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Imdur (Isosorbide Mononitrate)

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Generic Imdur is an effective medication which helps in the treatment of angina attacks. Generic Imdur acts as nitrates.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Nitrostat, Nitro-Bid, NitroQuick, Nitro-Dur, Isordil, Ranexa


Also known as:  Isosorbide Mononitrate.


Generic Imdur is a perfect remedy, which helps to treat angina attacks.

Generic Imdur acts as nitrates.

Imdur is also known as Isosorbide Mononitrate.

Generic name of Generic Imdur is Isosorbide Mononitrate.

Brand names of Generic Imdur are Imdur, ISMO, Monoket.


Take Generic Imdur tablets orally with or without food.

Do not crush or chew it.

Take Generic Imdur at the same time with water.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Imdur suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Imdur and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Imdur are difficult or slow breathing, muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, high temperature, fainting, abnormal heartbeat, changes in vision, flushing, convulsions, severe throbbing migraine, lightheadedness.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Imdur are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Imdur if you are allergic to Generic Imdur components.

Do not take Generic Imdur if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby.

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Be careful using Generic Imdur if you take dihydroergotamine (D.H.E. 45); or any other heart medicines, especially those used to treat high blood pressure or irregular heartbeats.

Be careful using Generic Imdur if you suffer from or have a history of congestive heart failure, have low blood pressure; a stroke, a transient ischemic attack (TIA, or mini-stroke), have anemia; have an allergy to nitrates; have closed-angle glaucoma; migraines, kidney disease; liver disease, heart attack, a serious head injury.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Generic Imdur suddenly.

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Both topical nitrate treatments (ISMN and GTN) were effective for chronic anal fissures. The reduction of the anal pressure was slightly higher after ISMN treatment (28%) than the treatment with GTN (23%). However, the statistical difference was not significant (p>0.05).

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We report synthesis, characterization, and drug release attributes of a series of novel pH-sensitive poly(acrylic-co-vinylsulfonic) acid hydrogels. These hydrogels were prepared by employing free radical polymerization using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and benzyl peroxide (BPO) as cross-linker and initiator, respectively. Effect of acrylic acid (AA), polyvinylsulfonic acid (PVSA), and EGDMA on prepared hydrogels was investigated. All formulations showed higher swelling at high pHs and vice versa. Formulations containing higher content of AA and EGDMA show reduced swelling, but one with higher content of PVSA showed increased swelling. Hydrogel network was characterized by determining structural parameters and loaded with isosorbide mononitrate. FTIR confirmed absence of drug polymer interaction while DSC and TGA demonstrated molecular dispersion of drug in a thermally stable polymeric network. All the hydrogel formulations exhibited a pH dependent release of isosorbide mononitrate which was found to be directly proportional to pH of the medium and PVSA content and inversely proportional to the AA contents. Drug release data were fitted to various kinetics models. Results indicated that release of isosorbide mononitrate from poly(AA-co-VSA) hydrogels was non-Fickian and that the mechanism was diffusion-controlled.

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The objective of the present study was to develop a novel in vitro system to simulate the process of dissolution and permeation of oral solid dosage forms in vivo, and to establish a correlation between in vitro permeation and in vivo absorption that could predict the bioavailability (BA) and bioequivalence (BE) of congeneric products. The in vitro dissolution and absorption kinetics of four dosage forms of isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) were evaluated by the USP basket/paddle system and drug dissolution/absorption simulating system (DDASS). The corresponding pharmacokinetic study was performed in beagle dogs. A comparative study was carried out between the classical and the novel method to estimate the effectiveness of the modified DDASS in simulating the course of dissolution and absorption in vivo. Indeed, the correlation coefficients of in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption obtained from DDASS and dogs were higher. Moreover, a higher level A in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) between DDASS permeation and dog absorption was established, with correlation coefficients of 0.9968, 0.9872, 0.9921, and 0.9728. The DDASS method was more accurate at modeling the process of dissolution and absorption in vivo for both immediate-release (IR) and sustained-release (SR) dosage forms of ISMN.

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The two groups were comparable with respect to age, parity, gestational age, indication for induction, and Bishop's score. Women receiving IMN plus misoprostol showed significant changes in the Bishop score 6 h after administration as compared to misoprostol plus placebo (8.57 ± 1.46 vs. 7.6 ± 1.39 h, P = 0.001), significantly shorter intervals from the beginning of the induction to the beginning of the active phase of labor (10.97 ± 2.87 vs. 13.91 ± 2.16 h, P = 0.0004) and from the beginning of induction to the time of delivery (19.56 ± 3.96 vs. 23 ± 2.62 P ≤ 0.001). No significant differences in the incidence of uterine hypersystole, tachysystole and hyperstimulation. Regarding headache, much more women suffer headache in the IMN group (51) with significant difference to placebo group (11).

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This demonstrated that propranolol reduced both portal pressure gradient (7.7 +/- 2.3 to 5.5 +/- 2.1 mmHg, P < 0.01) and portal vein flow (925 +/- 123 to 597 +/- 99 mL/min, P = 0.01) significantly, implying a reduction in splanchnic inflow as its main effect. In contrast, isosorbide-5-mononitrate tended to increase portal vein flow (814 +/- 186 to 911 +/- 211 mL/min; P = 0.06) whilst reducing portal pressure significantly (108 +/- 12 to 92 +/- 10 mmHg P = 0.014). This suggests a fall in intrahepatic resistance and provides no evidence for baroreceptor-mediated reflex splanchnic vasoconstriction.

imdur 30 mg

The pharmacokinetics of a new sustained release tablets (40 mg, qd) of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) was investigated together with a conventional preparation (20 mg, bid) after multiple oral administration in ten healthy human subjects using an open, randomized two-way crossover experimental design. Based on three statistical analyses of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), the two tablet formulations are judged to be bioequivalent (P > 0.1), with a relative bioavailability of 108.95% for the IS-5-MN sustained release formulation. Pharmacokinetic data showed that the sustained release formulation reached mean peak plasma levels significantly later and lower minimum plasma concentration (Cmin), compared with the conventional preparation. But no statistically significant difference was found for other pharmacokinetic parameters including peak plasma levels (Cmax), AUC, elimination constant (Ke), elimination half-life (T1/2) and fluctuation index (FI) between the two preparations (P > 0.05).

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Isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) was prescribed to 46 patients with an average dose of 44.3±15.2 mg/day. After a mean follow up of 25.3±25 months, 16 patients developed MACEs. Patients who received ISMN were more likely to suffer from MACEs (26.1% vs. 6.5%, P=0.01), mainly driven by a higher rate of acute coronary syndrome (13.0 vs 0%, P=0.01). Average daily dose of nitrate and other cardiovascular medication was not associated with MACEs. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that prescription of only ISMN (Hazard Ratio 3.09, 95% CI 1.10-10.21, P=0.04) was an independent predictor for the development of MACEs.

imdur 60 mg

Isosorbide 5-mononitrate reduces portal pressure in acute conditions. The aim of this work was to assess its effects and tolerance development after 30 days of use in alcoholic cirrhotic patients without history of variceal bleeding. Nine patients with portal hypertension (7 with esophageal varices) were studied. Hepatic and systemic hemodynamic parameters were measured in basal conditions, after one hour and after 30 days of treatment (40 mg b i d). One patient was lost from control at 2 weeks. In the total group, portal pressure decreased from 15.1 +/- 3.7 mm Hg to 12.1 +/- 5 at one hour and 11.3 +/- 5.5 mm Hg at 30 days (p < 0.002). In two patients, portal pressure was not modified. Portal blood flow increased significantly at one hour in the 7 responder patients. Hepatic blood flow (indocyanine green clearance) was not modified; thus, estimated hepatic resistance decreases in both periods. Intrinsic indocyanine green clearance (a measure of hepatic function) did not change in any period. Systemic blood pressure decreased and cardiac rate increased only after one hour. The fall in portal pressure did not correlate with changes in portal or hepatic blood flow. It is concluded that isosorbide 5-mononitrate decreased portal pressure in 7 out of nine patients, even after 30 days of treatment, without untoward effects over hepatic function or perfusion.

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The effect of combined therapies (among non-selected beta-blockers [NSBB], endoscopic therapy, and other treatments) on the first variceal bleeding has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials previously, and the results were controversial. We performed this meta-analysis to assess the effect of combined therapies in patients with high-risk varices without previous variceal bleeding.

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In this study a fall in hepatic venous pressure gradient of 20% was not a reliable predictor of clinical response. A threshold value of 12 mmHg was useful, but applied to relatively few patients.

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From the in vitro release-rate constant of a new sustained-release (SR) preparation of 40 mg isosorbide-5-mononitrate, the concentration-time profile in healthy subjects could be excellently predicted. Therapeutically, effective concentrations of 100 ng/ml were achieved within 20 min and lasted up to a maximum of 15.6 h. The decline of concentrations below this value thereafter, guarantees the absence of tolerance development in chronic therapy. In a three-period change-over study, two other commercial SR preparations exhibited only 79% and 53% of the bioavailability of the new formulation, which was significant in both cases. Compared with literature data, the absolute bioavailability of the new form should lie in the order of at least 85%.

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Base-line data were similar in the two groups, and the median follow-up was 18 months in both. Eleven patients in the medication group and 23 in the sclerotherapy group had rebleeding. The actuarial probability of remaining free of rebleeding was higher in the medication group for all episodes related to portal hypertension (P = 0.001) and variceal rebleeding (P = 0.002). Four patients in the medication group and nine in the sclerotherapy group died (P = 0.07 for the difference in the actuarial probability of survival). Seven patients in the medication group and 16 in the sclerotherapy group had treatment-related complications (P = 0.03). Thirty-one patients in the medication group underwent two hemodynamic studies; 1 of the 13 patients with more than a 20 percent decrease in the hepatic venous pressure gradient had rebleeding, as compared with 8 of the 18 with smaller decreases in the pressure gradient (P = 0.04) for the actuarial probability of rebleeding at two years).

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The objective of this study was to assess the relative usefulness of in vitro and canine data sets in the prediction of input rates of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMN) from extended release (ER) products on a confidence interval basis. ISMN is a highly soluble compound with high permeability in the upper GI tract but not in the colon. Two ISMN ER tablet formulations were studied: Imdur and an osmotic pump. Differences between amount of drug absorbed versus time predicted from in vitro and canine data and results observed in humans were assessed using the estimated median value of the difference factor, f(1), and its associated 90% bootstrap confidence intervals. For both products, median f(1) values and their associated confidence intervals for the comparisons between in vitro and human profiles and between canine and human profiles were similar. Although the median difference between the human input profiles of the two ISMN ER products was equally well predicted by in vitro and canine data, the 90% confidence intervals for this difference were better predicted by the canine data.

imdur tablet

Nitric oxide (NO) is present in exhaled air in humans and its level may decrease in heart diseases. Nitrates are metabolised to NO. In the present study we prospectively investigated how coronary disease treated with oral nitrates and physical exercise influence the exhaled NO concentration (exNO). The study was performed in 44 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with oral nitrates (31 nonsmokers and 13 smokers). End-tidal concentration of exhaled NO was measured by the use of a chemiluminescence method. The Bruce protocol of an exercise test was performed in 21 coronary patients and 11 volunteers. NO was measured before and 2-5 min after the test. We found no significant differences in the exNO level between healthy controls and CAD patients as analyzed either for the whole groups or non-smoker and smoker subgroups (6.01 parts per billion (ppb) vs. 4.91 ppb; 7.02 ppb vs. 5,89 ppb; 3.62 ppb vs. 3.33 ppb, respectively). However, the coronary patients group, as a whole, had lower exNO after exercise (4.22 ppb vs. 3,84 ppb, P<0.01). The difference persisted after division of this group into non-smokers and smokers; 5.19 ppb vs. 4,79 ppb, P<0.05 and 3.63 ppb vs. 3.27 ppb, P<0.05, respectively). The level of exNO changed inappreciably after exercise in control subjects. We conclude that coronary disease and oral nitrates, in themselves, do not influence the exhaled NO concentration. Physical exercise, on the other side, lowers the exhaled NO level in coronary patients.

imdur pill picture

Plasma concentrations and bioavailability of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and its active metabolites isosorbide 2-mononitrate (2-ISMN) and isosorbide 5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) from two sustained-release formulations and one standard-release formulation of isosorbide dinitrate were compared. Means of peak drug concentrations of ISDN, 2-ISMN, and 5-ISMN after administration of the 20-mg sustained-release formulation were 5.5, 24.4, and 129.1 ng/ml, respectively, at 3.1, 4.2, and 4.5 h; after the 40-mg sustained-release formulation, they were 10.9, 44.0, and 214.5 ng/ml, respectively, at 4.2, 6.3, and 6.7 h; and after the 20-mg standard formulation, they were 19.1, 34.7, and 159.2 ng/ml, respectively, at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 h. As might be expected, peak concentrations and their times of occurrence were statistically significantly different when results from the sustained-release formulation were compared to those from the standard formulation. Plasma drug concentrations were detectable for longer after administration of the sustained-release formulations. The extent of bioavailability of ISDN, 2-ISMN, and 5-ISMN from the three formulations as estimated from the areas under the plasma drug concentration - time curves were not statistically significantly different (p greater than 0.05). The ratios for relative drug bioavailability from the respective formulations were similar whether ISDN, 2-ISMN, or 5-ISMN data were used for calculation. Reasons are discussed for the biphasic decline of plasma ISDN concentrations (half-lives 26 min and 5.1 h) obtained after administration of the standard-release formulation.

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The calculated 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean values of the test/reference ratios were 98.2% to 103.2% (point estimate; 100.7%) for AUC(0-infinity) 96.9% to 103.8% (point estimate; 100.3%) for AUC(0-infinity), and 87.9% to 98.2% (point estimate; 92.9%) for Cmax. No statistically significant difference was found for tmax and elimination half-life (t 1/2) values.

imdur heart medication

Eleven patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension were investigated by using hepatic vein catheterization and indocyanine green (ICG) constant infusion on baseline conditions, after 1 month of treatment with nadolol, after 3 months of treatment with nadolol plus isosorbide mononitrate, and (in seven cases) after 1 year of combined treatment.

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On average, we observed a moderate increase of Q one hour after ISMO dosing (+8.2 +/- 5.4%), but not after placebo (+2.7 +/- 1.6%). This effect of ISMO, which displayed remarkable interindividual variability (95% confidence interval: -3.9%, +20.4%), did not attain statistical significance. D((vein)) and D((art)) were not appreciably affected. No effect was observed three hours after either ISMO or placebo dosing. PP was reduced one hour following ISMO administration, mainly as a function of reduced BP(m), although this variation was not statistically significant. IOP did not change appreciably throughout the duration of the study.

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Long-term exposure to organic nitrates influences different sections of the vascular bed heterogeneously. Continuous dosage of nitrates leads to the development of tolerance both to the vascular effects and to the unwanted adverse effect, headache. Human data on the development of tolerance in different cranial arteries over more than 24 h are lacking. We compared the vascular changes of the middle cerebral, superficial temporal and radial arteries during oral administration of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN) 30 mg three times daily for 7 days in 11 healthy subjects in a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled cross-over design. Blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery was measured with transcranial Doppler and the diameters of the temporal and radial arteries were measured with high frequency ultrasound. Headache recordings were compared to the observed vascular changes over time. Tolerance was complete within 24 h in the middle cerebral artery whilst in the superficial temporal and the radial arteries, tolerance was only partial and developed much more slowly, i.e. after 7 days correlating with the disappearance of NO-induced headache. The present study thus demonstrated the important differences in the time profiles of appearance of nitrate tolerance in arteries of different vascular beds in man. If vasodilatation is the cause of NO-induced headache the results point to extracerebral arteries as the locus of nociception. Due to a variety of other possible pain-inducing effects of nitric oxide our results do not exclude cerebral arteries.

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IMN was comparable to placebo in terms of efficacy and patient satisfaction for cervical priming prior to first-trimester termination of pregnancy.

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We did a randomised multicentre study to compare the non-selective beta-blocker, nadolol, with nadolol plus isosorbide mononitrate in 146 relatively well (Child-Pugh score < or = 11) patients who had oesophageal varices at risk of bleeding. Patients on nadolol alone received a single oral 40 mg daily dose. Every second day the dose was titrated to achieve 20-25% decrease in resting heart rate (maximum dose 160 mg daily). Patients receiving both drugs received nadolol as above then isosorbide mononitrate was added starting with 10 mg orally twice daily, which was increased to 20 mg unless hypotension or severe headache occurred. The main endpoint was the occurrence of variceal bleeding of any severity. Patients were followed up for up to 40 months.

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Isolated systolic hypertension is a highly prevalent disease among the elderly. The little available evidence on the efficacy of nitrates for treating the disease is based on small experimental studies.

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MR therapeutic action may be due to enhancement of soluble GC activity which was observed in 70% of the cases.

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The study findings point out to the increase of elderly population with a long-term drug use. Over a half of elderly patients use 2-4 different drugs on the long-term basis. The polypharmacy prevalence was low. It increased in the period of 5 years in both genders. The increase was more prominent in women of all the age groups. The use of multiple drugs and polypharmacy increased with ageing.

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The transformation of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (CAS 16051-77-7, IS-5-MN) to the corresponding keto derivative and its ketoxime (oxime-nitrate derivative of isosorbide) is described. The effects of IS-5-MN and the new oxime-nitrate (ON) on the endothelial and smooth muscle cells of isolated rings of the rat superior mesenteric artery were examined. After contraction induced by phenylephrine, IS-5-MN (10(-8)-10(-4) mol/l) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation. Removal of the vascular endothelium strongly potentiated this effect. On the other hand, the new ON (10(-8)-10(-4) mol/l) was a more potent relaxant than the parent drug, but its effect was not dependent on the vascular endothelium. The inhibitory effect of the artery without endothelium to the new ON was more pronounced than that to IS-5-MN. The mechanism of the relaxant effect of the new compound consisted in the liberation of nitric-oxide (NO) which activated guanylate cyclase (GC), upon which accumulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) occurred, which was the second messenger leading to relaxation. Tolerance to the frequent applications of the new compound was not observed, moreover a slight increase of the effect was detected in comparison with IS-5-MN for which tolerance was observed to a great extent. Clinically, the new ON could be favorable in all types of angina in comparison with the classical IS-5-MN.

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Postprandial hyperemia is associated with a significant increase in portal pressure in cirrhosis, which may contribute to progressive dilation and rupture of gastroesophageal varices. In cirrhosis, an insufficient hepatic production of nitric oxide (NO) may impair the expected hepatic vasodilatory response to increased blood flow, further exaggerating the postprandial increase in portal pressure. This study was aimed at investigating whether low doses of an oral NO donor might counteract the postprandial peak in portal pressure. Twenty-three portal hypertensive cirrhotics, 8 of them under propranolol therapy, were randomized to receive orally 5-isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN; 10 mg; n = 11) or placebo (n = 12) and a standard liquid meal 15 minutes later. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and hepatic blood flow (HBF) were measured at baseline and 15, 30, and 45 minutes after a meal. ISMN significantly attenuated the postprandial increase in portal pressure as compared with placebo (peak HVPG increase: 2.4 +/- 1.4 mm Hg vs. 5.2 +/- 2.1 mm Hg, P =.002). Percentual increases in HBF were similar in both groups. MAP decreased slightly in ISMN group (-7.5% +/-.5%; P <.01 vs. baseline). These effects were also observed in patients on chronic propranolol therapy. In conclusion, hepatic NO supplementation by low doses of ISMN effectively reduces the postprandial increase of portal pressure in cirrhosis, with only a mild effect on arterial pressure. The same was observed in patients receiving propranolol. Our results suggest that therapeutic strategies based on selective hepatic NO delivery may improve the treatment of portal hypertension.

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Isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg were administered orally to 2 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacological effect was determined using digital pulse plethysmography and the orthostatic tilting test, and at the same time side effects were monitored. The threshold of oral activity of IS-5-MN was found to be 5 mg. The maximum response was reached with doses of 20-30 mg. The duration of action of this dose was approximately 8 h. Higher doses did not lead to any further increase, but rather to a decrease in the pharmacological response, while the side-effects, such as headaches, dizziness and nausea, became more prominent. In a randomized, double-blind, three-way cross-over study in 11 female volunteers IS-5-MN 30 mg proved to be more potent with respect to pharmacological activity than sustained released ISDN 20 mg (isosorbide dinitrate), whereas there was no difference in side-effects. Thus, it can be estimated that IS-5-MN 20 mg is approximately equivalent to 20 mg sustained released ISDN. IS-5-MN is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and the maximum concentration in serum was reached 1.2 +/- 0.2 h after doses of 10 to 50 mg. The pharmacokinetics showed dose-linearity. The compound was eliminated with an average half life of 4.04 +/- 0.16 h, which is appropriate for a reasonably prolonged duration of action without the need for a sustained release formulation.

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No major additive haemodynamic effects of the combination of levosimendan and isosorbide-5-mononitrate compared with each drug alone could be observed at rest. However, during an orthostatic test, the circulatory response was significantly potentiated with the combination, and three of the subjects were unable to stand upright for the stipulated time.

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Variceal bleeding is the most frequent severe complication of portal hypertension and a leading cause of death and liver transplantation in patients with cirrhosis. Patients surviving a variceal bleed are at high risk of rebleeding (over 60% at 1 year). Portacaval shunts and transjugular intrahepatic portasystemic shunts (TIPS) are effective for prevention of rebleeding but carry a high risk of hepatic encephalopathy. Endoscopic techniques include band ligation (EBL) and injection sclerotherapy (EIS). Drug approaches are based on non-selective beta blocker with or without isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMN).

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imdur pill picture 2016-11-23

Patients with a prior variceal bleed were randomly assigned to groups given a combination (n = 88) of EVL, propranolol (dose titrated to reduce heart rate to 55 beats per minute), and ISMN (40 mg/day) or EVL alone (n buy imdur = 89). Primary end points were rebleeding or death; secondary end points were new complications of portal hypertension or serious adverse effects.

imdur generic name 2015-06-04

A great improvement in the prevention of variceal bleeding has emerged over the last years. However, further therapeutic options that combine higher efficacy, better tolerance buy imdur and fewer side effects are needed.

imdur drug information 2017-01-10

54 patients with ischemic buy imdur heart disease (IHD) and stable angina pectoris (42 males, 12 females aged 48-70, mean age 59.4 +/- 3.6 years) were examined. 16 of them had angina of effort FC II, 35--of FC III and 3--of FC IV. IHD was verified at stress tests and 24-h Holter ECG monitoring. In 85.2% of IHD patients the diagnosis of stenotic coronary atherosclerosis of 1-3 great arteries was confirmed by coronarography findings. The treatment effect was assessed by bicycle exercise tests, Holter ECG monitoring, patients' records of anginal attacks before and after treatment.

imdur drug card 2016-06-18

A total of 65 patients with angina pectoris, free from other diseases and drug free, were Holter monitored for 24 h. A total of buy imdur 30 patients were also monitored on isosorbide-5-mononitrate (IS-5-MN) and on metoprolol respectively. A total of 33 age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Spectral components of heart rate variability (HRV) were analysed hourly, with special reference to the rapid changes of autonomic tone during the night and early morning hours. Circadian variation was assessed in two ways: (1) Mean HRV day (8 a.m.-8 p.m.) and night (0-5 a.m.) were compared. (2) For the morning/night hours (0-10 a.m.), individual hourly values for max. and min. HRV, the difference max.-min. (gradient), the rate of change per hour between max. and min. (velocity) and the largest difference between two consecutive hours (max. velocity) were recorded and the mean value for the group calculated.

imdur generic equivalent 2015-09-23

The aquaporin (AQP) water channel is expected to play a decisive role of hyponatremia and water retention in cirrhotic patients. Despite the importance of the water channel, however, previous findings vary widely when it concerns AQP2 of the kidneys in subjects with cirrhosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of AQP2 in the distal renal tubule in cirrhosis, and the presence of the nitric oxide-AQP2 signaling pathway as a possible vasopressin-aquaporin-independent pathway. Sixty male Wister rats were assigned to six groups: (1) control; (2) TAA (thioacetamide); (3) TAA with nitric oxide donor; (4) TAA with nitric oxide inhibitor; (5) TAA with HMG CoA reductase inhibitor; (6) TAA with tetrahydrobiopterin. Immunohistochemical staining for AQP2, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for AQP2 and 3, citrulline assay, and renal cGMP concentration were measured. The AQP2-positivity of cirrhotic rats were higher than the controls buy imdur (P < 0.05). The AQP2-positivity decreased in the nitric oxide donor group, but the proportion rose back up when the subjects were injected with the nitric oxide inhibitor (P < 0.05). The expression of AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA was also found to show an increase in the cirrhotic group as compared with the normal controls (P < 0.05). The cirrhotic group administered with nitric oxide donor showed a significant decline in the expression of the mRNA. The control group's cGMP concentration was lower than that of the cirrhotic group (P < 0.05), but a comparison of the two groups injected with nitric oxide modulators, such as statin and BH4, did not show significant differences in the cGMP concentration level. The expression of AQP2 of the kidneys increased in the cirrhotic rats. AQP2 had relations to the activity changes of nitric oxide synthetase.

imdur tablet 2017-08-09

The study was conducted as an open-label, randomized, single-dose, two-period crossover design in 20 healthy volunteers with a washout period of 7 days, under fasting conditions. Plasma concentrations of the major active metabolite isosorbide 5-mononitrate were quantified, using a validated capillary gas chromatographic assay, with electron-capture detection. The pharmacokinetic buy imdur parameters used to assess the bioequivalence of the two preparations were AUC(0-infinity) and AUC(0-infinity) for the extent of absorption and Cmax and tmax for the rate of absorption.

imdur generic drugs 2016-09-21

Is-5-Mn is as effective buy imdur as Pro in preventing early bleeding but is associated with higher long-term mortality.

imdur 40 mg 2016-09-01

S. aureus ATCC 25923 biofilms were grown in-vitro using the Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC) device and exposed to 3 and 60 mg/mL of the NO donor isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) encapsulated into different anionic liposomal formulations based on particle size (unilamellar ULV, multilamellar MLV) and lipid content (5 and 25 mM) at 24 h buy imdur and 5 min exposure times. Biofilms were viewed using Live-Dead Baclight stain and confocal scanning laser microscopy and quantified using the software COMSTAT2.

imdur tab 2017-03-06

Isosorbide mononitrate, when used as intravenous infusion, have a rapid and direct effect on systemic and pulmonary circulation, and improving segmental motility and left ventricular performance in patients with impaired left ventricular motility caused by ischemic heart buy imdur disease.

imdur normal dose 2015-03-27

Nitrates have been applied in cardiology over one hundred years. They act via nitric oxide release. Nitric oxide is the same substance as endogenous endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). The most frequently used nitrates are nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide-5-mononitrate and similarly acting moledidomine. The wide range of actions results in antiischemic and antianginal effect. The inhibition of platelet a aggregation is important as well. Nitrates have no significant adverse effects. They are used in symptomatic treatment of nearly all forms of coronary heart disease. They improve prognosis of buy imdur patients with heart failure and have favourable effects on early and late left ventricle remodeling post myocardial infarction as well as on incidence of silent ischemia. Nitrates are used both for acute (short-term) and for long-term therapy. The may latter lead to development of tolerance, which can be prevented or reversed with intermittent-dosing regimens.

imdur 15 mg 2016-12-13

A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover study on 20 patients with exercise-induced angina pectoris and reproducible ST-segment depression during exercise-stress test was performed to compare the effect of a single dose of 120 mg of isosorbide dinitrate in a slow-release form with that of a twice-daily application of 20 buy imdur mg of isosorbide-5-mononitrate. Symptom-limited exercise tests were done, and nitrate plasma levels were measured in the subjects 6, 10, and 24 hours after the first administration of the drug. Both drugs produced a highly significant reduction in the size of exercise-induced ST-depressions (P less than .001) 6 and 10 hours after the first administration of isosorbide dinitrate as well as 6 hours after the first and 4 hours after the second dose of isosorbide-5-mononitrate. The effect was still significant (P less than .05) 24 hours after the administration of isosorbide dinitrate in a slow-release form and 18 hours after the second dose of isosorbide-5-mononitrate. In the case of the drug isosorbide dinitrate, nitrate plasma levels for its metabolite, isosorbide-5-mononitrate, were highest 10 hours after first application. In the case of the drug isosorbide-5-mononitrate, nitrate plasma levels were highest 4 hours after the second dose. Two 20 mg doses of isosorbide-5-mononitrate and a single dose of 120 mg isosorbide dinitrate in a slow release form have a comparable effect on the reduction of exercise-induced ST-segment depressions.

imdur 60mg tablets 2017-07-20

Seventy-six cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding were buy imdur randomly assigned to treatment with PR + IM (34 patients) or PR alone (32 patients).

imdur 60 mg 2017-10-19

Patients with chronic anal fissure were enrolled in the study. They were randomized buy imdur into three groups: Group A (0.2% isosorbide 5 mononitrate users), Group B (2% diltiazem users), and Group C (2%diltiazem + 0.2% isosorbide 5 mononitrate users). Pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). Level of strain during defecation was graded on a 4-point scale.

imdur storage 2016-10-20

A systematic search of databases, references and meeting abstracts was conducted for Trental 800 Mg randomized trials of BL, PT or BL+PT. The outcomes were mortality, rebleeding and adverse events. A random-effects model was used for meta-analyses.

imdur dosage 2015-04-15

Plasma concentrations of Neurontin Dosage brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are elevated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and high plasma BNP levels are associated with a poor prognosis. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a diuretic and a vasodilator on plasma BNP levels and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD).

imdur pill identifier 2016-04-13

The medical treatment of portal hypertension has experienced a marked progress in the past decade due to the introduction of effective portal hypotensive therapy. This has been possible because of the better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to portal hypertension. A major step forward was the introduction of beta-blockers for the prevention of bleeding and rebleeding from gastroesophageal varices. Effective therapy requires the reduction of the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) to 12 mmHg or below, or at least by 20% of baseline values. Unfortunately, this is only achieved in 1/3 to 1/2 of patients. Combination therapy, associating isosorbide-5-mononitrate and propranolol or nadolol administration enhances the reduction in portal pressure and increases the number of patients in whom HVPG decreases by more than 20% of baseline values and below 12 mmHg. Randomized clinical trials (RCT's) do support the concept that combination therapy is more effective than propranolol or nadolol alone, significantly better than sclerotherapy, and probably than endoscopic banding ligation. Therapy may be complemented by the association of spironolactone. The main inconvenience of pharmacological therapy is that there is no non-invasive method available to detect non-responders to treatment. Failures of drug therapy should be managed endoscopically. Failures of endoscopic treatment require 'rescue' by means of TIPS or shunt surgery. Patients with advanced liver failure should be considered for orthotopic liver transplantation, and put into a waiting list if eligible. In the treatment of acute variceal bleeding pharmacological therapy offer the unique advantage of allowing to provide specific therapy immediately after arrival to hospital, or even during transferral to hospital by ambulance, since it does not require sophisticated equipment and highly qualified medical staff. Vasopressin has been abandoned because of its toxicity, although this can be reduced by the combined administration of transdermal nitroglycerin. Terlipressin has longer effects and is more effective and safer than vasopressin alone or in combination with nitroglycerin. It has proved to be effective and to decrease mortality from bleeding in double-blind studies. RCT's have shown that this drug is as effective and safer than emergency sclerotherapy. Therapy should be maintained for five days to prevent early rebleeding. Somatostatin is probably as effective as terlipressin. Octreotide is probably useful after endoscopic therapy but can not be recommended as first line treatment. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy and endoscopic banding ligation are very effective, but require well trained medical staff. There is Buy Viagra an increasing trend for initiating therapy with a pharmacological agent, followed by semi-emergency endoscopic therapy as soon as a well trained endoscopist is available (within 12-24 hours), while maintaining drug therapy for 5 days. Failures of medical therapy may be treated by a second session of endoscopic treatment, but if this fails TIPS of emergency surgery should be done. In high-risk situations, such as bleeding from gastric varices or in patients with advanced liver failure, the decision for TIPS or surgery should be done earlier, after failure of the initial treatment.

imdur maximum dosage 2015-05-26

After induction of hyperglycemia by streptozotocin (STZ) injection (60 mg/kg i.v.), PETN (15 mg/kg/day p.o.) or isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMN; 75 mg/kg/day p. Aggrenox 60 Capsules o.) was fed to Wistar rats for 7 weeks. Oxidative stress was assessed by optical methods and oxidative protein modifications, vascular function was determined by isometric tension recordings, protein expression was measured by Western blotting, RNA expression was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR, and HO-1 promoter activity in stable transfected cells was determined by luciferase assays.

imdur tablet dose 2015-04-06

Temporary proteinuria occurring after exercise is a common finding, and it is explained predominantly by alterations in renal hemodynamics. In this study, we investigated whether nitric oxide (NO), which is known to have an effect on renal hemodynamics and to increase during exercise, has a role in postexercise proteinuria. In the first step of this study, the effect of acute NO synthase blockage on exercise proteinuria was evaluated. The urinary protein levels in animals that performed acute exhaustive treadmill running exercise were considerably elevated compared with the control animals. Significantly elevated urinary protein levels were also detected in animals that received Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester before exhaustion, compared with both control and exhausted groups, and mixed-type proteinuria was detected in electrophoresis, as in all exhausted animals. In Mestinon Normal Dosage the second step of the study, a NO donor (isosorbide mononitrate) was given to rats 1 h before exhaustive exercise. Mixed-type proteinuria and the elevation in urinary protein levels that occur as a consequence of exhaustive exercise were prevented by NO donor treatment. Finally, in the third step of our study, a calcium channel blocker (diltiazem), another vasodilator, was applied to the rats 1 h before exhaustive exercise. Urinary protein levels were not different in exhausted rats with or without calcium channel blocker treatment. On the other hand, in both groups, urinary protein levels were higher than in the control group. The tail-cuff blood pressure alterations caused by vasodilator drug applications before exercise were not different for NO donor and calcium channel blocker groups. These results suggest that endogenous NO might prevent the postexercise proteinuria from becoming more severe by affecting hemodynamic changes that occur during exercise.

imdur drug dose 2017-10-29

Carvedilol was as effective as nadolol plus isorsorbide-5 -mononitrate mononitrate in the prevention Amoxil 875 Pill of gastroesophageal variceal rebleeding with fewer severe adverse events and similar survival.

imdur 30 tab 2016-05-22

Two hundred pregnant women of at least 42 weeks Coumadin 6 Mg ' gestation with an unripe cervix were randomly selected to receive vaginally either 40 mg isosorbide mononitrate or placebo tablets.

imdur 180 mg 2017-04-02

The results show that IMN has a definite role and better safety profile than misoprostol in first trimester Pamelor 10mg Reviews cervical ripening, although misoprostol is more effective and causes less blood loss.

imdur generic 2016-01-20

Isosorbide-5-mononitrate (ISMN), the main metabolite of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) was recently introduced in clinical use. The hemodynamic effects of oral ISMN and ISDN, administered in equal doses, were studied in a randomized, crossover fashion in 20 patients with pump failure of ischemic etiology. Baseline hemodynamic criteria for admission into the study were: pulmonary capillary wedge pressure Noroxin Overdose (PCW) of at least 20 mmHg and systolic arterial pressure (AP) above 90 mmHg. Hemodynamic parameters were serially measured and systemic vascular resistance was calculated up to 6 h postadministration of either ISMN or ISDN single dose (40 mg). Maximal effects obtained were statistically significantly different from baseline. While ISMN and ISDN appeared to be equipotent in reducing the filling pressure, with a maximum effect reached in 60-120 min, the mononitrate maintained its effects for a longer period.

imdur er dosage 2017-12-11

A prospective, randomized trial was conducted. Women scheduled for labor induction between 32 and 42 weeks and with unfavorable cervices (modified Bishop score 6 or lower) were randomized to receive oral misoprostol every 4 hours, up to four doses, with or without isosorbide mononitrate every 6 hours, up to two doses. A strict protocol was used, including timing of oxytocin use and amniotomy. Side effects were assessed 6 hours after study initiation. One hundred forty-two patients were required to detect a change in time to vaginal delivery of 4 hours (alpha=.05 and beta=.20). Data were analyzed by intent to treat. Student's t, chi square, Fisher's exact, and Mann-Whitney tests were used where appropriate with P< or =.05 deemed significant.

imdur pill 2016-02-17

A two-phase, placebo-controlled study was carried out in 24 healthy Chinese volunteers with their ALDH2 and GSTM1 genotypes known. During each phase, either 20-mg IS-5-MN tablet or placebo was orally administered; blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and plasma concentration of CGRP was determined before and at several time points after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters of IS-5-MN were determined.

imdur overdose symptoms 2016-09-06

Objective evidence of transient ischaemia can be obtained by ST-segment analysis of ambulatory ECG recordings. To compare the anti-ischaemic effects of isosorbide 5-mononitrate (IS 5-MN) and nifedipine in sustained-release formulations, we entered 16 patients with documented spontaneous ischaemic episodes in a double-blind cross-over study. The study consisted of four 1-week treatment periods with repeated 24-hour recordings at the end of each period. Nifedipine 3 X 20 mg/day was compared to IS 5-MN 3 X 20 mg/day and IS 5-MN 50 mg once daily for 1 week each. 12 patients completed the study protocol: 1 withdrew because of headache, 1 developed hyperthyroidism and in 2 patients the study was discontinued because the anginal symptoms became unstable. For the entire group both ways of treatment showed beneficial effects with significant reductions of the number of episodes (reduced by 65-68%, p less than 0.01), duration of episodes (reduced by 65-70%, p less than 0.05) and degree of ST deviation (reduced by 39-70%, p less than 0.05). With both IS 5-MN (7 of 12 and 6 of 12 patients) and nifedipine (5 of 12 and 8 of 12) a part of the group of patients became free of ischaemic episodes. In individual patients, however, different patterns of response were observed: 3/12 showed a complete response on both treatments, 1/12 was free on IS 5-MN only and 1/12 on nifedipine only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

imdur overdose 2016-06-22

Nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation > or = 37 weeks gestation, requiring cervical ripening prior to induction of labour.

imdur drug category 2015-06-27

Fifteen cirrhotic patients were included in the present study. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), serum renin concentration (SR), ERPF and plasma aldosterone concentration (PA) were checked before ISMO treatment (baseline study), after a single oral dose of 20 mg ISMO (acute effect study) and after 3 weeks of ISMO treatment (chronic effect study).