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Initial maintenance therapy with FSC provides greater improvement in asthma control and patient satisfaction than montelukast.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease and responses to therapies are highly variable. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of pulmonary function response to 3 months of treatment with salmeterol/fluticasone in patients with COPD. A total of 127 patients with stable COPD from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) Cohort, which were prospectively recruited from June 2005 to September 2009, were analyzed retrospectively. The prediction models for the FEV(1), FVC and IC/TLC changes after 3 months of treatment with salmeterol/fluticasone were constructed by using multiple, stepwise, linear regression analysis. The prediction model for the FEV(1) change after 3 months of treatment included wheezing history, pre-bronchodilator FEV(1), post-bronchodilator FEV(1) change and emphysema extent on CT (R = 0.578). The prediction models for the FVC change after 3 months of treatment included pre-bronchodilator FVC, post-bronchodilator FVC change (R = 0.533), and those of IC/ TLC change after 3 months of treatment did pre-bronchodilator IC/TLC and post-bronchodilator FEV(1) change (R = 0.401). Wheezing history, pre-bronchodilator pulmonary function, bronchodilator responsiveness, and emphysema extent may be used for predicting the pulmonary function response to 3 months of treatment with salmeterol/fluticasone in patients with COPD.
Baseline blood eosinophil levels may represent an informative marker for exacerbation reduction with ICS/LABA in patients with COPD and a history of moderate/severe exacerbations.
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The study population consisted of 20 patients with reactive airway disease and dysphonia who were receiving inhaled fluticasone therapy and who were diagnosed as having steroid inhaler laryngitis during the period from January 1998 to June 2000.
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The lower bound of 95% CIs for treatment differences in the primary variable ranged from 2.6% to 5.6% throughout the 12-week study and were within the prespecified noninferiority range. No significant between-group differences were observed in lung function, rescue medication use, response to therapy, exacerbation rates, or adverse events. At most of the weeks assessed, there were no between-group differences in asthma symptoms. Most adverse events were mild-to-moderate.
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Sixty-three stable COPD patients received pulmonary function tests and SGRQ. A correlation analysis of the results was performed. They were divided into two groups according to GOLD (global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease) classification scheme, 32 patients were in stage II (moderate) and 31 in stages III and IV (severe & very severe). And the inter-group SGRQ scores were compared. According to age, they were divided into < 70 years group (n = 31) and ≥ 70 years group (n = 32). The correlations between the SGRQ score and pulmonary functions were analyzed in different age groups. Thirty-six patients willing to participate in treatment and a 3-month follow-up were randomly divided into two groups of treatment with either salmeterol/fluticasone (50 µg/500 µg) (n = 18) or salbutamol/ipratropium bromide (120 µg/21 µg) (n = 18). The post-therapeutic changes of SGRQ score and pulmonary functions were analyzed.
A post hoc analysis of recently published results with intranasal administration using a novel bidirectional delivery device containing fluticasone propionate (Opt-FP) was performed in 109 patients with mild-to-moderate bilateral polyposis. Patients were allocated to subgroups based on summed polyp score at baseline (2, 3, or 4) and on their history of previous sinus surgery.
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We have previously shown that glucocorticoids inhibit mitogen-stimulated proliferation of human cultured airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. The present study analyzed the effect of glucocorticoids on key regulatory pathways leading to passage of cells through the restriction point of the cell cycle, including those mediated by extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and 2; the ERK upstream regulator MAPK kinase (MEK1); cyclin D1 levels; and levels and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Fluticasone propionate, a new inhaled glucocorticoid, was at least 10-fold more potent than dexamethasone in inhibiting thrombin-stimulated DNA synthesis and increases in cell number. Thrombin-stimulated increases in the levels and hyperphosphorylation of pRb were inhibited by glucocorticoids, which also reduced thrombin-stimulated cyclin D1 protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. PD98059 (10 microM), an inhibitor of MEK1 activation, markedly attenuated thrombin stimulation of ERK activity and phosphorylation, DNA synthesis, and cyclin D1 levels. However, glucocorticoids had no effect on ERK activity or phosphorylation at 5 min, 2 h, or 12 h after addition of thrombin. In conclusion, glucocorticoid-induced reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein levels, and of pRb phosphorylation, is sufficient to account for inhibition of ASM proliferation. Furthermore, these inhibitory effects of glucocorticoids on cyclin D1 and pRb occur on a component of the mitogen signaling cascade that is either downstream of or parallel to the ERK pathway.
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Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is characteristic of asthmatic airways, is induced by airway inflammation, and is reduced by inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). The time course for the onset and cessation of the effect of ICS on BHR is unclear. The effect of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) on BHR in patients with mild persistent asthma was assessed using time intervals of hours, days and weeks.
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To review currently available intranasal sprays indicated for maintenance therapy of AR in the United States: intranasal antihistamines (INAH); intranasal corticosteroids (INCS); and MP-AzeFlu, a single formulation nasal spray of the INAH, azelastine hydrochloride, and the INCS, fluticasone propionate.
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The objective of this study was to analyse inter-and intra-country quantitative and qualitative differences in anti-asthmatic prescriptions to children and adolescents.
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Due to the multiple factors affecting exhaled nitric oxide (NO) value, physicians are often puzzled by the result of a single measurement in asthmatic patients.
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This study provides no evidence to confirm previously reported associations between candidate genetic variants and ICS response (ΔFEV1) in patients with asthma. In addition, no variant satisfied the criterion for genome-wide significance in our study. Common genetic variants are therefore unlikely to prove useful as predictive biomarkers of ICS response in patients with asthma.
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A clinically important and statistically significant response to ICS was observed in mildly uncontrolled noneosinophilic asthmatic subjects.
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Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long-acting inhaled beta(2)-agonists (LABAs) are recommended treatment options for asthma.
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In vitro particle size distribution data were potentially superimposable for the RPID and the Diskus inhaler. The 2 devices were considered to be clinically equivalent in terms of mean morning PEF but were not considered equivalent in terms of PK systemic exposure. The 2 SFC 50/250 inhalers were well tolerated and had comparable safety profiles; no serious adverse events were attributed to the study product.
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TORCH was a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study conducted at 444 centres in 42 countries. Patients (n=6184; safety population) received twice daily combined salmeterol 50 microg plus fluticasone propionate 500 microg (SFC), either component alone, or placebo. Adverse events were recorded every 12 weeks for 3 years.
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Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have overlapping clinical, manometric, endoscopic and histopathologic features. The diagnosis of EE is nowadays based upon the presence of 15 or more eosinophils per high power field (eo/HPF) in esophageal biopsies. We report the cases of two young males suffering from dysphagia and recurrent food impaction with reflux esophagitis and more than 20 eo/HPF in upper-mid esophagus biopsies, both of which became asymptomatic on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. The first patient also achieved a histologic response, while EE remained in the other patient after effective PPI treatment, as shown by 24-h esophageal pH monitoring. Topical steroid therapy combined with PPI led to complete remission in this latter patient. GERD and EE may be undistinguishable, even by histology, so diagnosis of EE should only be established after a careful correlation of clinical, endoscopic and pathologic data obtained under vigorous acid suppression. These diagnostic difficulties are maximal when both diseases overlap. Limited data are available about this topic, and the interaction between EE and GERD is a matter of debate. In this setting, upper-mid esophagus step biopsies and esophageal pH monitoring of patients on PPI therapy are pivotal to evaluate the role of each disease. A PPI trial is mandatory in patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of EE; in those unresponsive to PPI treatment, EE should be suggested. However, a clinical response to PPI may not rule out quiescent EE, as shown in this report.
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The ratio of potency-adjusted mean daily dose of fluticasone propionate (FP) to beclomethasone (BDP) and dispensed volumes of FP, BDP and budesonide.
ICS are the main anti-inflammatory agent used to treat persistent asthma. When administered in low doses, they seem to be safe and effective. Patient monitoring allows for early detection of possible side effects associated with ICS.
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This cross-sectional study examined 230 prepubertal children with asthma (aged 6–11) who had intermittently used inhaled fluticasone propionate for at least 5 years at a mean daily dose of 200 μg (range: 200-350 μg). Serum osteocalcin, cortisol, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine were obtained from each participant. The control group consisted of gender- and age-matched children (n = 170) who were newly diagnosed with asthma and who were not being treated with corticosteroid.
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Multicentre, randomised, 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in stable, moderate-to-severe COPD subjects (N = 1224). Subjects were randomised to FF/VI (200/25 μg; 100/25 μg), FF (200 μg; 100 μg), VI 25 μg, or placebo, once daily in the morning. Co-primary efficacy endpoints; 0-4 h weighted mean (wm) FEV(1) on day 168, and change from baseline in trough (23-24 h post-dose) FEV(1) on day 169. The primary safety objective was adverse events (AEs).
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Glucocorticoids (GC) are the most effective anti-inflammatory drugs used in asthma. By a process called trans-activation, they increase the transcription of genes involved in either beneficial processes or certain side effects. Through trans-repression, they inhibit the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), thereby decreasing the expression of many genes encoding inflammatory mediators such as the cytokine RANTES. We have measured the trans-activation and trans-repression potencies of the five currently available inhaled GC using reporter gene assays. The rank order of trans-activation potencies in HeLa cells stably transfected with a GC-inducible luciferase gene was fluticasone propionate > budesonide and triamcinolone acetonide > beclomethasone dipropionate and flunisolide. For all GC except beclomethasone dipropionate, there was a highly significant correlation between their potency to trans-activate in HeLa cells and their capacity to induce the gluconeogenic enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC) cells. The rank order of trans-repression potencies in A549 lung cells transiently transfected with an AP-1- or NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase gene was fluticasone propionate > budesonide > beclomethasone dipropionate, triamcinolone acetonide, and flunisolide. The same rank order was found for inhibition of RANTES release. Thus, determination of trans-repression and trans-activation potencies of GC may help to predict their capacity to produce anti-inflammatory and side effects, respectively.
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In this study, we examined the effects of fluticasone propionate (FP) and pentamidine isethionate (PI) on antigen-induced lung inflammation and airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs. Male guinea pigs were sensitized on days 0 and 14 with 10 micrograms of ovalbumin (OVA) plus 1 mg of Al(OH)3. On day 21, animals were challenged with a 2% OVA aerosol inhalation until they developed pulmonary obstruction. Animals were treated with aerosol inhalation of FP (2 ml of 0.5 mg/ml, five consecutive doses at 12-hr intervals with the last dose given 6 hr before OVA challenge) or PI (30 mg/ml for 30 min 1 hr before OVA challenge), and control animals received no drug before OVA challenge. Airway reactivity to methacholine (MCh) was assessed before sensitization and 18 hr after OVA challenge. At 18 hr after challenge, histological sections of trachea and lung were examined for eosinophil, dendritic cell (DC) and macrophage cell densities in the airways. In control animals, OVA evoked airway hyperreactivity to MCh in conjunction with pulmonary eosinophilia and increases in DC prevalence in the trachea and bronchi. Treatment with FP or PI abolished the OVA-induced hyperresponsiveness and significantly reduced the OVA-induced increases in eosinophils and DCs in the airways. FP and PI had no effect on saline-treated animals. Our study indicates that both inhaled FP and inhaled PI reduce antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary inflammation in guinea pigs. The results also suggest that the DC is a target of the anti-inflammatory effects of these drugs in the airways.
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The prospective phase included 1017 patients with uncontrolled (55.7%) or partly controlled asthma (44.3%). Out of the 739 patients evaluable after 12 months, 22.2% achieved full asthma control (ACT score = 25) and 58.7% reached a good control (ACT score: 20-24). The improvement in asthma control was associated with improved QoL and reduced hospital visits. The main reasons for lack of asthma control were comorbidities, continued exposure to irritants/triggers and poor adherence to therapy. The frequency of exacerbations was lower in patients with controlled asthma.A fixed combination therapy with an inhaled corticosteroid and a long-acting β2 agonist was reported by 77.0% of patients. A better asthma control and improved QoL were achieved with extrafine beclomethasone/formoterol compared to either budesonide/formoterol or fluticasone/salmeterol.
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TDM and targeted pharmacokinetic studies should be viewed as fundamental tools in the development and clinical application of ART, to improve pharmacotherapy for people with HIV.
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Long-acting beta(2)-agonists (LABAs) are recommended in the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous studies have demonstrated that the LABA, salmeterol, improves lung function, symptoms and quality of life in patients with COPD. In this study, we have performed additional analyses of the combined data from two previous double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel studies of salmeterol (50 microg, b.i.d) in patients with COPD. The new analyses reveal that the significant improvements seen in pre-dose and 2-h post-dose forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) compared to placebo, occur early in the treatment period, and are sustained for at least 24 weeks. Moreover, improvements in peak expiratory flow rate occur as early as Day 1, and are sustained throughout the 24-week period. Additional analyses of 12-h FEV(1) data also show that salmeterol is associated with an increase in the area under the curve at Week 12 compared with Day 1, adding further support to evidence that it results in a sustained bronchodilator response, with no evidence of tolerance.
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The Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register was searched using pre-specified terms. Searches were current as of March 2005.
Inhaled adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) has an "indirect" bronchoconstrictive effect through mast cell degranulation and mediator release, whereas inhaled histamine has a "direct" effect on smooth muscle. Prolonged treatment with inhaled glucocorticosteroids attenuates airway responsiveness (AR) to AMP and histamine. We investigated the early effects of inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) therapy on AR in 3 consecutive double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover studies in steroid-naive subjects with mild asthma. In one study, each of 12 subjects received FP 1000 microg or matched placebo for 7 inhalations at 12 hourly intervals; AR to AMP and FEV(1) were measured 2 hours after the 3rd and 7th inhalations. In a second study, each of 12 subjects received FP 100, 250, or 1000 microg or matched placebo for 3 inhalations at 12 hourly intervals; AR to AMP and FEV(1) were measured 2 hours after the 1st and 3rd inhalations. In a third study, each of 8 subjects received a single inhalation of FP 1000 microg or matched placebo; AR to histamine was measured 2 hours later. In the first study, FP 1000 microg significantly attenuated AR to AMP by 2.7 and 2.5 doubling doses after 3 and 7 inhalations, respectively (P < or =.0001). In the second study, FP 100, 250, and 1000 microg significantly attenuated AR to AMP by 1.9, 2.2, and 2.7 doubling doses, respectively, after 1 inhalation and by 2.4, 2.2, and 3.2 doubling doses, respectively, after 3 inhalations (P < or =.0001); a small but significant increase in FEV(1) (>0.15 L) was observed after 3 inhalations but not after 1 inhalation of FP irrespective of dose (P < or =.05). In the third study, a single inhalation of FP 1000 microg had no effect on AR to histamine. We have demonstrated a reduction in AR to AMP but not AR to histamine within 2 hours of a single inhalation of FP. This reflects a rapid, topical anti-inflammatory action of inhaled FP by a mechanism of action that remains unknown.