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To evaluate safety and efficacy of a sequential faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and antibiotic protocol in severe and severe/complicated CDI patients who are at high risk for colectomy.
The rate of postoperative infective complication was not significantly different among the groups (6.5% group A, 6.4% group B, 3.6% group C). The duration of antibiotic therapy had no significant effect on the length of hospital stay. Complications related to antibiotic treatment were significantly more common for 5-day perioperative antibiotic group (C) compared with single dose preoperative antibiotic group (A) (P = 0.048).
Complete remission was defined as the absence of histopathologic evidence of lymphoma on endoscopic biopsy. Partial remission was defined as a reduction in endoscopic tumor stage or 50% reduction in the size of large tumors.
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To assess current primary antibiotic resistance in H. pylori strains isolated in Italy.
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Bowel preparation had no advantage for the surgical outcome but it increased the length of hospital stay.
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To investigate the effect of different S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase (CYP2C19) genotype on the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) by different rabeprazole-based triple therapy in Chinese.
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The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been reported as being lower in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) than in those without DM. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of the two H. pylori eradication regimens in patients without and with type 2 DM and to study the effect of H. pylori treatment on glycaemia control.
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SMT19969 showed potent inhibition of C. difficile (MIC90=0.125 mg/L) and was markedly more active than either metronidazole (MIC90 = 8 mg/L) or vancomycin (MIC90 = 2 mg/L). There were no differences in susceptibility to SMT19969 between different ribotypes. Fidaxomicin was typically one doubling dilution more active than SMT19969 and both agents maintained activity against isolates with reduced susceptibility to metronidazole. In addition, SMT19969 was bactericidal against the C. difficile strains tested, with reductions in viable counts to below the limit of detection by 24 h post-inoculation. Vancomycin was bacteriostatic against all three strains. Fidaxomicin was bactericidal although reduced killing was observed at concentrations <20 × MIC against C. difficile BI1 (ribotype 027) compared with other strains tested.
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Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole present challenges in maintaining optimal eradication rates. Knowledge of local antibiotic resistance and consumption pattern is important in selecting a reliable regimen. In addition, adverse effect profiles of therapeutic regimens are important and must be addressed to enhance compliance rates. Various methods of enhancing the eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have been investigated, including changing combinations or durations of established drugs, adding adjuvant drugs, or development of new molecules or agents. Bismuth-containing quadruple, sequential, concomitant, and levofloxacin-based triple therapies are replacing the long-standing standard of the triple regimen. Despite the encouraging results of these regimens, individualized approaches like treatment after antibiotics resistance test or CYP2C19 genotyping would be the mainstream of future therapy. Because scientific, economic, and technical problems make these advance therapies unfit for widespread use, future development for H. pylori therapy should be directed to overcome individualized antibiotic resistance. Although various novel regimens and additive agents have indicated favorable outcomes, more studies or validations are needed to become a mainstream H. pylori therapy.
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In this study the anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of a Chinese tea (Lung Chen tea), and two tea catechins, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were examined. The effect of Lung Chen on metronidazole resistance was also studied using the E-test.
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OBJECTIVE To investigate the scale of antimicrobial prescribing without a corresponding visit, and to compare the attributes of patients who received antimicrobials with a corresponding visit with those who did not have a visit. DESIGN Retrospective cohort. METHODS We followed up 185,010 Medicare patients for 1 year after an acute myocardial infarction. For each antimicrobial prescribed, we determined whether the patient had an inpatient, outpatient, or provider claim in the 7 days prior to the antimicrobial prescription being filled. We compared the proportions of patient characteristics for those prescriptions associated with a visit and without a visit (ie, phantom prescriptions). We also compared the rates at which different antimicrobials were prescribed without a visit. RESULTS We found that of 356,545 antimicrobial prescriptions, 14.75% had no evidence of a visit in the week prior to the prescription being filled. A higher percentage of patients without a visit were identified as white (P<.001) and female (P<.001). Patients without a visit had a higher likelihood of survival and fewer additional cardiac events (acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, stroke, all P<.001). Among the antimicrobials considered, amoxicillin, penicillin, and agents containing trimethoprim and methenamine were much more likely to be prescribed without a visit. In contrast, levofloxacin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and cefdinir were much less likely to be prescribed without a visit. CONCLUSIONS Among this cohort of patients with chronic conditions, phantom prescriptions of antimicrobials are relatively common and occurred more frequently among those patients who were relatively healthy. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:273-280.
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This is the largest case-case-control study involving vanB VRE bacteraemia. Factors associated with the development of vanB VRE bacteraemia were different to those of VSE bacteraemia.
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Sixty outpatients with persistent H. pylori infection after a standard triple therapy were enrolled in this prospective, open-label and randomised trial.
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Neurological manifestation of metronidazole toxicity include neuropathy and encephalopathy. We report a 67-year-old man with progressive painful paresthesias involving all the four limbs of 3 weeks' duration before admission. He had been treated with metronidazole and cephalosporin for 10 weeks for a hepatic abscess. Five weeks after the symptom onset, he complained of dysarthria and limb ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed signal abnormalities in the splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral dentate nuclei. A few hours after brain imaging, the patient exhibited excessive diaphoresis and fluctuation in blood pressure, which resolved within several hours after discontinuation of metronidazole. Whereas his speech returned to near normal within approximately 1 week, a burning sensation was not completely relieved, even 6 months after discharge.
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Triple therapy, combining a proton pump inhibitor with clarithromycin (C) and either amoxycillin (A) or a nitro-imidazole (I) is the standard in Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Recently, triple therapies based on ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) have emerged as an alternative. This review examines the current literature for studies directly comparing proton pump inhibitor- with RBC-based triple therapies. Seventeen studies were identified, of which three have been published as a full paper. Eradication rates in an intention-to-treat analysis ranged from 51 to 98%. No large difference in cure rates between the different regimens was demonstrated, although the RBC-I-C combination was somewhat superior. No definite conclusions could be made about the impact of metronidazole or clarithromycin resistance since only three studies performed a formal resistance analysis. No serious side-effects were reported, and dropout rates were equal for the two regimens. Both RBC- and proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapies are highly effective. If one prefers a imidazole/clarithromycin combination the evidence presented here suggests that RBC should be used instead of a proton pump inhibitor. Larger studies comparing both forms of triple therapy, using proper resistance analysis, are needed before final conclusions can be reached regarding efficacy in the setting of bacterial resistance.
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It can be concluded that a combination of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K 15M, sodium carboxy methylcellulose and NaHCO3 can be used to increase the gastric residence time of the dosage form to improve local effect of metronidazole.
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Suspicion of EPN should be entertained in diabetes mellitus patient with persistent pyuria and deteriorating condition despite adequate treatment with antibiotics.
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To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of eicosapen (E) as an antibiotic-sparing component of a triple H. pylori eradication regimen in non-ulcer dyspepsia patients in a randomized, double-blind trial.
Cefepime (Maxipime) was used in the management of 22 patients at the age of 18 to 73 years with the surgical sepsis syndrome (SAPS > 15). In 16 patients surgical sepsis was due to pancreatitis, appendititis, abdominal wound or trauma or complications after planned surgical interventions on the organs of the abdominal cavity. In the other 6 patients surgical sepsis was due to inflammatory processes in soft tissues after minor trauma. In 10 patients (group 1) cefepime was used after the pathogen verification and antibioticogram examination. In 12 patients (group 2) the antibiotic was used in the empirical therapy as the first line drug after the patients acceptance from another unit when the pathogen nature was obscure. Cefepime was administered intravenously in a dose of 2.0 g twice daily for 7 to 10 days in combination with metronidazole in a dose of 0.5 g thrice daily. After 5-6 days of the treatment the patients of group 1 were switched to the cefepime intramuscular regimen. The lethality totaled 18 per cent (4 patients). Three of them were from group 2. The patients died of progressive polyorgan insufficiency. It is characteristic that in no cases cefepime induced septic shock due to the endotoxin escape. No septicopyemia was as well observed even in the patients with verified bacteremia due to Staphylococcus aureus.
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Resident bacteria are incriminated in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated the relative roles of various enteric bacteria populations in the induction and perpetuation of experimental colitis. HLA-B27 transgenic rats received antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, or vancomycin-imipenem) in drinking water or water alone in either prevention or treatment protocols. Mice were treated similarly with metronidazole or vancomycin-imipenem before or after receiving 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Germfree transgenic rats were colonized with specific-pathogen-free enteric bacteria grown overnight either in anaerobic or aerobic atmospheres. Nontransgenic rats colonized with anaerobic bacteria served as negative controls. Although preventive metronidazole significantly attenuated colitis in transgenic rats and DSS-treated mice, it had no therapeutic benefit once colitis was established. Ciprofloxacin also partially prevented but did not treat colitis in B27 transgenic rats. In both animal models vancomycin-imipenem most effectively prevented and treated colitis. Germfree transgenic rats reconstituted with enteric bacteria grown under anaerobic conditions had more aggressive colitis than those associated with aerobic bacteria. These results suggest that a subset of resident luminal bacteria induces colitis, but that a complex interaction of commensal aerobic and anaerobic bacteria provides the constant antigenic drive for chronic immune-mediated colonic inflammation.
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To evaluate the efficacy of 14-day ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) base quadruple therapy after H. pylori treatment failure in Thai patients.
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Clostridium difficile colitis is a major complication of antibiotic therapy. Antibiotics cause a reduction in bacteria that normally reside in the colon. If an antibiotic-treated patient ingests C. difficile bacteria, this organism may proliferate in the colon because it is resistant to most antibiotics and because it does not have to compete with the normal bacteria for nutrients. If the C. difficile organism has the gene for toxin production, the toxin can produce a colitis. In addition to antibiotics, other proposed risk factors for development of C. difficile colitis include advanced age, contact with infected patients and with their health care providers, impaired immune function, suppression of gastric acid secretion by a proton pump inhibitor, and postpyloric tube feeding. Many of the risk factors become simultaneously focused on patients admitted to the hospital. The incidence of C. difficile disease has been rising, and strains have become more virulent. In some forms of the disease, the patient doesn't have diarrhea, and in such patients C. difficile can be deadly but difficult to diagnose. The standard treatment, with metronidazole or vancomycin, fails to work in up to 25% of patients with the fulminant form of colitis. Since C. difficile causes only 20% of cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a specific test is needed to diagnose this organism. Toxigenic cultureis highly specific but not available at most institutions. The tests that are available--enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and fecal cytotoxicity assay--have high false-negative rates, even in patients with severe clinical disease, creating a diagnostic dilemma. The only proven way to reduce the risk of C. difficile disease is implementation of an antibiotic management program in conjunction with enhanced infection control procedures.
Lung Chen, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin all inhibited the growth of H. pylori. The MIC90 for Lung Chen was 0. 25-0.5% (w/w) and that of epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin were 50-100 and 800-1600 microg/mL, respectively. Epigallocatechin gallate is probably the active ingredient responsible for most of the anti-H. pylori activity of Chinese tea. Lung Chen did not reverse metronidazole resistance.
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Vaginal flora, cytokine/chemokine levels, and mucosal immune cell populations collected by cervical cytobrush were analyzed in 15 HIV-infected Kenyan female sex workers, before and after BV therapy with oral metronidazole.