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A method is described for the determination of erythromycin estolate by liquid chromatography. A C18 reversed-phase column (25 x 0.46 cm i.d.) was used with acetonitrile-tetrabutylammonium sulphate (pH 6.5, 0.2 M)-phosphate buffer (pH 6.5, 0.2 M)-water [x:5:5:(90-x), v/v/v/v] as mobile phase. The proportion of acetonitrile (x) has to be adapted to the type of stationary phase used. For RSil C18 LL 42.5% (v/v) was used. The column was heated at 35 degrees C, the flow rate was 1.5 ml min-1 and UV detection was performed at 215 nm. The main component, erythromycin A propionate, was separated from all other components which were present in commercial samples. The impurities most frequently observed were the propionate ester of erythromycin C and the amide N-propionyl-N-demethyl-erythromycin A. Erythromycin A was shown to be present in specialties.
A chronic Rhodococcus equi metaphysitis involving the distal growth plate of the left third metatarsal bone had induced a longstanding lameness in a young foal. Abnormal hematologic values included mild anemia, hyperfibrinogemia, mild leukocytosis, and neutrophilia. Radiography of the distal portion of MT3 revealed a radiolucent zone on the medial aspect of the growth plate, and small pieces of bone suggestive of sequestra. Treatment with erythromycin estolate and rifampin, aggressive surgical debridement, and cancellous bone grafting helped resolve the bone infection.
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The efficacy of erythromycin was assessed in the treatment of 14 children aged 4 to 13 years with refractory chronic constipation, and presenting megarectum and fecal impaction. A double-blind, placebo- controlled, crossover study was conducted at the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital. The patients were randomized to receive placebo for 4 weeks followed by erythromycin estolate, 20 mg kg-1 day-1, divided into four oral doses for another 4 weeks, or vice versa. Patient outcome was assessed according to a clinical score from 12 (most severe clinical condition) to 0 (complete recovery). At enrollment in the study and on the occasion of follow-up medical visits at two-week intervals, patient score and laxative requirements were recorded. During the first 30 days, the mean SD clinical score for the erythromycin group (N = 6) decreased from 8.2+/-2.3 to 2.2+/-1.0 while the score for the placebo group (N = 8) decreased from 7.8+/-2.1 to 2.9+/-2.8. During the second crossover phase, the score for patients on erythromycin ranged from 2.9+/-2.8 to 2.4+/-2.1 and the score for the patients on placebo worsened from 2.2+/-1.0 to 4.3+/-2.3. There was a significant improvement in score when patients were on erythromycin (P < 0.01). Mean laxative requirement was lower when patients ingested erythromycin (P < 0.05). No erythromycin-related side effects occurred. Erythromycin was useful in this group of severely constipated children. A larger trial is needed to fully ascertain the prokinetic efficacy of this drug as an adjunct in the treatment of severe constipation in children.
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Topical antibiotics were used on patients with acne vulgaris. Corynebacterium acnes organisms from open comedones were quantitated during treatment, and the progress of the disease was evaluated. Clindamycin lotion completely suppressed the growth of C acnes organisms, whereas erythromycin and tetracycline did not depress the C acnes counts. Taken as a group, these antibiotics gave a substantial improvement of the disease on the treated side as compared with paired untreated sides of the face and back.
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Whooping cough is a highly contagious disease. Infants are the population at highest risk of severe disease and death. Erythromycin for 14 days is recommended for treatment and contact prophylaxis but this regime is considered inconvenient and prolonged. The value of contact prophylaxis is uncertain.
The effect of erythromycin esteolate (EE) on bile flow and bile acid secretion was studied in male Wistar rats in vivo. Daily oral treatment with a dose of up to 100 mg/kg for 1 week increased the bile flow and the bile acid secretion. Increasing the days of treatment to 4 weeks with a dose of 20 mg/kg did not alter the measured parameters significantly. Acute intravenous injection of erythromycin lactobionate (50 mg/kg) also increased bile flow and biliary bile acid secretion temporarily. The increase in bile flow may partly be due to the osmotic effect of the drug and its metabolites in bile. Since EE failed to produce cholestasis in the range of therapeutic doses, rats do not seem to be a suitable experimental model for studying EE-cholestasis.
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At least one generic preparation of cephalexin, erythromycin ethylsuccinate/sulfisoxazole and penicillin V potassium was rated equal in taste to the respective brand name products. However, brand erythromycin estolate and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole name brand suspensions rated significantly higher than the other products tested.
Sesbania grandiflora, commonly known as 'sesbania', is widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of liver disorders. Oral administration of an ethanolic extract of S. grandiflora leaves (200 mg/kg/day) for 15 days produced significant hepatoprotection against erythromycin estolate (800 mg/kg/day)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The increased level of serum enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase), bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, free fatty acids, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides observed in rats treated with erythromycin estolate were significantly decreased in rats treated concomitantly with sesbania extract and erythromycin estolate. The sesbania extract also restored the depressed levels of antioxidants to near normal. The results of the study reveal that sesbania could afford a significant protective effect against erythromycin estolate-induced hepatotoxicity. The effect of sesbania was compared with that of silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective drug.
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Measure efficacy of erythromycin estolate chemoprophylaxis calculated by the proportion of households in each group with a member who developed a nasopharyngeal culture positive for Bordetella pertussis.
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Reaction mechanism of macrolide 2'-phosphotransferase [MPH(2')] from Escherichia coli to the 2'-modified macrolide antibiotics was analyzed by using microbioassay, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometric assay and mass spectrometry. It was found by microbioassay that the 2'-modified macrolide antibiotics as triacetyloleandomycin (TAO), erythromycin ethyl succinate (EME) and erythromycin estolate were inactivated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by MPH(2'). The NMR spectrometric assay for the analysis of the reaction with the 2'-modified macrolide antibiotics and MPH(2') was established using guanosine triphosphate, which was higher reaction rate than ATP, as a cofactor. It was clearly shown by NMR spectrometric assay and mass spectrometry that the C2'-side chain of TAO and EME was naturally released in phosphate buffer solution, and then, the C2' position was phosphorylated with GTP by MPH(2').
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One trial involving 1071 women was included. Of these, 644 randomly received antibiotic treatment (174 erythromycin estolate, 224 erythromycin sterate, and 246 clindamycin hydrochloride) and 427 received placebo. This trial did not report data on preterm birth. Incidence of low birthweight less than 2500 grams was only evaluated for erythromycin (combined) (n = 398 ) compared to placebo (n = 427) and there was no statistically significant difference between those treated and those not treated (relative risk (RR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 1.07). In regards to side-effects sufficient to stop treatment, data were available for all women, and there were no statistically significant differences between any antibiotic (combined) and the placebo group (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.85).
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Two patients experienced hepatotoxicity associated with erythromycin estolate (Ilosone) usage, followed 13 and 15 years later by an hepatotoxic reaction with administration of erythromycin ethylsuccinate (E.E.S.). These cases provide further evidence for erythromycin ethylsuccinate-associated hepatotoxicity and demonstrate erythromycin cross-sensitivity after previous erythromycin estolate liver injury. Hepatotoxicity to both sensitivity after previous erythromycin estolate liver injury. Hepatotoxicity to both estolate and ethylsuccinate preparations of erythromycin stimulates speculation regarding the potentially hepatotoxic moiety of the erythromycin molecule. Furthermore, these cases suggest that all erythromycin preparations should be avoided or used only with careful monitoring in patients with previous erythromycin-associated liver injury.
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Rat hepatocytes were used to study the toxicity of a new semisynthetic macrolide, roxithromycin, in comparison with erythromycin base and erythromycin estolate. Roxithromycin caused lactate dehydrogenase leakage close to that of erythromycin estolate and higher than erythromycin base after 21 h of exposure to the drugs. This effect was, at least in part, explained by the higher uptake: roxithromycin was two to three times more concentrated by liver cells than erythromycin base. For both roxithromycin and erythromycin base, the uptake depended on time, temperature, and extracellular antibiotic concentration. The accumulated macrolides egressed rapidly when cells were incubated in antibiotic-free medium. No uptake and no loss of accumulated drugs were observed at 4 degrees C. After accumulation by hepatocytes, roxithromycin and erythromycin base underwent similar subcellular distribution, mostly concentrating in cytosol and lysosomes. The small amount accumulated in the other particulate fractions followed the order mitochondria much greater than nuclei greater than microsomes. Roxithromycin, however, was less concentrated than erythromycin base in the microsomes.
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Because of the lack of a UV chromophore and their much smaller abundances in comparison with the major component, the minor components in erythromycin estolate preparations are difficult to analyze by high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet (HPLC-UV). Tentative assignment of the major and minor components can be achieved with the combination of full scan and ZoomScan using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provided an effective method to quickly identify most components without chromatographic separation, and all the related compounds, except the isobaric pair ECE and PdMeEA, could be identified in this way. The best result was obtained by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) operated in selected reaction monitoring mode. The major compound, the estolate of erythromycin A (EAE), and seven other minor components, could be separated and identified, with semiquantitative estimates of relative concentrations.
More than 120,000 patients are treated annually in Germany to resolve repeated episodes of acute tonsillitis. Therapy is aiming at symptom regression, avoidance of complications, reduction in the number of disease-related absences in school or at work, increased cost-effectiveness and improved quality of life. The purpose of this part of the guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through different conservative treatment options in order to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical management in terms of intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) is the subject of part II of this guideline. To estimate the probability of tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, a diagnostic scoring system according to Centor or McIsaac is suggested. If therapy is considered, a positive score of ≥3 should lead to pharyngeal swab or rapid test or culture in order to identify β-hemolytic streptococci. Routinely performed blood tests for acute tonsillitis are not indicated. After acute streptococcal tonsillitis, there is no need to repeat a pharyngeal swab or any other routine blood tests, urine examinations or cardiological diagnostics such as ECG. The determination of the antistreptolysin O-titer (ASLO titer) and other antistreptococcal antibody titers do not have any value in relation to acute tonsillitis with or without pharyngitis and should not be performed. First-line therapy of β-hemolytic streptococci consists of oral penicillin. Instead of phenoxymethylpenicillin-potassium (penicillin V potassium), also phenoxymethlpenicillin-benzathine with a clearly longer half-life can be used. Oral intake for 7 days of one of both the drugs is recommended. Alternative treatment with oral cephalosporins (e.g. cefadroxil, cefalexin) is indicated only in cases of penicillin failure, frequent recurrences, and whenever a more reliable eradication of β-hemolytic streptococci is desirable. In cases of allergy or incompatibility of penicillin, cephalosporins or macrolides (e.g. Erythromycin-estolate) are valuable alternatives.
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Under the conditions of this study, erythromycin estolate prevented culture-positive pertussis in household contacts of patients with pertussis but did not prevent clinical pertussis.
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At 12 months of use, the failure rate of the sterilization procedure for the crushed 500 mg tablets was 35.8% (SE = 1.8) with 417 women at risk. At 12 months of use, the failure rate for the erythromycin pellets was 28.6% (SE = 5.0) with 43 women at risk. There were no serious complications reported in either trial. All pregnancies resulting from failure of the sterilization procedure were terminated by menstrual regulation within 10 weeks gestation.
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A belief that brand oral liquid medications taste better than their generic counterparts may influence prescribing habits among pediatricians.
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Three to four review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of each trial.
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In an open randomized multicenter study 190 culture-positive pediatric ambulatory pertussis patients were treated for 14 days with either erythromycin estolate (EST) (n = 93; 40 mg/kg/day divided in 2 doses) or erythromycin ethylsuccinate (ETH) (n = 97; 60 mg/kg/day divided in 3 doses). On day 14 Bordetella pertussis was recovered from cultures of 2 patients (2.2%) treated with EST and 1 patient (1.0%) treated with ETH. Despite the fact that 151 patients (79.4%) had reached the early paroxysmal stage at initiation of antimicrobial therapy, clinical improvement was seen in the majority (reduced frequency and severity of coughing: EST, 77.4 and 67.7%; ETH, 74.2 and 63.9%, respectively). Drug-related side effects were noted in 11 patients (11.8%) treated with EST and 16 patients (16.5%) treated with ETH (P greater than 0.05) and consisted mainly of minor gastrointestinal complaints. Erythromycin estolate in a lower dose administered only twice a day was equivalent to erythromycin ethylsuccinate in all aspects and proved to be adequate antimicrobial treatment for pertussis patients.
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The simultaneous determination of erythromycin propionate and erythromycin base in serum and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography using oleandomycin as internal standard is described. The separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column employing acetonitrile-0.05 M phosphate buffer (65:35), adjusted to pH 7.0, as the mobile phase with coulometric detection. Hydrolysis of the ester during blood sample collection was minimised by immediate high-speed centrifugation of collected blood samples, followed by separation and immediate freezing of the serum fraction. A solid-phase extraction procedure, combined with a simple phase-separation step was used prior to chromatographic analysis. The method has the necessary precision, sensitivity and accuracy to allow the simultaneous determination of both components in serum and urine following a single 500-mg oral dose of erythromycin estolate.
The pharmacokinetics of erythromycin and erythromycin 2'-propanoate were studied in healthy male volunteers following single and repeated doses of erythromycin stearate tablets, erythromycin estolate capsules, and a suspension. Estolate dosages gave rise to higher plasma levels of total drug than the stearate. However, the stearate yielded higher plasma levels of erythromycin base. Absorption of all dosage forms, except the suspension, was delayed, and pharmacokinetic interpretation of both single- and multiple-dose data required incorporation of an absorption lag time. The absorption of erythromycin stearate was inhibited by food and also by low fluid volumes in fasted subjects. Absorption of erythromycin estolate was increased in the presence of food and was not greatly affected by fluid volume. Although single-dose data poorly predicted circulating levels of erythromycin following repeated doses, trends observed after single doses were maintained during chronic treatment.
The absorptions of 6 erythromycin preparations were compared in a cross-over study in healthy humans. In a single-dose study, 500 mg of each preparation was, after an overnight fast, given to 10 volunteers. The two enterosoluble preparations of erythromycin base studied were absorbed slowly, and the peak serum concentration (1.5-2 mg/l) was achieved only at 4 h. The absorption of the stearates was quick, but especially one of them was poorly absorbed, the serum concentration being always below 1 mg/l. Both of the two estolates gave highest apparent concentrations, and the maximum serum level (2-2.5 mg/l) was achieved at 2 h, but the concentration of active erythromycin remains unknown. In the second part of the study, two erythromycin stearates and one base preparation were given at 6-h interval in a cross-over fashion, each for 4 days. On the 4th day, blood samples were analyzed. The erythromycin base gave higher serum concentrations than did the two stearates, which were equivalent. It seems doubtful that the erythromycin stearate at the dose of 250 mg every 6th hour would give satisfactory serum levels of erythromycin which would be effective against most bacteria during the whole treatment.