Generic Imdur is an effective medication which helps in the treatment of angina attacks. Generic Imdur acts as nitrates.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Isosorbide Mononitrate.
Generic Imdur is a perfect remedy, which helps to treat angina attacks.
Generic Imdur acts as nitrates.
Imdur is also known as Isosorbide Mononitrate.
Generic name of Generic Imdur is Isosorbide Mononitrate.
Brand names of Generic Imdur are Imdur, ISMO, Monoket.
Take Generic Imdur tablets orally with or without food.
Do not crush or chew it.
Take Generic Imdur at the same time with water.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Imdur suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Imdur and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Imdur are difficult or slow breathing, muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, high temperature, fainting, abnormal heartbeat, changes in vision, flushing, convulsions, severe throbbing migraine, lightheadedness.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Imdur are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Generic Imdur if you are allergic to Generic Imdur components.
Do not take Generic Imdur if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby.
Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.
Be careful using Generic Imdur if you take dihydroergotamine (D.H.E. 45); or any other heart medicines, especially those used to treat high blood pressure or irregular heartbeats.
Be careful using Generic Imdur if you suffer from or have a history of congestive heart failure, have low blood pressure; a stroke, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, or mini-stroke), have anemia; have an allergy to nitrates; have closed-angle glaucoma; migraines, kidney disease; liver disease, heart attack, a serious head injury.
If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.
Be very careful when you are driving machine.
Do not stop taking Generic Imdur suddenly.
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Both topical nitrate treatments (ISMN and GTN) were effective for chronic anal fissures. The reduction of the anal pressure was slightly higher after ISMN treatment (28%) than the treatment with GTN (23%). However, the statistical difference was not significant (p>0.05).
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We report synthesis, characterization, and drug release attributes of a series of novel pH-sensitive poly(acrylic-co-vinylsulfonic) acid hydrogels. These hydrogels were prepared by employing free radical polymerization using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and benzyl peroxide (BPO) as cross-linker and initiator, respectively. Effect of acrylic acid (AA), polyvinylsulfonic acid (PVSA), and EGDMA on prepared hydrogels was investigated. All formulations showed higher swelling at high pHs and vice versa. Formulations containing higher content of AA and EGDMA show reduced swelling, but one with higher content of PVSA showed increased swelling. Hydrogel network was characterized by determining structural parameters and loaded with isosorbide mononitrate. FTIR confirmed absence of drug polymer interaction while DSC and TGA demonstrated molecular dispersion of drug in a thermally stable polymeric network. All the hydrogel formulations exhibited a pH dependent release of isosorbide mononitrate which was found to be directly proportional to pH of the medium and PVSA content and inversely proportional to the AA contents. Drug release data were fitted to various kinetics models. Results indicated that release of isosorbide mononitrate from poly(AA-co-VSA) hydrogels was non-Fickian and that the mechanism was diffusion-controlled.
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The objective of the present study was to develop a novel in vitro system to simulate the process of dissolution and permeation of oral solid dosage forms in vivo, and to establish a correlation between in vitro permeation and in vivo absorption that could predict the bioavailability (BA) and bioequivalence (BE) of congeneric products. The in vitro dissolution and absorption kinetics of four dosage forms of isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) were evaluated by the USP basket/paddle system and drug dissolution/absorption simulating system (DDASS). The corresponding pharmacokinetic study was performed in beagle dogs. A comparative study was carried out between the classical and the novel method to estimate the effectiveness of the modified DDASS in simulating the course of dissolution and absorption in vivo. Indeed, the correlation coefficients of in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption obtained from DDASS and dogs were higher. Moreover, a higher level A in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) between DDASS permeation and dog absorption was established, with correlation coefficients of 0.9968, 0.9872, 0.9921, and 0.9728. The DDASS method was more accurate at modeling the process of dissolution and absorption in vivo for both immediate-release (IR) and sustained-release (SR) dosage forms of ISMN.
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The two groups were comparable with respect to age, parity, gestational age, indication for induction, and Bishop's score. Women receiving IMN plus misoprostol showed significant changes in the Bishop score 6 h after administration as compared to misoprostol plus placebo (8.57 ± 1.46 vs. 7.6 ± 1.39 h, P = 0.001), significantly shorter intervals from the beginning of the induction to the beginning of the active phase of labor (10.97 ± 2.87 vs. 13.91 ± 2.16 h, P = 0.0004) and from the beginning of induction to the time of delivery (19.56 ± 3.96 vs. 23 ± 2.62 P ≤ 0.001). No significant differences in the incidence of uterine hypersystole, tachysystole and hyperstimulation. Regarding headache, much more women suffer headache in the IMN group (51) with significant difference to placebo group (11).
This demonstrated that propranolol reduced both portal pressure gradient (7.7 +/- 2.3 to 5.5 +/- 2.1 mmHg, P < 0.01) and portal vein flow (925 +/- 123 to 597 +/- 99 mL/min, P = 0.01) significantly, implying a reduction in splanchnic inflow as its main effect. In contrast, isosorbide-5-mononitrate tended to increase portal vein flow (814 +/- 186 to 911 +/- 211 mL/min; P = 0.06) whilst reducing portal pressure significantly (108 +/- 12 to 92 +/- 10 mmHg P = 0.014). This suggests a fall in intrahepatic resistance and provides no evidence for baroreceptor-mediated reflex splanchnic vasoconstriction.
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The pharmacokinetics of a new sustained release tablets (40 mg, qd) of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) was investigated together with a conventional preparation (20 mg, bid) after multiple oral administration in ten healthy human subjects using an open, randomized two-way crossover experimental design. Based on three statistical analyses of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), the two tablet formulations are judged to be bioequivalent (P > 0.1), with a relative bioavailability of 108.95% for the IS-5-MN sustained release formulation. Pharmacokinetic data showed that the sustained release formulation reached mean peak plasma levels significantly later and lower minimum plasma concentration (Cmin), compared with the conventional preparation. But no statistically significant difference was found for other pharmacokinetic parameters including peak plasma levels (Cmax), AUC, elimination constant (Ke), elimination half-life (T1/2) and fluctuation index (FI) between the two preparations (P > 0.05).
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Isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) was prescribed to 46 patients with an average dose of 44.3±15.2 mg/day. After a mean follow up of 25.3±25 months, 16 patients developed MACEs. Patients who received ISMN were more likely to suffer from MACEs (26.1% vs. 6.5%, P=0.01), mainly driven by a higher rate of acute coronary syndrome (13.0 vs 0%, P=0.01). Average daily dose of nitrate and other cardiovascular medication was not associated with MACEs. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that prescription of only ISMN (Hazard Ratio 3.09, 95% CI 1.10-10.21, P=0.04) was an independent predictor for the development of MACEs.
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Isosorbide 5-mononitrate reduces portal pressure in acute conditions. The aim of this work was to assess its effects and tolerance development after 30 days of use in alcoholic cirrhotic patients without history of variceal bleeding. Nine patients with portal hypertension (7 with esophageal varices) were studied. Hepatic and systemic hemodynamic parameters were measured in basal conditions, after one hour and after 30 days of treatment (40 mg b i d). One patient was lost from control at 2 weeks. In the total group, portal pressure decreased from 15.1 +/- 3.7 mm Hg to 12.1 +/- 5 at one hour and 11.3 +/- 5.5 mm Hg at 30 days (p < 0.002). In two patients, portal pressure was not modified. Portal blood flow increased significantly at one hour in the 7 responder patients. Hepatic blood flow (indocyanine green clearance) was not modified; thus, estimated hepatic resistance decreases in both periods. Intrinsic indocyanine green clearance (a measure of hepatic function) did not change in any period. Systemic blood pressure decreased and cardiac rate increased only after one hour. The fall in portal pressure did not correlate with changes in portal or hepatic blood flow. It is concluded that isosorbide 5-mononitrate decreased portal pressure in 7 out of nine patients, even after 30 days of treatment, without untoward effects over hepatic function or perfusion.
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The effect of combined therapies (among non-selected beta-blockers [NSBB], endoscopic therapy, and other treatments) on the first variceal bleeding has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials previously, and the results were controversial. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the effect of combined therapies in patients with high-risk varices without previous variceal bleeding.
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In this study a fall in hepatic venous pressure gradient of 20% was not a reliable predictor of clinical response. A threshold value of 12 mmHg was useful, but applied to relatively few patients.
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From the in vitro release-rate constant of a new sustained-release (SR) preparation of 40 mg isosorbide-5-mononitrate, the concentration-time profile in healthy subjects could be excellently predicted. Therapeutically, effective concentrations of 100 ng/ml were achieved within 20 min and lasted up to a maximum of 15.6 h. The decline of concentrations below this value thereafter, guarantees the absence of tolerance development in chronic therapy. In a three-period change-over study, two other commercial SR preparations exhibited only 79% and 53% of the bioavailability of the new formulation, which was significant in both cases. Compared with literature data, the absolute bioavailability of the new form should lie in the order of at least 85%.
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Base-line data were similar in the two groups, and the median follow-up was 18 months in both. Eleven patients in the medication group and 23 in the sclerotherapy group had rebleeding. The actuarial probability of remaining free of rebleeding was higher in the medication group for all episodes related to portal hypertension (P = 0.001) and variceal rebleeding (P = 0.002). Four patients in the medication group and nine in the sclerotherapy group died (P = 0.07 for the difference in the actuarial probability of survival). Seven patients in the medication group and 16 in the sclerotherapy group had treatment-related complications (P = 0.03). Thirty-one patients in the medication group underwent two hemodynamic studies; 1 of the 13 patients with more than a 20 percent decrease in the hepatic venous pressure gradient had rebleeding, as compared with 8 of the 18 with smaller decreases in the pressure gradient (P = 0.04) for the actuarial probability of rebleeding at two years).
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The objective of this study was to assess the relative usefulness of in vitro and canine data sets in the prediction of input rates of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMN) from extended release (ER) products on a confidence interval basis. ISMN is a highly soluble compound with high permeability in the upper GI tract but not in the colon. Two ISMN ER tablet formulations were studied: Imdur and an osmotic pump. Differences between amount of drug absorbed versus time predicted from in vitro and canine data and results observed in humans were assessed using the estimated median value of the difference factor, f(1), and its associated 90% bootstrap confidence intervals. For both products, median f(1) values and their associated confidence intervals for the comparisons between in vitro and human profiles and between canine and human profiles were similar. Although the median difference between the human input profiles of the two ISMN ER products was equally well predicted by in vitro and canine data, the 90% confidence intervals for this difference were better predicted by the canine data.
Nitric oxide (NO) is present in exhaled air in humans and its level may decrease in heart diseases. Nitrates are metabolised to NO. In the present study we prospectively investigated how coronary disease treated with oral nitrates and physical exercise influence the exhaled NO concentration (exNO). The study was performed in 44 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with oral nitrates (31 nonsmokers and 13 smokers). End-tidal concentration of exhaled NO was measured by the use of a chemiluminescence method. The Bruce protocol of an exercise test was performed in 21 coronary patients and 11 volunteers. NO was measured before and 2-5 min after the test. We found no significant differences in the exNO level between healthy controls and CAD patients as analyzed either for the whole groups or non-smoker and smoker subgroups (6.01 parts per billion (ppb) vs. 4.91 ppb; 7.02 ppb vs. 5,89 ppb; 3.62 ppb vs. 3.33 ppb, respectively). However, the coronary patients group, as a whole, had lower exNO after exercise (4.22 ppb vs. 3,84 ppb, P<0.01). The difference persisted after division of this group into non-smokers and smokers; 5.19 ppb vs. 4,79 ppb, P<0.05 and 3.63 ppb vs. 3.27 ppb, P<0.05, respectively). The level of exNO changed inappreciably after exercise in control subjects. We conclude that coronary disease and oral nitrates, in themselves, do not influence the exhaled NO concentration. Physical exercise, on the other side, lowers the exhaled NO level in coronary patients.
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Plasma concentrations and bioavailability of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and its active metabolites isosorbide 2-mononitrate (2-ISMN) and isosorbide 5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) from two sustained-release formulations and one standard-release formulation of isosorbide dinitrate were compared. Means of peak drug concentrations of ISDN, 2-ISMN, and 5-ISMN after administration of the 20-mg sustained-release formulation were 5.5, 24.4, and 129.1 ng/ml, respectively, at 3.1, 4.2, and 4.5 h; after the 40-mg sustained-release formulation, they were 10.9, 44.0, and 214.5 ng/ml, respectively, at 4.2, 6.3, and 6.7 h; and after the 20-mg standard formulation, they were 19.1, 34.7, and 159.2 ng/ml, respectively, at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h. As might be expected, peak concentrations and their times of occurrence were statistically significantly different when results from the sustained-release formulation were compared to those from the standard formulation. Plasma drug concentrations were detectable for longer after administration of the sustained-release formulations. The extent of bioavailability of ISDN, 2-ISMN, and 5-ISMN from the three formulations as estimated from the areas under the plasma drug concentration - time curves were not statistically significantly different (p greater than 0.05). The ratios for relative drug bioavailability from the respective formulations were similar whether ISDN, 2-ISMN, or 5-ISMN data were used for calculation. Reasons are discussed for the biphasic decline of plasma ISDN concentrations (half-lives 26 min and 5.1 h) obtained after administration of the standard-release formulation.
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The calculated 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean values of the test/reference ratios were 98.2% to 103.2% (point estimate; 100.7%) for AUC(0-infinity) 96.9% to 103.8% (point estimate; 100.3%) for AUC(0-infinity), and 87.9% to 98.2% (point estimate; 92.9%) for Cmax. No statistically significant difference was found for tmax and elimination half-life (t 1/2) values.
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Eleven patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension were investigated by using hepatic vein catheterization and indocyanine green (ICG) constant infusion on baseline conditions, after 1 month of treatment with nadolol, after 3 months of treatment with nadolol plus isosorbide mononitrate, and (in seven cases) after 1 year of combined treatment.
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On average, we observed a moderate increase of Q one hour after ISMO dosing (+8.2 +/- 5.4%), but not after placebo (+2.7 +/- 1.6%). This effect of ISMO, which displayed remarkable interindividual variability (95% confidence interval: -3.9%, +20.4%), did not attain statistical significance. D((vein)) and D((art)) were not appreciably affected. No effect was observed three hours after either ISMO or placebo dosing. PP was reduced one hour following ISMO administration, mainly as a function of reduced BP(m), although this variation was not statistically significant. IOP did not change appreciably throughout the duration of the study.
Long-term exposure to organic nitrates influences different sections of the vascular bed heterogeneously. Continuous dosage of nitrates leads to the development of tolerance both to the vascular effects and to the unwanted adverse effect, headache. Human data on the development of tolerance in different cranial arteries over more than 24 h are lacking. We compared the vascular changes of the middle cerebral, superficial temporal and radial arteries during oral administration of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) 30 mg three times daily for 7 days in 11 healthy subjects in a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled cross-over design. Blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery was measured with transcranial Doppler and the diameters of the temporal and radial arteries were measured with high frequency ultrasound. Headache recordings were compared to the observed vascular changes over time. Tolerance was complete within 24 h in the middle cerebral artery whilst in the superficial temporal and the radial arteries, tolerance was only partial and developed much more slowly, i.e. after 7 days correlating with the disappearance of NO-induced headache. The present study thus demonstrated the important differences in the time profiles of appearance of nitrate tolerance in arteries of different vascular beds in man. If vasodilatation is the cause of NO-induced headache the results point to extracerebral arteries as the locus of nociception. Due to a variety of other possible pain-inducing effects of nitric oxide our results do not exclude cerebral arteries.
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IMN was comparable to placebo in terms of efficacy and patient satisfaction for cervical priming prior to first-trimester termination of pregnancy.
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We did a randomised multicentre study to compare the non-selective beta-blocker, nadolol, with nadolol plus isosorbide mononitrate in 146 relatively well (Child-Pugh score < or = 11) patients who had oesophageal varices at risk of bleeding. Patients on nadolol alone received a single oral 40 mg daily dose. Every second day the dose was titrated to achieve 20-25% decrease in resting heart rate (maximum dose 160 mg daily). Patients receiving both drugs received nadolol as above then isosorbide mononitrate was added starting with 10 mg orally twice daily, which was increased to 20 mg unless hypotension or severe headache occurred. The main endpoint was the occurrence of variceal bleeding of any severity. Patients were followed up for up to 40 months.
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Isolated systolic hypertension is a highly prevalent disease among the elderly. The little available evidence on the efficacy of nitrates for treating the disease is based on small experimental studies.
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MR therapeutic action may be due to enhancement of soluble GC activity which was observed in 70% of the cases.
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The study findings point out to the increase of elderly population with a long-term drug use. Over a half of elderly patients use 2-4 different drugs on the long-term basis. The polypharmacy prevalence was low. It increased in the period of 5 years in both genders. The increase was more prominent in women of all the age groups. The use of multiple drugs and polypharmacy increased with ageing.
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The transformation of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (CAS 16051-77-7, IS-5-MN) to the corresponding keto derivative and its ketoxime (oxime-nitrate derivative of isosorbide) is described. The effects of IS-5-MN and the new oxime-nitrate (ON) on the endothelial and smooth muscle cells of isolated rings of the rat superior mesenteric artery were examined. After contraction induced by phenylephrine, IS-5-MN (10(-8)-10(-4) mol/l) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation. Removal of the vascular endothelium strongly potentiated this effect. On the other hand, the new ON (10(-8)-10(-4) mol/l) was a more potent relaxant than the parent drug, but its effect was not dependent on the vascular endothelium. The inhibitory effect of the artery without endothelium to the new ON was more pronounced than that to IS-5-MN. The mechanism of the relaxant effect of the new compound consisted in the liberation of nitric-oxide (NO) which activated guanylate cyclase (GC), upon which accumulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) occurred, which was the second messenger leading to relaxation. Tolerance to the frequent applications of the new compound was not observed, moreover a slight increase of the effect was detected in comparison with IS-5-MN for which tolerance was observed to a great extent. Clinically, the new ON could be favorable in all types of angina in comparison with the classical IS-5-MN.
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Postprandial hyperemia is associated with a significant increase in portal pressure in cirrhosis, which may contribute to progressive dilation and rupture of gastroesophageal varices. In cirrhosis, an insufficient hepatic production of nitric oxide (NO) may impair the expected hepatic vasodilatory response to increased blood flow, further exaggerating the postprandial increase in portal pressure. This study was aimed at investigating whether low doses of an oral NO donor might counteract the postprandial peak in portal pressure. Twenty-three portal hypertensive cirrhotics, 8 of them under propranolol therapy, were randomized to receive orally 5-isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN; 10 mg; n = 11) or placebo (n = 12) and a standard liquid meal 15 minutes later. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and hepatic blood flow (HBF) were measured at baseline and 15, 30, and 45 minutes after a meal. ISMN significantly attenuated the postprandial increase in portal pressure as compared with placebo (peak HVPG increase: 2.4 +/- 1.4 mm Hg vs. 5.2 +/- 2.1 mm Hg, P =.002). Percentual increases in HBF were similar in both groups. MAP decreased slightly in ISMN group (-7.5% +/-.5%; P <.01 vs. baseline). These effects were also observed in patients on chronic propranolol therapy. In conclusion, hepatic NO supplementation by low doses of ISMN effectively reduces the postprandial increase of portal pressure in cirrhosis, with only a mild effect on arterial pressure. The same was observed in patients receiving propranolol. Our results suggest that therapeutic strategies based on selective hepatic NO delivery may improve the treatment of portal hypertension.
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Isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg were administered orally to 2 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacological effect was determined using digital pulse plethysmography and the orthostatic tilting test, and at the same time side effects were monitored. The threshold of oral activity of IS-5-MN was found to be 5 mg. The maximum response was reached with doses of 20-30 mg. The duration of action of this dose was approximately 8 h. Higher doses did not lead to any further increase, but rather to a decrease in the pharmacological response, while the side-effects, such as headaches, dizziness and nausea, became more prominent. In a randomized, double-blind, three-way cross-over study in 11 female volunteers IS-5-MN 30 mg proved to be more potent with respect to pharmacological activity than sustained released ISDN 20 mg (isosorbide dinitrate), whereas there was no difference in side-effects. Thus, it can be estimated that IS-5-MN 20 mg is approximately equivalent to 20 mg sustained released ISDN. IS-5-MN is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and the maximum concentration in serum was reached 1.2 +/- 0.2 h after doses of 10 to 50 mg. The pharmacokinetics showed dose-linearity. The compound was eliminated with an average half life of 4.04 +/- 0.16 h, which is appropriate for a reasonably prolonged duration of action without the need for a sustained release formulation.
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No major additive haemodynamic effects of the combination of levosimendan and isosorbide-5-mononitrate compared with each drug alone could be observed at rest. However, during an orthostatic test, the circulatory response was significantly potentiated with the combination, and three of the subjects were unable to stand upright for the stipulated time.
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Variceal bleeding is the most frequent severe complication of portal hypertension and a leading cause of death and liver transplantation in patients with cirrhosis. Patients surviving a variceal bleed are at high risk of rebleeding (over 60% at 1 year). Portacaval shunts and transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic shunts (TIPS) are effective for prevention of rebleeding but carry a high risk of hepatic encephalopathy. Endoscopic techniques include band ligation (EBL) and injection sclerotherapy (EIS). Drug approaches are based on non-selective beta blocker with or without isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMN).
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