01-07

Diamed is a herbal formulation composed of the aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants (Azardirachta indica, Cassia auriculata and Momordica charantia). We have investigated Diamed for its possible antihyperglycaemic action in rats with alloxan-induced experimental diabetes. Oral administration of Diamed (1.39 (0.25 g), 1.67 (0.30 g) or 1.94 (0.35 g) mL kg(-1)) for 30 days resulted in a significant buy karela reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, and an increase in plasma insulin and total haemoglobin. The effect was highly significant after administration of the 1.94 mL (0.35 g) g(-1) body weight dose. Diamed also prevented a decrease in body weight. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in experimental diabetic rats in which there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in the animals treated with Diamed. The effect was compared with 600 microg kg(-1) glibenclamide. The results showed that Diamed had antihyperglycaemic action in experimental diabetes in rats.

karela 1250 mg 2016-01-31

In this study a gene-cloning strategy was employed to obtain the polypeptide-P gene sequence using buy karela degenerate reverse transcription polymer chain reaction and genome-walking methods. A complete 498 bp sequence encoding the polypeptide-P protein was cloned from MC seeds. Subsequent assays of the bioactivity of the expressed recombinant protein revealed that it had significant hypoglycaemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. This result suggests that recombinant polypeptide-P has hypoglycaemic effects.

karela powder dosage 2016-12-04

Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is an important vegetable and medicinal plant in tropical and subtropical regions globally. In this study, the draft genome sequence of a monoecious bitter gourd inbred line, OHB3-1, was analyzed. Through Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly, scaffolds of 285.5 Mb in length were generated, corresponding to ∼84% of the estimated genome size of bitter gourd (339 Mb). In this draft genome sequence, 45,859 protein-coding gene loci were identified, and transposable elements accounted for 15.3% of the whole genome. According to synteny mapping and phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes, bitter gourd was more related to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) than to cucumber (Cucumis sativus) or melon (C. melo). Using RAD-seq analysis, 1507 marker loci were genotyped in an F2 progeny of two bitter gourd lines, resulting in an improved linkage map, comprising 11 linkage groups. By anchoring RAD tag markers, 255 scaffolds were assigned to the linkage map. Comparative analysis of genome sequences and predicted genes determined that putative trypsin-inhibitor and ribosome-inactivating genes were distinctive in the bitter gourd genome. These genes could characterize the bitter gourd as buy karela a medicinal plant.

karela powder online 2017-03-17

MAP30 Glucovance Generic Name gene was amplified by PCR from MC genomic DNA and identified by sequencing. The target gene was inserted into pET-28a (+) vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Positive clones were selected by PCR. Recombinant protein was efficiently expressed under induction with 1.0 mM Isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG) at 30° C for 4 hours. Cytotoxicity studies were performed using MTT assay by treating 5637 bladder cancer cells with 100 µg/mL, 200 µg/mL, and 400 µg/mL concentrations of MAP30 for 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively. Flow cytometry was used to measure the apoptosis of MAP30-treatedcells in time course experiments.

karela pills 2016-08-24

Crystals of alpha-momorcharin were obtained by vapour phase diffusion. The crystal belongs to the space group R3, with unit cell constants a = b = 131.3 A, c = 39.5 A. There is one alpha-momorcharin molecule in the asymmetric Augmentin 900 Mg unit; a data set at 3 A has been collected.

karela capsules uk 2016-01-14

MAP30 (Momordica Antiviral Protein 30 Kd), a single-stranded type-I ribosome inactivating protein, possesses versatile biological activities including anti-tumor abilities. However, the low efficiency penetrating into tumor cells hampers the tumoricidal effect of MAP30. This paper describes MAP30 fused with a human-derived cell penetrating peptide HBD which overcome the low uptake efficiency by tumor cells and exhibits higher anti-tumor bioactivity. MAP30 gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of Momordica charantia and the recombinant plasmid pET28b-MAP30-HBD was established and transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MAP30-HBD protein (rMAP30-HBD) was expressed in a soluble form after being induced by 0.5mM IPTG for 14h at 15°C. The recombinant protein was purified to greater than 95% purity with Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The rMAP30-HBD protein not only has topological inactivation and protein translation inhibition activity but also showed significant improvements in Daily Dose Cialis cytotoxic activity compared to that of the rMAP30 protein without HBD in the tested tumor cell lines, and induced higher apoptosis rates in HeLa cells analyzed by Annexin V-FITC with FACS. This paper demonstrated a new method for improving MAP30 protein anti-tumor activity and might have potential applications in cancer therapy area.

karela capsules 2015-11-23

Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) is widely regarded as one of the best remedy foods for diabetes. The positive effect of bitter gourd on diabetes has been attributed in part to the remarkable free radical scavenging activity of its boiled water extract from sun-dried fruits. It is well known that a heat process significantly influences the antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. However, the heat drying processes of bitter gourd have not been studied so far. Here, we show that the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd extract significantly increases after the heat drying process, while the content of flavonoids and phenols, which are generally regarded as the main antioxidant components in bitter gourd, remain unaffected. Furthermore, the content of free amino acids and the total reducing sugar were found to decrease with increasing browning index, indicating the progression of the Maillard reaction, products of which are known to possess significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, it suggests that Maillard reaction products may be the main contributors to the increase in antioxidant capability. Finally, the bitter gourd extract with the higher antioxidant activity, was shown to manifest a corresponding higher proliferation activity on NIT-1 beta-cells. These results suggest that Topamax Generic Brands controllable conditions in the heat-drying processing of fresh bitter gourd fruit is of significance for enhancing the total free radical scavenging capacity, beta-cell proliferation activity and possibly the anti-diabetic activity of this fruit.

karela tablets himalaya 2015-01-17

The interaction of momordin, a type 1 ribosome-inactivating protein from Momordica charantia, with NADP(+) and NADPH has been investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis of complexes generated by co-crystallization and crystal soaking. It is known that the proteins of this family readily cleave the adenine-ribose bond of adenosine and related nucleotides in the crystal, leaving the product, adenine, bound to the enzyme active site. Surprisingly, the nicotinamide-ribose bond of oxidized Azulfidine Suspension NADP(+) is cleaved, leaving nicotinamide bound in the active site in the same position but in a slightly different orientation to that of the five-membered ring of adenine. No binding or cleavage of NADPH was observed at pH 7.4 in these experiments. These observations are in accord with current views of the enzyme mechanism and may contribute to ongoing searches for effective inhibitors.

karela medicine 2015-12-14

The gene encoding a single-chain, ribosome-inactivating protein (SCRIP) was cloned from bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) leaves infected with the fungus, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, by RT-PCR. The ORF was 861 bp. The ribosome-inactivating protein was expressed in E. coli and, when purified, it inhibited the growth of Fusarium solani [corrected] Northern blot analysis revealed that RIP transcripts rapidly accumulated in leaves 1-day post inoculation with Sphaerotheca fuliginea and reached a peak at 3 d. The expression pattern of RIP induced by methyl jasmonate and Atarax 30 Mg salicylic acid were different from that of pathogen-induced expression. Mechanical wounding, silver nitrate and osmotic stress stimulated only a slight accumulation of RIP transcripts. Abscisic acid also induced transcription of RIPs. The signal compounds, ethylene and okadaic acid, induced a moderate accumulation of RIP transcripts.

karela capsule 2015-05-05

Morphological changes in sperm of albino rats observed under scanning electron microscopy illustrate the disturbance in the plasma membrane as well as in the acrosomal membrane on treatment with effect of graded doses of alcohol seed extract from Momordica charantia. Considerable changes in Bactrim Drug Class the shape and size of the sperm head were observed, with the middle region of the sperm head being slightly constricted dorsoventrally. Most sperm appeared morphologically abnormal in the mid-region of the tail, with formation of a balloon-like cytoplasmic droplet. The results of this study suggest that such effects may have resulted from a general disturbance in proteins and an alteration in the cauda epididymal milieu, probably due to androgen deficiency consequent to the anti-androgenic property of Momordica charantia seeds.

karela capsule benefits 2017-04-26

Collectively, it is speculated that PPAR-gamma agonistic activity, anti- Levitra Dosage Reviews inflammatory, and antioxidative potential is critical for antinociceptive effect of MC in neuropathic pain.

karela tablets 2016-08-30

The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these Indocin Generic extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods.

karela herbal capsules 2015-05-17

Bitter Melon (BM) has been used as a functional food in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine for many generations and has gained a great deal of attention due to its apparent benefits in moderating some of the pathogenic processes in a variety of inflammatory conditions. BM extract (BME) has been shown to possess strong anti-oxidant properties. In addition, it can ameliorate oxidative stress and potentially ER stress. There is increasing evidence that oxidative and ER stress are major contributors for intestinal secretory cell dysfunction which leads to local inflammation and disease pathogenesis that are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Hence, the search for potential therapeutics against ER Amoxil 250 Dosage stress and oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial secretory cells may provide valuable resources for the management of IBD. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of BME in ameliorating ER stress in colonic epithelial cells.

karela 1250 mg 2017-09-27

The structures Celexa Ssri Reviews of three new cucurbitane-type triterpenoids isolated from the methanol extract of the fruit of Japanese Momordica charantia were established as (19R,23E)-5beta,19-epoxy-19-methoxycucurbita-6,23,25-trien-3beta-ol (1), (23E)-3beta-hydroxy-7beta-methoxycucurbita-5,23,25-trien-19-al (2), and (23E)-3beta-hydroxy-7beta,25-dimethoxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al (3) on the basis of spectroscopic methods. These compounds were accompanied by the known (19R,23E)-5beta,19-epoxy-19,25-dimethoxycucurbita-6,23-dien-3beta-ol (4) and (19R,23E)-5beta,19-epoxy-19-methoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3beta,25-diol (5). This is the first report of the isolation of tetracyclic triterpenoids possessing a delta23,25-conjugated diene system, viz., 1 and 2, from a natural source.

karela powder dosage 2017-04-12

Natural products have long been used in traditional systems of medicine for diabetes. Products in common use include nopal (prickly pear cactus), fenu-greek, karela (bitter melon), gymnema, ginseng, tronadora, chromium, and alpha-lipoic acid. The popularity of these products varies among people of different ethnicities. Nopal is the most commonly used herbal hypoglycemic among persons of Mexican descent. Karela is more commonly used by persons from Asian countries. Some of these agents have gained universal appeal. For a select number of products, studies have revealed single or multiple mechanisms of action. For several of these, high soluble fiber content is a contributing factor.