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To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for penciclovir (famciclovir is a prodrug of penciclovir) in adults and children and suggest an appropriate dose for children. Furthermore, to develop a limited sampling design based on sampling windows for three different paediatric age groups (1-2, 2-5 and 5-12 years) using an adequate number of subjects for future pharmacokinetic studies.
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Reactivation of chronic hepatitis B viral infection causes significant morbidity and mortality after bone marrow transplantation. Recently, nucleoside analogues, such as famciclovir, were found to have a direct suppressive effect on hepatitis B virus replication in both in vitro and in vivo studies. We have studied the effect of famciclovir on the incidence of hepatitis B virus reactivation and hepatitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
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The brief period of viral replication in recurrent herpes labialis lesions suggests shorter therapeutic regimens are a logical episodic treatment strategy.
Famciclovir is a guanine analog antiviral drug used commonly for herpes zoster. Efficacy of famciclovir treatment has been reported to be comparable to valacyclovir treatment. Both of these medications reduce the time to complete cessation of zoster-associated pain including post-herpetic neuralgia, as compared to acyclovir. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open clinical trial in order to evaluate the extent of pain relief afforded by these two antiviral drugs during the acute disease phase of herpes zoster. The study group comprised 86 immunocompetent adult patients suffering from herpes zoster, who were treated with either famciclovir or valacyclovir for 7 days. Of these, 55 patients enrolled in this study within 72 h of the onset of the rash and 31 patients after 72 h of the onset. There was a significant reduction in acute herpes zoster pain with famciclovir on day 7 and at 2-3 weeks in both of these patient groups, while with valacyclovir, there was not significant reduction in pain on day 7. Of patients aged 50 years or older, there was a significantly earlier reduction in pain with famciclovir than with valacyclovir. In addition, a significant reduction in the number of patients with pain was observed as early as days 3-4 with famciclovir treatment as compared with valacyclovir treatment. We conclude that famciclovir was superior to valacyclovir in the relief of acute pain of herpes zoster. Accordingly, famciclovir is recommended for herpes zoster patients with moderate symptoms and a visual analog scale score of under 50 mm.
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Herpes zoster (HZ), a reactivation of varicella zoster virus manifested by skin blisters and neuralgia, can lead to postherpetic neuralgia in 10-20% of affected subjects.
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Virological analysis revealed that the pre-treatment dominant HBV quasispecies in the patient had a number of non-consensus genotype B mutations which were located in the basal core promoter (BCP), polymerase, X, core and S genes. Subsequent to the instigation of antiviral therapy, the dominant drug resistant HBV which caused virological breakthrough and was associated with hepatic failure displayed a series of unique mutations particularly in the BCP (A1762T and G1764A) and in the polymerase (rtL180M, rtM204V, rtA222T and rtL336V), core (cP5T, cS26A, cV85I and cP135A), surface (sI195M and sM213I) and X (xK95Q, xN118T, xK130M and xV131I) proteins.
Herpes zoster occurs rarely in immunocompetent children and infrequently in immunocompetent young adults. However, its incidence increases with age, particularly after age 50. Reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is characterized by a rash and is generally accompanied by considerable pain, dysesthesias, and skin hypersensitivity. Chronic pain that is sometimes experienced after the rash has healed is referred to as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), the most common complication of herpes zoster. Postherpetic neuralgia is often severe and, unfortunately, refractory to most forms of treatment. The incidence of PHN also increases dramatically with increased age. More than 50% of zoster patients over 60 years old will develop PHN, which may persist for months and even years. Thus, established PHN is difficult to manage, often causing serious morbidity, depression, and high costs in terms of consumption of healthcare resources. Currently, early antiviral treatment with famciclovir has shown promise of reducing the duration of PHN.
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To demonstrate the efficacy of famciclovir, an antiviral compound that acts against HSV, varicella-zoster virus and hepatitis B virus, in a murine model of BD.
This study seeks to investigate whether LLLT could reduce the incidence of PHN.
Herpes simplex viruses are known to be among the most common disease-causing microorganisms. Their prevalence can exceed 90% depending on the socioeconomic status of the population. Since the number of immunocompromised patients has increased because of the increased incidence in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and an increase in organ transplantation, herpes virus infection may have a greater clinical significance. While treatment of otherwise healthy individuals will not usually cause any clinical problems herpes infection in an immunocompromised patient can have severe consequences. Additionally, development of viral resistance can be observed that may require alternative drugs in treatment. We present a case history of a man with a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia that was associated with a very unusual herpes simplex virus infection in the nasal vestibule. Possible causes for the development of resistance in herpes infections and the use of famciclovir and forscarnet as two therapeutic alternatives to aciclovir are discussed.
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We report two Chinese patients in whom lamivudine treatment resulted in HBsAg seroclearance. One patient received lamivudine, and another patient received 12-week famciclovir treatment followed by lamivudine. Lamivudine was maintained after HBeAg seroconversion. These two patients lost HBsAg at 24 and 27 months (ages, 23 and 19.3 years, respectively) and developed measurable titer of anti-HBs after 65 and 71 months of therapy, respectively. The liver biochemistry was normal after HBeAg seroconversion. The serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels were undetectable (<200 copies/ml) both at the time of HBeAg seroconversion and at the last follow-up. Liver biopsy of one patient showed nearly normal histology, with undetectable intrahepatic total HBV DNA and covalently closed circular DNA. In conclusion, lamivudine therapy can result in HBsAg seroclearance at an early age even though the phenomenon is rare.
Daily antiviral therapy with famciclovir and valacyclovir has been shown to be effective in reducing both symptomatic and asymptomatic reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) when compared to placebo. However, few comparative studies between the 2 antivirals have been performed.
CMV and varicella zoster virus (VZV) are significant causes of morbidity and mortality following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). However, the kinetics of reconstitution and protective potential of antiviral cell-mediated immune responses following UCBT remain poorly characterized. In this study, the reconstitution of CMV- and VZV-specific T cell responses was assessed using IFN-γ ELISPOT in 28 children who underwent UCBT to treat hematological or inherited disorders. Barely detectable in the first 3 mo posttransplantation, CMV- and VZV-specific T cell responses were observed in 30.4% and 40.3% of study subjects after 36 mo of follow-up. Four of five CMV-seropositive subjects developed detectable levels of circulating CMV DNA (DNAemia), and 5 of 17 VZV-seropositive patients experienced herpes zoster during the posttransplant period. Four CMV-seronegative subjects developed IFN-γ responses against CMV, and four subjects developed a VZV-specific IFN-γ response without clinical signs of infection. No CMV- or VZV-related events were observed in study subjects following the development of CMV- or VZV-specific responses > 150 spot-forming units/10(6) PBMCs, consistent with T cell-mediated protection. Finally, famciclovir prophylaxis did not strictly prevent the reconstitution of the VZV-specific T cell repertoire, because the frequency of T cells producing IFN-γ in response to VZV Ags reached levels consistent with protection in two nonzoster subjects. Monitoring of CMV- and VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity could inform immunocompetence and guide the initiation and cessation of antiherpetic prophylaxis in UCBT recipients.
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Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for preventing HSL in immunocompetent people.
To compare the efficacy and safety of episodic patient-initiated oral famciclovir with placebo in recurrent genital herpes.
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We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study evaluating famciclovir (500 mg 3 times daily and 1.5 g once daily) for 1 year (6 months post-treatment follow-up) in patients with chronic hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The study was conducted in 80 centers in North America, Europe, and Australia/New Zealand. A total of 417 patients with histologically documented chronic hepatitis B (histologic activity index [HAI] 9.5-11.0) received famciclovir (500 mg 3 times daily or 1.5 g once daily) or placebo. Famciclovir 500 mg 3 times daily significantly reduced HBV DNA and median HAI scores versus placebo. By week 8, median HBV DNA decreased from 1,645 to 283 MEq/mL (famciclovir 500 mg 3 times daily) and from 1,147 to 304 MEq/mL (famciclovir 1.5 g once daily), while increasing for placebo (1,617 to 1,685 MEq/mL). Median change in HBV DNA at the end of therapy was -76% (famciclovir 500 mg 3 times daily; P <.01) and -60% (famciclovir 1.5 g once daily; P =.25) versus -37% for placebo. Median change in HAI was -1.5 points (famciclovir 500 mg 3 times daily; P =.02) and -1.0 point (famciclovir 1.5 g once daily; P =.35) and zero for placebo. Fifty percent of patients receiving famciclovir 500 mg 3 times daily (P =.07) and 43% receiving 1.5 g once daily (P =.41) experienced >/=2 points improvement in HAI versus 37% for placebo. Nine percent of patients treated with famciclovir 500 mg 3 times daily underwent anti-HBeAg seroconversion with undetectable HBV DNA at end of follow-up versus 3% in the placebo group (P =.05). Famciclovir was well tolerated; the incidence of post-treatment alanine transaminase (ALT) elevations was comparable with placebo. In conclusion, famciclovir 500 mg 3 times daily gave modest suppression of viral replication, but translated into significant histologic improvement in median HAI score at 1 year.
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Several guanosine analogues, i.e. acyclovir (and its oral prodrug valaciclovir), penciclovir (in its oral prodrug form, famciclovir) and ganciclovir, are widely used for the treatment of herpesvirus [i.e. herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and type 2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and/or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)] infections. In recent years, several new guanosine analogues have been developed, including the 3-membered cyclopropylmethyl and -methenyl derivatives (A-5021 and synguanol) and the 6-membered D- and L-cyclohexenyl derivatives. The activity of the acyclic/carbocyclic guanosine analogues has been determined against a wide spectrum of viruses, including the HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, HCMV, and also human herpesviruses type 6 (HHV-6), type 7 (HHV-7) and type 8 (HHV-8), and hepatitis B virus (HBV). The new guanosine analogues (i.e. A-5021 and D- and L-cyclohexenyl G) were found to be particularly active against those viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV) that encode for a specific thymidine kinase (TK), suggesting that their antiviral activity (at least partially) depends on phosphorylation by the virus-induced TK. Marked antiviral activity was also noted with A-5021 against HHV-6 and with D- and L-cyclohexenyl G against HCMV and HBV. The antiviral activity of the acyclic/carbocyclic nucleoside analogues could be markedly potentiated by mycophenolic acid, a potent inhibitor of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase. The new carbocyclic guanosine analogues (i.e. A-5021 and D- and L-cyclohexenyl G) hold great promise, not only as antiviral agents for the treatment of herpesvirus infections, but also an antitumor agents for the combined gene therapy/chemotherapy of cancer, provided that (part of) the tumor cells have been transduced by the viral (HSV-1, VZV) TK gene.
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None of the patients had a complete biochemical response, with a near complete normalization of ALT levels being observed in 3/6 patients. There was a lack of correlation between virological and biochemical responses. None of the patients seroconverted to anti-HBs or anti-HBe. A virological clearance was observed in only two patients, whereas a moderate reduction in HBV DNA levels was present in one. HBV DNA levels were higher than levels during pretreatment in the three remaining patients. Histological improvement was only observed in one patient.
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Genital herpes is among the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases. Optimal management of genital herpes includes accurate diagnosis, antiviral therapy, and counseling of patients about complications and transmission of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Antiviral therapy offers significant palliation, and the option of episodic or suppressive treatment should be offered to all patients with genital herpes. Valacyclovir and famciclovir are two newer antiviral agents that are effective and safe for the treatment of genital herpes. Prevention strategies for sexual and perinatal transmission of HSV have not been well defined. Availability of type-specific serological tests for HSV antibodies may assist in identifying persons at risk for acquiring or transmitting HSV infection. Further research is needed to define strategies to prevent the spread of this epidemic infection.
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The amino acid ester derivatives of 6-deoxypenciclovir, 11-20, were synthesized as potential prodrugs of penciclovir, and were evaluated for their oral penciclovir bioavailability in mice and rats. Esterification of 6-deoxypenciclovir with N-carbobenzyl-oxyglycine, -L-alanine, -L-valine, -L-leucine, or -L-isoleucine (3.75equiv.) using conventional coupling method (DCC/DMAP) afforded the mono-O-ester derivatives 1-5 in 47-55% yields as a mixture of two diastereomers along with the di-O-ester derivatives 6-10 in 20-29% yields. Reductive cleavage of carbobenzyloxy (Cbz) group (10% Pd/C, 1 atmosphere of H2, room temperature in methanol) followed by subsequent treatment of the resulting free amine with methanolic HCI solution provided the mono-O-ester derivatives 11-15 as di-HCl salt in 51-98% yields and the di-O-ester derivatives 16-20 as tri-HCl salt in 65 98% yields. Of the prodrugs tested in mice and rats, 6-deoxypenciclovir O-L-valinate (13), O-L-isoleucinate (15), and O,O-di-glycinate (16) showed significantly higher urinary recovery of penciclovir compared with that of penciclovir, but those are somewhat lower than that of famciclovir.