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We investigated rivastigmine effectiveness in 84 Alzheimer outpatients, with a special focus on behavioural problems. Cognition, activities in daily living (ADL) and behaviour were assessed during 30 months. Changes in test results between 6 months and baseline were compared with a historical control cohort of Alzheimer patients (n = 69) by performing t-tests and calculation of Cohen's d and standardised response mean (SRM). During 6 months, rivastigmine showed effect on cognition (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.33, SRM = 0.78), ADL (p < 0.001, Cohen's d = -0.43, SRM = -0.54) and memory-related behaviour (p = 0.006, Cohen's d = -0.28, SRM = -0.28). Depressive behaviour worsened (p = 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.30, SRM = 0.37) and disruptive behaviour (p = 0.369, Cohen's d = -0.07, SRM = -0.09) was not effected by rivastigmine. During 30 months, a gradual decline was shown in most domains. Most RMBPC items showed stabilization during 30 months. Improvement on disruptive behaviour items and depression items was shown after 6 months of treatment in a large proportion of patients in whom behavioural problems were present at baseline. In conclusion, a huge discontinuation rate is experienced within the first half year of treatment. In the subpopulation of patients who continued rivastigmine for 6 months, it shows modest effectiveness on cognition, functionality and memory-associated behaviour compared with historical control patients. Unfortunately, disruptive behaviour is not altered by rivastigmine therapy, and depressive behaviour worsened slightly after initial treatment. During 30 months, rivastigmine showed stabilization on numerous behaviour items as measured by the RMBPC.
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The results revealed no significant improvement in any of the cognitive variables investigated following rivastigmine treatment and symptom severity scores remained unchanged over all recorded time periods.
This study demonstrates that a considerable proportion of rivastigmine-treated patients experience improvements on each of the six symptoms studied. These findings add further support to previous randomised, clinical studies showing benefit of rivastigmine in AD.
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Of 62 older patients with cognitive impairment about to undergo surgery after a hip fracture, 31 were randomly assigned to receive a rivastigmine patch from 3 days before to 7 days after the operation (Group I), and the other 31 did not receive a rivastigmine patch (Group II). The two groups were compared with regard to incidence and severity of delirium on postoperative days 2 or 3 and 7. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors associated with POD.
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A significant therapeutic effect of high-dose rivastigmine patch on ADCS-CGIC response was observed. The 13.3 mg/24 h patch was identified as a predictor of "improvement" or "improvement or no change". Patients with minimal worsening/improvement/no change after treatment initiation may be more likely to respond following long-term therapy.
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Baseline PDS scores differed significantly (P<.001) by disease severity. At Week 26, PDS declines from baseline for placebo patients were significantly different at all disease stages. Specific ADL affected were disease stage-dependent. Rivastigmine treatment (6-12 mg/day) resulted in total PDS scores being significantly improved compared with placebo at all disease stages, although the effect on individual items differed by severity.
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Protein levels of different acetylcholinesterase (AChE) splice variants were explored by a combination of immunoblot techniques, using two different antibodies, directed against the C-terminus of the AChE-R splice variant or the core domain common to all variants. Both AChE-R and AChE-S splice variants as well as several heavier AChE complexes were detected in brain homogenates from the parietal cortex of patients with or without Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients, compatible with the assumption that CSF AChEs might originate from CNS neurons. Long-term changes in the composition of CSF AChE variants were further pursued in AD patients treated with rivastigmine (n = 11) or tacrine (n = 17) in comparison to untreated AD patients (n = 5). In untreated patients, AChE-R was markedly reduced as compared with the baseline level (37%), whereas the medium size AChE-S complex was increased by 32%. Intriguingly, tacrine produced a general and profound up-regulation of all detected AChE variants (up to 117%), whereas rivastigmine treatment caused a mild and selective up-regulation of AChE-R ( approximately 10%, p < 0.05). Moreover, the change in the ratio of AChE-R to AChE-S (R/S-ratio) strongly and positively correlated with sustained cognition at 12 months (p < 0.0001). Thus, evaluation of changes in the composition of CSF AChE variants may yield important information referring to the therapeutic efficacy and/or development of drug tolerance in AD patients treated with anti-cholinesterases.
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The objective of this article is to present safety and tolerability data from the long-term extension phase of a core study conducted in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who were immediately switched to rivastigmine.
Patients were randomly assigned to rivastigmine 3-12 mg/day or donepezil 5-10 mg/day. Efficacy measures comprised assessments of cognition, activities of daily living, global functioning and behavioural symptoms. Safety and tolerability assessments included adverse events and measurement of vital signs.
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In a previous short-term study, rivastigmine has shown a mild effect in ameliorating cognitive impairment and slowing motor deterioration in patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term efficacy of rivastigmine on motor and cognitive impairment in HD patients.
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A systematic review of the literature reveals few randomized, controlled trials for drug therapy in frontotemporal degeneration (FTD). Although there is evidence to support a serotonergic deficit, and clinicians frequently prescribe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to patients with FTD, only paroxetine and trazodone have been studied. There is Class II evidence for use of rivastigmine in FTD behavioral disturbances, although there is no consistent evidence of cholinergic deficit in this illness.
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Excellent correlation was established for between Cmax and AUC0-24h for rivastigmine and NAP226-90. AUC0-24h predictions of either rivastigmine or NAP226-90 were within 0.8- to 1.25-fold difference. The RMSE in the AUC0-24h predictions ranged from 17.6% to 21.9%, and the R for prediction were greater than 0.96 for both rivastigmine and NAP226-90. Use of mixed model for C8h, C12h, and C18h resulted in AUC0-24h within 1.5-fold difference for rivastigmine or NAP226-90.
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Centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEls) improve cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other forms of dementia. Evaluation of treatment efficacy is based mainly on subjective assessment tools which includes standardized neuropsychological tests. Therefore, an additional objective tool for the evaluation of drug response is necessary. Thirty two patients were treated with ChEls for dementia (tacrine 19, donepezil 5, rivastigmine 8). Cognitive response was assessed before ChEls (baseline) and after 26 weeks, as optimal tolerated doses were achieved and maintained (endpoint). Evaluation included repeated measurements of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), ADAS-cog and P300. For statistical analysis we used ANOVA with repeated measures and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results demonstrated improvement of mean ADAS-cog by 2.0 points (from 29.4 to 27.4 p = 0.08) while MMSE remained almost unchanged (20.1 to 19.8). Mean P300 latency reduced significantly by 24 msec (from 383 msec to 359 msec, p = 0.0001) thus reflecting the clinical improvement. However mean amplitudes did not change from baseline to endpoint (13 microvolts). Significant correlation was found between mean ADAS-cog and mean P300 latency at baseline and end-point (R = 0.452 p = 0.014, R = 0.567 p = 0.001 respectively). Strong correlation was found between mean MMSE and P300 latency at Baseline (R = -0.335 p = 0.07), and significant correlation was found at endpoint (R = -0.613 p < 0.001). Our data suggests that P300 is a reliable instrument for assessment of cognitive response to ChEls in demented patients.
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Data was obtained from open label trials of donepezil and galantamine and a placebo controlled randomized trial of rivastigmine in DLB. Changes in Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III) scores were compared between the three treatments at 12 and 20 weeks.
Main pharmacovigilance updates are reviewed. Rosiglitazone and sibutramine have been suspended due to cardiovascular risks. The safety profile of H1N1 vaccines is similar to the established profile of seasonal influenza vaccines. Paroxetine reduces the benefit of tamoxifen. The use of serotoninergic antidepressants in pregnancy is still disputed. The risk of venous thromboembolism could be higher with oral combined contraceptives containing drospirenone compared to those containing levonorgestrel. Prolonged QT and PR intervals have been observed with saquinavir. The correct use of transdermal patches is reviewed with the example of rivastigmine. Aseptic meningitis is a rare adverse reaction of lamotrigine. An increased risk of fractures after long term use of proton pump inhibitors is suspected.
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To sustain the effect of rivastigmine, a hydrophilic cholinesterase inhibitor, nanobased formulations were prepared. The efficacy of the prepared rivastigmine liposomes (RLs) in comparison to rivastigmine solution (RS) was assessed in an aluminium chloride (AlCl(3))-induced Alzheimer's model.
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The risk of UI is higher in AD cohort (hazard ratio: 1.54, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.09). The cumulative incidence ratio of UI event between AD cohort and matched cohort presents statistical significance ( P < .001). Annual incidence and prevalence of UI in patients with AD are 6.2% and 4.2%, respectively.
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Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia seen in the clinical practice. The principal risk factor is aging. There is not currently any available curative medication. However, there a family of drugs call the cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezile, galantamine and rivastigmine) the enhances cholinergic activity in the CNS. Also, memantine is available is a NMDA receptor modulator. A new transdermal way of administration is available now for rivastigmine. The rivastigmines patches are now a rational alternative focusing in getting more tolerance, better blood levels of the drug and compliance to treatment in Alzheimer's disease patients.
It has been shown that, during several years preceding the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease there is a gradual cognitive decline with a continuum between the pre-dementia stage (still known as the prodromal stage but now included within the general concept of mild cognitive impairment [MCI]) and the other stages of the disease. In MCI, the use of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) is not associated with any delay in the onset of Alzheimer's disease or dementia. During the dementia stages, the three ChEIs (donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine) are efficacious for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease; therefore, monotherapy with a ChEI can be envisaged as initial treatment. Confirmation of the efficacy of ChEIs in the mild dementia stage is essentially based on the results from a single, randomized study carried out specifically among patients at this stage of severity. Memantine can represent an alternative to ChEIs in the moderate stage of Alzheimer's disease. At the severe stage of the disease, memantine and donepezil are currently indicated. Indeed, memantine has been approved by numerous drug regulatory agencies for use in severe stages of the disease, whereas donepezil has only been approved by the US FDA. There is currently insufficient evidence for recommending combination therapy in Alzheimer's disease.
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Patients (aged ≥18 years) who were diagnosed with delirium were enrolled from six intensive care units in the Netherlands, and treated between November, 2008, and January, 2010. Patients were randomised (1:1 ratio) to receive an increasing dose of rivastigmine or placebo, starting at 0·75 mL (1·5 mg rivastigmine) twice daily and increasing in increments to 3 mL (6 mg rivastigmine) twice daily from day 10 onwards, as an adjunct to usual care based on haloperidol. The trial pharmacist generated the randomisation sequence by computer, and consecutively numbered bottles of the study drug according to this sequence to conceal allocation. The primary outcome was the duration of delirium during hospital admission. Analysis was by intention to treat. Duration of delirium was censored for patients who died or were discharged from hospital while delirious. Patients, medical staff, and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Members of the data safety and monitoring board (DSMB) were unmasked and did interim analyses every 3 months. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00704301.
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The goal of this study was to estimate the efficacy and safety of the rivastigmine transdermal patch in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) who cannot tolerate or do not respond to oral cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs).
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There is discussion about the effect of cholinesterase inhibitors (CERs) on weight of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given the adverse outcomes of weight loss in AD patients, it is important to establish the effect of CERs on weight. This study aimed tot assess the long-term effect of galantamine on weight of AD patients.
In two patients, men aged 80 and 75 years with cognitive deterioration, hallucinations and parkinsonism, the clinical diagnosis 'dementia with Lewy bodies' was established. Treatment with an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone and olanzapine respectively, resulted in an exacerbation of the parkinsonism. Rivastigmine evidently improved the psychosis, the anxiety and the cognitive, mood and behaviour disorders. Titrated treatment with levodopa improved the mobility without an increase of the psychosis. The treatment of dementia with Lewy bodies is complex. Levodopa can lead to an increase in visual hallucinations. Antipsychotics often cause serious side effects, such as increasing parkinsonism, sedation and cognitive deterioration. Cholinesterase inhibitors such as rivastigmine could possibly provide an alternative treatment for the neuropsychiatric symptoms.
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Nutritional status is one of the factors that affects disease progression, morbidity and mortality in elderly patients with dementia. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AchEI) therapy on nutritional status and food intake in the elderly.
This was a 26-week open-label extension (OLE) of a prospective, 26-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study conducted in the United States from October 2003 to January 2005. Patients had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease according to DSM-IV-TR and National Institute of Neurologic and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria. Safety and tolerability of rivastigmine were monitored through monthly telephone contacts. At week 52, patients or caregivers were contacted by telephone to evaluate the patient's well-being.
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One year longitudinal and retrospective comparison study of neuropsychological performances in 59 subjects affected by Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) according to Petersen's criteria. Fifteen subjects were randomised to receive TNP plus cholinesterase inhibitors; 22 subjects cholinesterase inhibitors alone and 22 subjects no treatment. All the subjects referring memory complaints, corroborated by an informant, underwent a multidimensional assessment concerning neuropsychological, behavioural and functional characteristics, at baseline and after one year follow-up.
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RECAP (Real-world Evaluation of Compliance And Preference in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease) was a 24-week, multicenter, prospective, noninterventional study. Two treatment cohorts were observed during the study: oral (cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine) and transdermal (rivastigmine patch). Caregiver preference, physician preference, and patient compliance were evaluated at week 24.
Neurospecific acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in normal rabbits and might have additional neuroprotective effects. This study was set out to explore and compare the toxicity of two selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, rivastigmine and donepezil, on two standardized cell lines of epithelial origin. Chang and Vero cells were incubated with various concentrations of rivastigmine or donepezil. Acute toxicity (4 h) was assessed by monitoring the permeability of cells to propidium iodide. Chronic toxicity (7 days) was determined by monitoring the effect of the two drugs on esterase activity and cell proliferation. The viability of cells was also assessed morphologically by microscopic inspection. Signs of acute toxicity became manifest at a rivastigmine concentration of 50 mg/ml in both Chang and Vero cells. Indications of chronic toxicity became obvious at concentrations of as low as 1 x 10(-5) mg/ml. In contrast, degenerative morphological changes became manifest only at a concentration of as high as 1 mg/ml. In donepezil-treated cells, acute toxicity was not observed in the concentration range tested, whereas chronic toxicity was detected at 1 x 10(-1) mg/ml in both Chang and Vero cells, a concentration at which degenerative morphological changes became evident as well. In contrast to rivastigmine, donepezil elicited no signs of acute or chronic toxicity in either Chang or Vero cells at the IOP-lowering concentration of 1 x 10(-4) mg/ml. At this dose, the drug is therefore unlikely to evoke deleterious effects on ocular surface tissues in the clinical setting.