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In our cohort of prior metformin users, adding rosiglitazone for up to 6 months was not associated with an increased risk of AMI compared to adding a sulfonylurea (odds ratio [OR] 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91-2.10), or compared to adding pioglitazone (OR for rosi versus pio 1.41; 95% CI, 0.74-2.66). There were also no significant differences between rosiglitazone, pioglitazone and sulfonylureas for longer durations of treatment. Though not significantly different from sulfonylureas, there was a transient increase in AMI risk associated with the first 6 months of treatment with a glitazone compared to not using the treatment (OR 1.53; 95% CI, 1.13-2.07)
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This descriptive study used a non-controlled observational approach.
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This was a singlecenter, randomized study in 24 healthy adults. Subjects received twice-daily doses of MK0431A 50-mg/500-mg tablet and 50-mg/850-mg tablet for 7 days. Serial blood and urine samples were collected at predefined time points for bioassay of sitagliptin and metformin. Safety was assessed throughout the study.
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Overall, the combination of CC plus metformin resulted in an increased incidence of ovulation compared with CC alone. This is particularly so in women with relatively larger left ovarian volumes (≥ 19.5 cubic cm), and a left ovarian volume <19.5 cubic cm was related to treatment outcomes for all subsequent nodes. Women who were older, who had higher baseline insulin, higher waist-to-hip circumference ratio or higher sex hormone-binding globulin levels had better ovulatory rates with CC alone than with the combination of CC plus metformin.
IDegAsp achieved the primary endpoint of non-inferiority to BIAsp 30 for mean change in HbA₁c (estimated treatment difference [ETD] IDegAsp-BIAsp 30: 0.05% points [95% CI -0.10; 0.20]). IDegAsp was superior in lowering fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (ETD -1.06 mmol/L, 95% CI -1.43; -0.70, p<0.001), and resulted in a lower final mean daily insulin dose (0.79 U/kg vs 0.99 U/kg, estimated rate ratio [RR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.73; 0.85, p<0.0001). Rates of overall confirmed and severe hypoglycaemia were similar between treatments, while rate of nocturnal confirmed hypoglycaemia was numerically (p=ns) lower with IDegAsp. During the maintenance period there was a trend (p=ns) towards lower hypoglycaemia rates for IDegAsp.
EudraCT number 2009-011106-42.
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Administration of metformin in DM patients prior to stroke onset may be associated with reduced neurological severity and improved acute-phase therapy outcomes.
Metformin, statin and aspirin use seem associated with decreased mortality in cancer patients, though, without adjusting for one another. Independent associations of these drugs with overall mortality after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis within glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs) users were assessed.
Mean employee adherence to metformin, statins, and ACE/ARBs at the employer level at one year post-DHP implementation, as measured by the proportion of days covered (PDC).
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Analytical methods validation is a mandatory step to evaluate the ability of developed methods to provide accurate results for their routine application. Validation usually involves validation standards or quality control samples that are prepared in placebo or reconstituted matrix made of a mixture of all the ingredients composing the drug product except the active substance or the analyte under investigation. However, one of the main concerns that can be made with this approach is that it may lack an important source of variability that come from the manufacturing process. The question that remains at the end of the validation step is about the transferability of the quantitative performance from validation standards to real authentic drug product samples. In this work, this topic is investigated through three case studies. Three analytical methods were validated using the commonly spiked placebo validation standards at several concentration levels as well as using samples coming from authentic batch samples (tablets and syrups). The results showed that, depending on the type of response function used as calibration curve, there were various degrees of differences in the results accuracy obtained with the two types of samples. Nonetheless the use of spiked placebo validation standards was showed to mimic relatively well the quantitative behaviour of the analytical methods with authentic batch samples. Adding these authentic batch samples into the validation design may help the analyst to select and confirm the most fit for purpose calibration curve and thus increase the accuracy and reliability of the results generated by the method in routine application.
The Yoga program was successful in improving dietary practices and medication adherence and in increasing the proportion of diabetics and hypertensive patients under control.
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The treatment groups were well balanced at baseline [mean HbA1c, 8.0%, FPG, 8.8 mmol/l (158 mg/dl); body mass index, 25.5 kg/m(2) ]. The adjusted mean change (AMΔ) in HbA1c at endpoint was -1.05 ± 0.08%, -0.92 ± 0.08% and -0.54 ± 0.08% in patients receiving vildagliptin 50 mg bid, 50 mg qd and placebo, respectively. The between-treatment difference (vildagliptin 50 mg bid-placebo) was -0.51 ± 0.11%, p < 0.001. A greater proportion of vildagliptin-treated patients met at least one responder criterion (82.1 and 70.7%) compared to placebo-treated patients (60.4%). The AMΔ at endpoint for FPG with vildagliptin 50 mg bid, -0.95 mmol/l (-17.1 mg/dl); 50 mg qd, -0.84 mmol/l (-15.1 mg/dl) was significantly different compared with the placebo -0.26 mmol/l (-4.68 mg/dl) (p ≤ 0.001). Adverse events (AEs) were reported as 34.2, 36.5 and 37.5% for patients receiving vildagliptin 50 mg bid, 50 mg qd or placebo, respectively. Two patients in the vildagliptin 50 mg qd and one in the placebo group reported serious AEs, which were not considered to be related to the study drug; one incidence of hypoglycaemic event was reported in the vildagliptin 50 mg bid group.
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Specific treatment of gestational diabetes (dietetics, physical exercise, blood glucose self-monitoring, insulin-therapy if appropriate) reduces severe perinatal complications (composite criterion), fetal macrosomia and pre-eclampsia compared to the absence of therapy, with however an increase in the number of triggered deliveries, and without any increase in the number of cesarean sections. Regarding oral antidiabetics, despite no difference was found in fetal or maternal prognosis upon treatment with glyburide, metformin, or insulin, they should not be prescribed.
Fasting DPP-IV levels in different groups were statistically significant. Similarly post-prandial DPP-IV levels in different groups were statistically significant, except between the non diabetic Vs anti diabetic drug treated group. On comparison the ratio of fasting and post-prandial DPP IV levels is <1 in non-diabetic and newly detected diabetic groups and in anti-diabetic drug treated group (3a and b) the ratio is >1. Based on HbAlc levels moderately controlled group showed significant p value regarding fasting and postprandial DPP-IV levels.
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The authenticated tubers of D. alata (DA) (JSSCPDP/2008/157) were collected from Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu. The ethanol extract was tested for hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. In oral glucose tolerance test, glucose (3 g/kg, p.o.) was administered to non diabetic control, metformin (250 mg/kg, p.o.) and DA extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) to treat treated rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) in physiological saline after overnight fasting for 18 hours. DA extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard drug metformin (250 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose level and changes in body weight were measured on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. At the end of 21(st) day, serum lipid profile, total protein, albumin, and creatinine were assessed.
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Ridayarishta formulation alone and cocktail with amlodipine besilate, atenolol, atorvastatin, metformin, glipizide, glimepiride had negligible or insignificant effect on CYP450 inhibition. It may be concluded that consumption of Ridayarishta along with selective cardio protective, antihypertensive and anti-diabetic conventional medicine is safe with negligible or without any significant CYP450 (CYP1A2, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4) inhibition mediated HDI.
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Vildagliptin added to an ongoing metformin therapy allows to achieve better metabolic control parameters in comparison with a metformin monotherapy and the combination treatment is well tolerated and has a low risk of serious adverse effects.
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LSM ± SE HbA1c changes from baseline were -1.44 ± 0.09% (-15.74 ± 0.98 mmol/mol) with dulaglutide/glargine and -0.67 ± 0.09% (-7.32 ± 0.98 mmol/mol) with placebo/glargine at 28 weeks (LSM difference [95% CI]: -0.77% [-0.97%, -0.56%]; p < 0.001). Body weight reduced with dulaglutide/glargine and increased with placebo/glargine (LSM difference: -2.41 ± 0.39 kg; p < 0.001). Increases from baseline in mean glargine dose were significantly smaller with dulaglutide/glargine versus placebo/glargine (13 ± 2 U [0.1 ± 0.02 U/kg] versus 26 ± 2 U [0.3 ± 0.02 U/kg], respectively; p < 0.001; LSM ± SE final dose: dulaglutide/glargine, 51 ± 2 U; placebo/glargine, 65 ± 2 U). Hypoglycaemia rate (for ≤3.9 mmol/L threshold) was 7.69 ± 15.15 and 8.56 ± 16.13 events/patient/year, respectively (p = 0.488). One episode of severe hypoglycaemia occurred with dulaglutide/glargine. Common gastrointestinal adverse events with dulaglutide were nausea (12.0%), diarrhoea (11.3%), and vomiting (6.0%).
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Previously, we showed that high-energy metabolites (lactate and ketones) "fuel" tumor growth and experimental metastasis in an in vivo xenograft model, most likely by driving oxidative mitochondrial metabolism in breast cancer cells. To mechanistically understand how these metabolites affect tumor cell behavior, here we used genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Briefly, human breast cancer cells (MCF7) were cultured with lactate or ketones, and then subjected to transcriptional analysis (exon-array). Interestingly, our results show that treatment with these high-energy metabolites increases the transcriptional expression of gene profiles normally associated with "stemness," including genes upregulated in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Similarly, we observe that lactate and ketones promote the growth of bonafide ES cells, providing functional validation. The lactate- and ketone-induced "gene signatures" were able to predict poor clinical outcome (including recurrence and metastasis) in a cohort of human breast cancer patients. Taken together, our results are consistent with the idea that lactate and ketone utilization in cancer cells promotes the "cancer stem cell" phenotype, resulting in significant decreases in patient survival. One possible mechanism by which these high-energy metabolites might induce stemness is by increasing the pool of Acetyl-CoA, leading to increased histone acetylation, and elevated gene expression. Thus, our results mechanistically imply that clinical outcome in breast cancer could simply be determined by epigenetics and energy metabolism, rather than by the accumulation of specific "classical" gene mutations. We also suggest that high-risk cancer patients (identified by the lactate/ketone gene signatures) could be treated with new therapeutics that target oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, such as the anti-oxidant and "mitochondrial poison" metformin. Finally, we propose that this new approach to personalized cancer medicine be termed "Metabolo-Genomics," which incorporates features of both 1) cell metabolism and 2) gene transcriptional profiling. Importantly, this powerful new approach directly links cancer cell metabolism with clinical outcome, and new therapeutic strategies for inhibiting the TCA cycle and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in cancer cells.
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Prandial TI added to one or more OADs in inadequately controlled T2D is an effective treatment option. Mild, transient dry cough was the most common adverse event.
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Between 2004 and 2014, 108 diabetic patients with mRCC were treated with sunitinib. There were 52 metformin users (group 1) and 56 nonusers (group 2). The groups were balanced regarding clinicopathologic factors. Clinical benefit (partial response + stable disease) in group 1 versus 2 was 96% versus 84% (P = .054). Median PFS was 15 versus 11.5 months (P = .1). Median OS was 32 versus 21 months (P = .001). In multivariate analyses of the entire patient cohort (n = 108), factors associated with PFS were active smoking and pretreatment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio > 3. Factors associated with OS were metformin use (hazard ratio, 0.21; P < .0001), Heng risk, active smoking, liver metastases, and pretreatment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio > 3.
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We tested the correlation between diabetes and aggressiveness of colorectal polyps in diabetic patients and matched non-diabetic controls. We retrospectively studied 3,505 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients without gastrointestinal symptoms who underwent colonoscopy for colorectal cancer at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea from August 1995 to August 2009. We matched 495 non-diabetic subjects with colon polyps to the diabetic patients in whom polyps were detected by year of colonoscopy, age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Among the 3,505 T2DM patients screened, 509 were found to have 1,136 colon polyps. Those with diabetes had a greater proportion of adenomatous polyps (62.8% vs 53.6%) compared to the control. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified DM, male gender, age and BMI as independent risk factors for multiple polyps (more than three polyps). Polyp multiplicity in diabetic patients was significantly associated with male gender (OR 2.360, P = 0.005), age (OR 1.033, P = 0.005) and BMI (OR 1.077, P = 0.028). Neither aspirin nor metformin use affected either size or number of polyps in diabetic patients. Male patients older than 65 yr with T2DM and BMI greater than 25 have increased risk for multiple adenomatous polyps and should be screened with colonoscopy to prevent colorectal cancer.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the most frequent medical complication of pregnancy, is associated with several adverse outcomes over the short- and long-term for both mother and offspring. Standard treatment for GDM consists of insulin injections. Oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs), on the other hand, are still the subject of controversy. Although OHAs are seemingly as efficient as insulin and may provide better quality of life, congenital malformations and unknown long-term effects are still feared.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of human adipose tissue protein 53 (p53) in subjects who varied widely in terms of obesity and insulin resistance. We also analyzed different in vivo and in vitro models to try to comprehend the associations found in humans.
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Circulating ASAA (ELISA), subcutaneous and omental AT ASAA mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (western blotting) were significantly higher in PCOS women (P<0.05). In AT explants, glucose significantly increased ASAA production and secretion (P<0.05, P<0.01). Furthermore, ASAA production (THP-1 macrophages) was significantly greater by sera from PCOS women compared to controls (P<0.01). ASAA protein production was significantly decreased by sera from PCOS women following 6 months of metformin treatment (P<0.05). After 6 months of metformin treatment, there was a significant decrease in circulating ASAA (P<0.05). Importantly, changes in intima media thickness were predictive of changes in circulating ASAA (P=0.034).
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Chemoprevention in Barrett's esophagus is currently applied only in research settings. Identifying pathways that can be targeted by safe, pharmaceutical or natural compounds is key to expanding the scope of chemoprevention. Defining meaningful surrogate markers of cancer progression is critical to test the efficacy of chemopreventive approaches. Combinatorial chemoprevention that targets multiple components of the same pathway or parallel pathways could reduce the risk and improve the efficacy of chemoprevention. Here we discuss the role of chemoprevention as an independent or an adjuvant management option in BE-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Intensive lifestyle intervention and metformin have greater efficacy among highly educated individuals. Future efforts to deliver these treatments and study their dissemination may be more effective if tailored to individuals' educational background.