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Indocin (Indomethacin)

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Indocin is an effective medication which helps to fight with pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis. Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body. It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Indomethacin.


Indocin is a perfect remedy, which helps to fight against pain or inflammation caused by many conditions such as gout, ankylosing spondylitis, arthritis, bursitis, or tendinitis.

Indocin acts by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.

Indocin is also known as Indometacin, Indocid, Inmecin, Indochron E-R, Indocin-SR, Flexin Continus, Indolar, Indomax, Indomod, Pardelprin, Rheumacin, Rimacid, Slo-Indo.

It is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.


Shake the liquid form of Indocin before using.

Take Indocin tablets and liquid form orally with water.

Take Indocin once or twice a day at the same time.

Do not crush or chew it.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Indocin suddenly.


If you overdose Indocin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Indocin overdosage: vomiting, migraine, lightheadedness, confusion, extreme tiredness, feeling of numbness, pricking, burning, creeping on the skin, convulsions, dyspepsia.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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The most common side effects associated with Indocin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Indocin if you are allergic to Indocin components.

Do not take Indocin if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Be careful with Indocin if you are taking angiotensin ii receptor antagonists such as candesartan (atacand), eprosartan (teveten), irbesartan (avapro), losartan (cozaar), olmesartan (benicar), telmisartan (micardis), and valsartan (diovan); beta blockers such as atenolol (tenormin), labetalol (normodyne), metoprolol (lopressor, toprol xl), nadolol (corgard), and propranolol (inderal); cyclosporine (neoral, sandimmune); digoxin (lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills') such as triamterene (dyrenium, in dyazide); lithium (eskalith, lithobid); methotrexate (rheumatrex); phenytoin (dilantin); and probenecid (benemid), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace) inhibitors such as benazepril (lotensin), captopril (capoten), enalapril (vasotec), fosinopril (monopril), lisinopril (prinivil, zestril), moexipril (univasc), perindopril (aceon), quinapril (accupril), ramipril (altace), and trandolapril (mavik).

It can be dangerous to use Indocin if you suffer from or have a history of seizures, parkinson's disease, depression or mental illness, or liver or kidney disease.

Be careful with Indocin if you are planning to use indomethacin suppositories.

Be careful with Indocin if you had proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) or have recently had rectal bleeding, asthma, frequent stuffed or runny nose or nasal polyps (swelling of the lining of the nose).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful with Indocin if you are going to have a surgery.

Avoid driving machine.

Do not stop take it suddenly.

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Both lung levels of CGRP and plasma levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha were increased after intravenous administration of endotoxin (5 mg/kg), peaking at 90 mins after endotoxin administration. Increases in plasma levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha at 90 mins after endotoxin administration (766 +/- 134 pg/mL) were inhibited by pretreatment with capsazepine (373 +/- 44 pg/mL, p < .05), CGRP(8-37) (406 +/- 64 pg/mL, p < .05), and indomethacin (154 +/- 40 pg/mL, p < .05). Although none of the pretreatments affected a series of endotoxin-induced responses, including increases in lung tissue levels of TNF-alpha, CINC, and iNOS and the resultant hypotension in animals given 5 mg/kg endotoxin, such pretreatments enhanced these pathologic responses in animals given a smaller dose of endotoxin (1 mg/kg) to the same extent as those induced by 5 mg/kg of endotoxin, suggesting that shock responses induced by 5 mg/kg endotoxin are maximum responses and activation of sensory neurons in endotoxin-treated rats is essentially a reparative response.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as indomethacin are widely used in the treatment of inflammation, fever and pain. However, NSAIDs cause gastric damage as a major adverse reaction. In this study, the effects of vegetable oils (corn, olive and sunflower oils) and alpha-tocopherol on anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal profiles of indomethacin were evaluated in rats. Results showed that indomethacin given with sunflower, corn and olive oils reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan by 79.5%, 74.0% and 60.5%, whereas individual indomethacin and diclofenac reduced paw edema by 56.2% and 50.7%, respectively. Furthermore, it has been found that the vegetable oils possess significant anti-inflammatory effect against paw edema when given alone. These results showed that the vegetable oils have beneficial effects on reduction paw edema induced by carrageenan. Besides, the administration of indomethacin together with the vegetable oils and alpha-tocopherol did not cause a statistically significant gastric damage in rats (P>0.05). However, indomethacin caused statistically significant gastric lesions as compared with untreated rats (P<0.05). Moreover, it was also found that the effects of the vegetable oils and alpha-tocopherol improved the levels of antioxidant defense systems in rat stomach tissues against oxidative damage. These results suggest that indomethacin as well as other NSAIDs do not have any adverse effect on the gastrointestinal tract when they are used together with vegetable oils and vitamin E or as the preparations of the oils.

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Pain after intravitreal injection is generally mild, may be reduced by postinjection topical ketorolac eyedrops, and lasts less than 1 week.

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Fibroblasts are believed to be the major cells responsible for the production and maintenance of extracellular matrix. Alterations in fibroblast functional capacity, therefore, could play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, which is characterized by inadequate maintenance of tissue structure.

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Indan derivatives, namely, 5-(5',6'-dichloroindan-1'-yl)-tetrazole (12a) and 5-(5',6'-dichloroindan-1'-yl)- methyltetrazole (12b), were synthesized conveniently from 5,6-dichloroindan-1-carboxylic acid (9a) and 5,6- dichloroindan-1-acetic acid (9b), respectively, as potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of 9a, 9b, 12a and 12b were evaluated by the acetic acid induced writhing in Swiss albino mice and the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema models, respectively. Compounds 9a and 12a exhibited significant analgesic activity with the doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, comparable to that of the positive controls, phenylbutazone, indomethacin and aminopyrine. The anti-inflammatory potencies of 9a and 12a were also comparable to that of the positive control, phenylbutazone. Compounds 9b and 12b showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, but were weaker than that of compounds 9a and 12a.

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Polyelectrolyte multilayer films were prepared through layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of chitosan (CHI) and pyrene labeled poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) (APy). After incubation in an enzyme pepsin solution, multilayer films were partially destroyed as detected by a decrease in fluorescence intensity due to enzymatic degradation of CHI and desorption of APy. The multilayer desorption rate was the highest at pH 4.0. Increasing temperature from 20 degrees C to 60 degrees C accelerated desorption. The enzymatic desorption was also observed from microcapsule walls made of CHI/alginate (ALG) multilayer films directly deposited on indomethacin (IDM) microcrystals by LbL self-assembly. After pepsin erosion, the IDM release from the microcapsule monitored by UV absorbance was obviously accelerated due to desorption. The influence of incubation time, pH, and temperature of the pepsin solution on the IDM release was investigated. The release rate was the fastest after incubation in the pepsin solution at pH 4.0 due to the highest activity of pepsin. Increasing incubation temperature from 20 degrees C to 60 degrees C, however, slowed down the release rate, which was considered to be due to the formation of more perfect and compact multilayer films through the chain rearrangement at higher temperatures. The CHI/ALG multilayer film was found to maintain its barrier function to the IDM diffusion even after 6-h incubation in the pepsin solution.

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The developed ketorolac trometamol E7 emulgel appeared promising for dermal and transdermal delivery of ketorolac trometamol, which would circumvent most of the problems associated with drug therapy.

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AferBio (900 mg/kg) inhibited edema formation by 34% compared to the control group. We also observed inhibition of the primary and secondary reactions of inflammation after the injection of Freund's adjuvant in the animals fed AferBio. Daily administration of AferBio for 6 d inhibited the formation of granulomatous tissue by 37%; additionally, inhibition of 31% of neutrophil migration downstream of carrageenan-induced peritonitis was observed. An ulcerogenic potency assay revealed that indomethacin produced a higher number of lesions compared to treatment with AferBio. Anti-inflammatory potency analysis showed that indomethacin inhibited 39% of carrageenan-induced edema but produced a higher number of lesions. However, animals treated with AferBio had areas of hyperemia without ulcerative lesions and 21% of edema was inhibited.

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Previous studies suggest that antagonists of cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (COX-1, -2) inhibit angiogenesis in tumor xenografts, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here we characterized the effects of non-selective (indomethacin) and selective (NS398, celecoxib) cyclooxygenase inhibitors on parameters of angiogenesis in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. COX-1 expression was constitutive in 9/9 pancreatic cancer cell lines, whereas COX-2 and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) expression were observed in 4/9 cell lines (BxPC3, Capan2, Cfpac1, and L3.6 pl). Production of the COX product, prostaglandin E2, correlated with expression of cPLA2 and COX-2 and was blocked by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, indomethacin or NS398). In contrast to the findings of others, neither indomethacin nor NS398 affected tumor cell secretion of angiogenic factors (VEGF, bFGF, IL-8) at concentrations that produced maximal inhibition of PGE2 production, and higher concentrations increased angiogenic factor production. We also studied the effects of celecoxib in orthotopic L3.6 pl xenografts. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed high-level expression of COX-2 in endothelial cells in L3.6 pl xenografts that increased following therapy with celecoxib, whereas the tumor cells expressed uniformly low levels of COX-2. Celecoxib did not decrease tumor-associated VEGF levels in orthotopic human L3.6 pl xenografts, but the drug did decrease tumor microvessel density (MVD) and increase apoptosis in tumor-associated endothelial cells in a dose-dependent fashion. Together, our results demonstrate that the anti-angiogeneic effects of NSAIDs in human pancreatic cancer cells are exerted via direct effects on endothelial cells.

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The pathophysiology of gastritis involves an imbalance between gastric acid attack and mucosal defence. In addition, the gastric mucosal injury results in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Several studies have shown the association of mitochondrial disorders with gastrointestinal dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activity in the stomach of rats with gastritis induced by indomethacin (IDM) and treated with omeprazole (OM), N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) antagonist RC-3095. Adult male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 7 days with OM, NAC, RC-3095, combination of OM plus RC-3095, OM plus NAC and water (control). The animals were then submitted to fasting for 24 hr; IDM was administered. The rats were killed 6 hr later, and the stomachs were used for evaluation of macroscopic damage and respiratory chain activity. Our results showed that complex I and IV activities were not affected by administration of IDM. On the other hand, complex II and III activities were inhibited. In addition, OM plus RC-3095 and OM plus NAC did not reverse complex II activity inhibition. However, the complex III activity inhibition was reversed only with the combined use of OM plus RC-3095 and OM plus NAC. Our results are in agreement with previous studies indicating mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal tract disease and we suggest that GRPR antagonism might be a novel therapeutic strategy in gastritis.

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Rabbits were treated with intravenously injected LPS. After 90 min animals were killed and intestinal segments were mounted in an organ bath. Lipopolysaccharide (0.2 microg kg-1) inhibited K+-induced contractions (60 mm) by 68% in duodenum, 58% in jejunum and 52% in ileum. Indomethacin antagonized LPS actions when injected 15 min before LPS. PGE2 reduced K+-induced contractions, imitating LPS effects. In contrast, contractions induced by K+ increased when intestinal segments were incubated in vitro with LPS for 90 min. The LPS (0.3 microg mL-1) increased K+-induced contractions (60 mm) by 46% in duodenum, 63% in jejunum and 85% in ileum. The LPS effect was antagonized by indomethacin at 10-6 m in duodenum and jejunum and at 10-8 m in ileum. PGE2 evoked dose-dependent contractions when added to the bath in duodenum, jejunum and ileum.

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BAR, by combined application of both Shen-nourishing and blood-activating methods, could impact E2, P, ER and PR to improve the endometrial receptivity to a higher extent in BID mice so as to promote embryo implantation.

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Marfan syndrome (MFS), an inherited disorder of connective tissue characterized by abnormalities in the skeletal, ocular, and cardiovascular systems, is caused by mutations in the gene for fibrillin-1 (FBN1). The high mortality in untreated patients is primarily due to aneurysm and dissection of the ascending aorta. The complex pathogenesis of MFS involves changes in transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling, increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, and fragmentation of the extracellular matrix. A number of studies have demonstrated increased counts of macrophages and T cells in the ascending aorta of persons or mouse models of MFS, but the efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapy in mouse models of MFS has not yet been assessed.

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In mammals, adrenomedullin (AM) is a potent vasodilator through signalling pathways that involve the endothelium. In teleost fishes, a family of five AMs are present (AM1/4, AM2/3 and AM5) with four homologous AMs (AM1, AM2/3 and AM5) recently cloned from the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Both AM2 and AM5 have been shown to be strong in vivo vasodepressors in eel, but the mechanism of action of homologous AMs on isolated blood vessels has not been examined in teleost fish. In this study, both eel AM2 and AM5 caused a marked vasodilation of the dorsal aorta. However, only AM5 consistently dilated the small gonadal artery in contrast to AM2 that had no effect in most preparations. Neither AM2 nor AM5 had any effect when applied to the first afferent branchial artery; in contrast, eel ANP always caused a large vasodilation of the branchial artery. In the dorsal aorta, indomethacin significantly reduced the AM2 vasodilation, but had no effect on the AM5 vasodilation. In contrast, removal of the endothelium significantly enhanced the AM5 vasodilation only. In the gonadal artery, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) significantly reduced the AM5 vasodilation suggesting a role for soluble guanylyl cyclase in the dilation, but l-NNA and removal of the endothelium had no effect. The results of this study indicate that AM2 and AM5 have distinct vasodilatory effects that may be due to the peptides signalling via different receptors to regulate vascular tone in eel.

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Peptic ulcer disease (PUD), encompassing gastric and duodenal ulcers is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder. The pathophysiology of PUD involves an imbalance between offensive factors like acid, pepsin and defensive factors like nitric oxide and growth factors. The clinical evaluation of antiulcer drugs showed tolerance, incidence of relapses and side-effects that make their efficacy arguable. An indigenous drug like Musa sapientum possessing fewer side-effects is the major thrust area of present day research, aiming at a better and safer approach for the management of PUD.

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The results showed that pre-incubation of aortic rings with the extract (0.5, 1 and 2mg/mL) significantly inhibit the contractile response of the rings to phenylephrine-induced contraction (p<0.05-0.001). Removal of endothelium, incubation with L-NAME, indomethacin, atropine and propranolol did not significantly affect the relaxation effect of NBF-ASME. Furthermore, the K(+) channel blockers, TEA and glibenclamide showed no inhibitory effect. However, aortic rings pretreated with ODQ and ML-9 showed a significant suppression of the relaxation curve of NBF-ASME (p<0.01-0.001). In Ca(2+)-free solution, NBF-ASME inhibits the release of intracellular Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. NBF-ASME also inhibits calcium chloride (CaCl2)-induced contraction in endothelium-denuded aortic rings.

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The M. malabathricum leaves showed antiulcer activity, which could be attributed to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This requires further in-depth studies.

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The present study investigates the impact of BOM and GRP in the female Sprague-Dawley rats 225  g b.w. n = 37 urethras in vitro and in vivo. Intraurethral pressure was recorded by a catheter placed at the maximum pressure zone corresponding to the intrinsic urethral spincter.

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The antiproliferative effect of aspirin and indomethacin on tumor cells was measured in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo experiments used DA rats to measure the effects of aspirin and indomethacin on the development of port-site metastases and the proliferation of intraperitoneal tumor cells after laparoscopy.

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In phase-3 clinical trials, the interleukin (IL-1) blocker, rilonacept (IL-1 Trap), demonstrated efficacy for gout flare prevention during initiation of urate-lowering therapy. This trial evaluated rilonacept added to a standard-of-care, indomethacin, for treatment of acute gout flares.

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Curcumin showed gastroprotective effects as evidenced by significant decreases in ulcer index, total acid output and pepsin activity in gastric juice in addition to gastric mucosal malondialdehyde concentration, and concomitant increases in gastric juice mucin concentration, gastric mucosal nitric oxide level and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities as compared to the indomethacin-induced ulcer group. Moreover, immunohistochemical investigations demonstrated that curcumin treatment markedly decreased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, and caspase-3.

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In 20 obese subjects (age 37 ± 12 years, BMI 47 ± 8 kg/m²), subcutaneous and visceral fat were collected during bariatric surgery and characterized for adipose depot-specific gene expression, endothelial cell phenotype, and microvascular function. Vasomotor function was assessed in response to endothelium-dependent agonists using videomicroscopy of small arterioles from fat.

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Forty Wistar albino rats of which the weights ranged between 310 and 370 g were included in this study. Middle ear effusion was created by transtympanic histamine injection. The presence of effusion was confirmed by otomicroscopic examination. Thirty-seven rats with effusion were divided into 4 groups (methylprednisolone, montelukast, indomethacine and saline-control groups). All agents were administered for a period of consecutive 10 days. At the 11th days of administration, the recovery of effusion was confirmed by otomicroscopic examination. Tympanic bullae of the rats were removed and histopathological examinations were carried out. In the histopathological examination, the neutrophil leukocytes accumulated in the middle ear submucosa were counted.

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Medullary blood flow is via vasa recta capillaries, which possess contractile pericytes. In vitro studies using isolated descending vasa recta show that pericytes can constrict/dilate descending vasa recta when vasoactive substances are present. We describe a live kidney slice model in which pericyte-mediated vasa recta constriction/dilation can be visualized in situ.

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There is increasing interest in local infiltration analgesia (LIA) to reduce postoperative pain with knee surgery. Despite widespread use of LIA, wide variations in drug combinations, infiltration techniques, and the concomitant use of systemic analgesics have made it difficult to determine the optimal drug combination for LIA.Using a previously validated animal knee surgery model, we aimed to determine the optimal combination of medications to reduce postoperative pain, and the best anatomical location and timing for local drug injection during surgery.

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Results indicate that hypertension and aging decrease the negative modulator role of endothelium, in 5-HT-induced vasoconstriction in aorta from WKY and SHR. Data also point out that endothelial dysfunction involves an increased formation of vasoconstrictor prostanoids, which counteract nitric oxide effects. In addition, SHR endothelium releases contractile prostanoids at an early stage of hypertension, whereas in old SHR vascular smooth muscle also releases prostanoids, which contribute to 5-HT-induced contraction.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as indomethacin decrease mucosal PGE(2) content by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and produce damage in the small intestine. The development of intestinal lesions induced by indomethacin was accompanied by increases in intestinal motility, enterobacterial invasion, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, together with the up-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. Neither SC-560, a selective COX-1 inhibitor, nor rofecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, alone caused intestinal damage, but their combined administration provoked lesions in the small intestine. SC-560, but not rofecoxib, caused intestinal hypermotility, bacterial invasion and the expression of COX-2 as well as iNOS mRNA, yet the iNOS and MPO activity was increased only when rofecoxib was administered together with SC-560. Although SC-560 inhibited PG production, the level of PGE(2) recovered in a rofecoxib-dependent manner. The intestinal hypermotility in response to indomethacin was prevented by both 16,16-dimethyl PGE(2) and atropine but not by ampicillin, yet all these agents inhibited not only the bacterial invasion but also the expression of COX-2 as well as the iNOS activity in the intestinal mucosa following indomethacin treatment, thereby preventing the intestinal damage. These results suggest that inhibition of COX-1, despite causing intestinal hypermotility, bacterial invasion and iNOS expression, up-regulates the expression of COX-2, and the PGE(2) derived from COX-2 counteracts the deleterious events caused by COX-1 inhibition and maintains mucosal integrity. These sequences of events explain why intestinal damage occurs when both COX-1 and COX-2 are inhibited.

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Ketoprofen lysine salt(Artrosilene injectable solution) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent frequently administered by slow intravenous infusion with portable elastomeric infusion systems in association regimen with other analgesic drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate the physicochemical compatibility between ketoprofen lysine salt(Artrosilene injectable solution) and other injectable drugs frequently used in association, such as tramadol hydrochloride, keterolac tromethamine and morphine hydrochloride, into the Infusor LV5, Baxter elastomeric infusion system. Physicochemical properties of drug mixture, including colour, clarity, pH and drug content were observed or measured by a reversed-phase HPLC method with UV detection, before and after (up to 7 days) mixing at room temperature and under light protection. The results obtained demonstrated the physicochemical compatibility of ketoprofen lysine salt(Artrosilene injectable solution) with all drug formulations at every tested mixing ratios into Baxer Infusor LV5 infusion devices.

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indocin suspension 2017-05-25

Recently, there buy indocin has been much attention paid to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis and the functional consequences of apoptotic body clearance by phagocytes. In an attempt to investigate this latter aspect, the present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of in vivo administration of phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes, a well-characterised membrane component expressed during apoptosis. The participation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in PS-mediated effects was also investigated.

indocin 20 mg 2015-11-26

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the contractile response of several E- and F-ring isoprostanes (IsoP) in human umbilical vein (HUV) and to investigate the role of the endothelium on the effect of 15-E2t-IsoP, the most potent vasoconstrictor isoprostane, in human vessels. HUV rings with or without endothelium were suspended in an organ bath for recording the isometric tension in response to different agonists. The inhibitors to be evaluated were applied 30 min before the addition of the agonist. All of the compounds tested produced concentration-dependent contractions when tested on HUV rings with endothelium. Although these compounds were equieffective, significant differences were observed in their potency, with U46619 being the most potent followed by 15-E2t-IsoP > 15-E1t-IsoP = 15-F2t-IsoP > 15-F1t-IsoP = 9-epi-15-F2t-IsoP in descending rank order of potency. 15-E2t-IsoP was the most potent of the isoprostanes evaluated and, therefore, the one employed in the present study. When intact endothelium HUV rings were used, 15-E2t-IsoP-induced contraction was unaffected by the endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitor, phosphoramidon (10 microM), suggesting that short-term endothelin-1 release is not involved in this response. However, the non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin (10 and 30 microM), and the COX-2 selective inhibitor, NS-398 (3, 10 and 30 microM) produced inhibitory effects on 15-E2t-IsoP-induced contraction of HUV rings with endothelium. These results indicate that COX-derived contractile prostanoids are involved in this effect. Furthermore, the apparent pKb values estimated for indomethacin (5.5) and NS-398 (5.4) suggest that the prostanoids involved are derived from the COX-2 isoenzyme pathway. On HUV rings with endothelium, the phospholipase A2 inhibitor, oleyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (30 and 100 microM), induced an inhibitory effect on 15-E2t-IsoP-induced contraction, suggesting that the phospholipase A2 pathway is also involved in this effect. In addition, the thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor furegrelate (10 and 30 microM) also inhibited 15-E2t-IsoP-induced contraction of HUV rings with endothelium, indicating that thromboxane A2 is one of the contractile prostanoids involved in this response. Endothelium denudation buy indocin clearly diminished the vasoconstrictor potency of 15-E2t-IsoP, demonstrating that the endothelium releases a vasoconstrictor factor in response to 15-E2t-IsoP. The absence of an inhibitory effect at the highest concentration of furegrelate (30 microM) on 15-E2t-IsoP-induced contraction of HUV rings without endothelium suggested that endothelium is the source of thromboxane A2. We conclude that prostanoids derived from the COX-2 isoenzyme pathway participate in 15-E2t-IsoP-induced vasoconstriction of isolated HUV rings. Our results also indicate that endothelial thromboxane A2 is one of the prostanoids involved in this effect.

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After induction, patients receiving ketorolac had a smaller increase in heart rate, systolic and mean arterial blood pressure (P<0. buy indocin 001) and lower plasma cortisol concentrations, (32.2+/-7.61 vs. 45+/-15.1 microg/dL, P<0.05), lower pain scores at rest and movement for the first two postoperative hours (P<0.001) and a longer time to first request for analgesia. Fewer patients in the ketorolac group received tramadol in the four hours after surgery (7 (15.6%) vs. 14 (31.1%), P=0.004). There were no differences between groups in peri-operative blood loss, vomiting or Apgar scores. There was no echocardiographic evidence of premature closure of the ductus arteriosus in the newborns.

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FPS appears to confer an increased risk of PEP, which is attenuated by rectal indomethacin administration. These findings highlight buy indocin the importance of adequate training and proficiency before endoscopists attempt pancreatic stent placement and the routine use of rectal indomethacin in high-risk ERCP cases.

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Male rats were used after 18 h of fasting. Ischemic enteritis was induced by partial ligation of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Under ether anesthesia, SMA was isolated, and a stenosis was made by placing a needle (23 guage) on the vessel and ligating both the vessel and needle, and then a needle was removed from the ligature. Animals were then fed normally after surgery. Various buy indocin drugs such as antibiotics, cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors and PGE2 were administered for 2 days after surgery.

indocin oral suspension 2015-10-14

For this study, Wistar albino rats fasted overnight were selected. The hydroalcoholic extract of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood at the dose level 250 and 500mg/kg body weight was selected and administered orally before necrotizing agents. Antioxidant and antiulcer parameters were evaluated and the stomach samples were subjected for histopathological studies. In addition, PGE2 estimation and protein expressions of COX-1, COX-2 and iNOS were analyzed by Western blot. The plant extract was subjected to buy indocin LCMS/MS analysis. In addition, Cytoprotective effect in isolated gastric mucosal cells, TUNEL Assay, Acid neutralizing capacity assay, H(+)/K(+) ATPase inhibitory assay were performed.

indocin cost 2017-04-24

Piptadeniastrum africanum stem bark extracts thus have gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects, which could result from their activities by stimulating important cellular mechanisms such as migration buy indocin and proliferation of epithelial cells that may have a cytoprotective effect by stimulating the release of prostaglandins. These results are required to confirm the ethnopharmacological use of Piptadeniastrum africanum stem bark in the treatment of ulcer.

indocin pill 2015-08-18

A total of 30 NSAIDs users (17 aspirin and 13 non-aspirin users) received VCE. Serum reactive oxygen metabolite (d-ROM) buy indocin and antioxidative OXY-adsorbent test (OXY) were measured. The indomethacin (IND)-induced mouse intestinal ulcer model was used to assess the effect of anti-oxidants. Eight-week-old mice were divided into four groups; control diet and diet including IND (N group), IND and L-carnitine (NC group), and IND and vitamin E (NE group).

indocin tablets 2016-02-17

To compare the efficacy buy indocin of a fixed combination of indomethacin, prochlorperazine, and caffeine suppositories with sumatriptan suppositories in the treatment of 2 consecutive migraine attacks of moderate or severe intensity in a multicenter, randomized, crossover study.

indocin er dosage 2016-01-27

Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a key feature of vascular disease. Activation of the nuclear enzyme poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose buy indocin ) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a downstream effector of oxidative stress.

indocin pain medication 2017-11-09

This study shows that COX-1-derived PGs are mainly involved in buy indocin ghrelin gastroprotection and that the constitutive-derived NO together with PGE(2) are involved in ghrelin gastroprotective activity.

indocin generic name 2015-01-13

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is very prevalent in the older population, although the ageing-related mechanisms involved in the development of ED are poorly understood. We propose that age-induced differences in nerve- and endothelium-mediated smooth muscle contractility in the corpus cavernosum (CC) could be found between a senescent-accelerated mouse prone (SAMP8) and senescent-accelerated mouse resistant (SAMR1) strains. We analysed the changes in muscle tension induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) or agonist addition 'in vitro', assessing nerve density (adrenergic, cholinergic and nitrergic), the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cGMP accumulation and the distribution of interstitial cells (ICs) by immunofluorescence. We observed no change in both the nerve-dependent adrenergic excitatory contractility at physiological levels of stimulation and in the nitrergic inhibitory response in SAMP8 animals. Unlike cholinergic innervation, the density of adrenergic and nitrergic nerves increased in SAMP8 mice. In contrast, smooth muscle sensitivity to exogenous noradrenaline (NA) was slightly reduced, whereas cGMP accumulation in response to EFS and DEA/NO, and relaxations to DEA/NO and sildenafil, were not modified. No changes in the expression of eNOS and in the distribution of vimentin-positive ICs were detected in the aged animals. The ACh induced atropine-sensitive biphasic endothelium-dependent responses involved relaxation at low concentrations that turned into contractions at the highest doses. CC relaxation was mainly because of the production of NO together with some relaxant prostanoid, which did not change in SAMP8 animals. In contrast, the contractile component was considerably higher in the aged animals and it was completely inhibited by indomethacin. In conclusion buy indocin , a clear imbalance towards enhanced production of contractile prostanoids from the endothelium may contribute to ED in the elderly. On the basis of these data, we propose the senescence-accelerated mouse model as a reliable tool to analyse the basic ageing mechanisms of the CC.

indocin 50mg medication 2016-05-26

Methotrexate (MTX) has been used in combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of inflammatory diseases as well as malignancies. Severe adverse effects with this combination may occur, usually resulting from inhibition of renal transporters. Solid Ehrlich carcinoma was experimentally induced by implantation of Ehrlich ascites Carcinoma cells subcutaneously into the thigh of mice, and after 30 days, mice were buy indocin divided into three groups: Group I that served as control group received MTX (50 mg/kg, i.p.); Group II received ketoprofen (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and then after half an hour received MTX (50 mg/kg, i.p.); Group III received indomethacin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and then after half an hour received MTX (50 mg/kg, i.p.). Plasma and tissue samples were collected at different time points and then MTX concentrations were determined by HPLC. The injection of ketoprofen or indomethacin before MTX injection resulted in significant increase in the AUC and CPmax of MTX (p < 0.05) and significant decrease in CL/F and Vd/F of MTX (p < 0.05) in mice plasma. The effects were more significant after injection of indomethacin than in case of ketoprofen. The study showed that administration of ketoprofen or indomethacin prior to MTX caused significant decrease in MTX elimination and significant increase in MTX extent of absorption which may lead to severe adverse effects if coadministered in human.

indocin name brand 2016-11-04

Anesthesia for BM&T is usually performed with volatile anesthetics as a single agent without securing intravenous access. The anesthetic agent most commonly used is sevoflurane; however, EA has been reported in up to 67% of patients. Emergence agitation is distressing for parents, can impair the ability of nursing staff to adequately monitor the child, and can result in a child buy indocin injuring him/herself if it is severe.

indocin 50mg capsules 2017-02-27

Comparing these IC(50) values with intratubular concentrations of unbound Allegra 018 Dosage drugs in humans, it is thought that URAT1 is a target molecule of uricosuric drugs, including 6-hydroxybenzbromarone, probenecid, indomethacin and salicylate, to inhibit urate reabsorption in vivo. In addition, a cell line that stably expressing URAT1 could be a useful tool for the development of uricosuric drugs.

indocin max dose 2015-11-18

Prophylactic treatment with prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (PSI) is potentially harmful. Moreover, long-term benefits of prophylactic use of indomethacin or ibuprofen are Altace Tab not proven. Early treatment of a high-risk population is alternative to the routine prophylactic use of PSI, but it remains unclear which newborn is at greatest risk for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).

indocin 25 mg 2016-11-21

The three reviewers independently abstracted Feldene Gel Buy data from each study. Relative risk (RR) and Risk Difference (RD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the fixed effect model for meta-analysis are reported. When a statistically significant RD was found, the number needed to treat (NNT) or number needed to harm (NNH) was also calculated with 95% CIs. A chi-square test was used to test for heterogeneity of results among included trials.

indocin gout dose 2015-08-06

The research team induced edemas in Wistar rats with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol (TPA), formaldehyde, carrageenan, and histamine to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the three organic extracts of seeds from B crassifolia. The team also used the cotton-pellet granuloma method to induce edemas in Wistar rats and study the inhibitory effect of the three extracts from B crassifolia. Finally, the team examined the participation of the nitric oxide (NO) system in the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane extract of nance seeds (NS), diclorofenac, and L-NAME as well as the effects Paxil Generic Cost of L-arginine and D-arginine on the antiinflammatory actions of the compounds.

indocin tablets dosage 2016-05-04

Our results indicated that basal glomerular thymidine uptake and fibronectin production were Indocin Dosage Forms enhanced in diabetic rats, and that ET-1 further enhanced the cellular proliferation and fibronectin production of isolated diabetic glomeruli. The ET-1-enhanced fibronectin production can be partially attenuated by insulin and dexamethasone.

indocin 25mg capsules 2015-08-30

Oral treatment with raloxifene, a synthetic estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), or 17beta-estradiol (E2) increases risk for venous thrombosis in women. Acute application of either substance releases endothelium-derived factors from isolated femoral veins but it is not known how their chronic use affects venous functions or the interaction of platelets with veins. This study tested the hypothesis that treatment of ovariectomized animals with oral raloxifene or E2 would increase release of proaggregatory factors from venous endothelium and platelets. Ovariectomized (OVX) pigs were either untreated or treated with oral raloxifene (60 mg/day) or E2 (2 mg/day) for 4 weeks. Plasma concentrations of nitric oxide were comparable in both treatment groups and greater than in OVX pigs. Ratio of plasma thromboxane to prostacyclin was twofold greater in raloxifene compared to E2-treated pigs. In isolated femoral veins, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 10(-4) M) augmented endothelium-dependent relaxations to adenosine diphosphate in veins from E2-treated pigs but inhibited Avelox Antibiotic Medication relaxations in veins from raloxifene-treated pigs. Addition of indomethacin (10(-5) M) reversed these effects. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to thrombin were inhibited by L-NMMA only in OVX and raloxifene-treated pigs. Autologous platelets contracted veins in all groups; the magnitude of contractions depended upon the number of platelets and existing tone. Basal release of thromboxane from platelets was greatest in raloxifene compared to OVX or E2-treated pigs. Raloxifene treatment compared to E2 increased production of contractile and proaggregatory prostanoids from venous endothelium and platelets. These differences, if found in humans, may contribute to varying degrees of thrombotic risk with the SERM compared to the natural hormone.