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Eulexin (Flutamide)
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Eulexin

Eulexin is a medication which belongs to a class of drugs known as antiandrogens. Eulexin is used along with drugs such as leuprolide. Eulexin blocks the effect of the male hormone testosterone. Taking Eulexin with leuprolide, which reduces the body's testosterone levels, you can treat prostate cancer.

Other names for this medication:

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Proscar, Avodart, Casodex, Cenestin, Eligard, Estrace, Lupron, Nilandron, Xtandi

 

Also known as:  Flutamide.

Description

Eulexin is a medication belongs to a class of drugs known as antiandrogens.

Eulexin is used along with drugs such as leuprolide to treat prostate cancer.

Eulexin blocks the effect of the male hormone testosterone. Giving Eulexin with leuprolide, which reduces the body's testosterone levels, you can treat prostate cancer.

Generic name of Eulexin is Flutamid.

Brand name of Eulexin is Eulexin.

Dosage

Take Eulexin orally.

Eulexin is best taken at evenly spaced intervals, and may be taken with or without food.

Eulexin daily dosage is 750 mg.

The recommended dosage of Eulexin: 2 capsules 3 times a day at 8-hour intervals.

This medicine is only for men.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Eulexin suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Eulexin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of overdosage: loss of appetite, vomiting, slow breathing, decreased activity, trouble walking.

Storage

Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Eulexin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Eulexin if you are allergic to Eulexin components.

Be careful with Eulexin if you have blood disorders, liver problems.

Be careful with Eulexin if you smoke.

Be careful with Eulexin if you take mibefradil, warfarin, sleep medicine, sedatives, tranquilizers, anti-anxiety drugs, narcotic pain relievers (e.g., codeine), psychiatric medicine, anti-seizure drugs, muscle relaxants, certain antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine).

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid driving machine.

Avoid exposuring to sunlight or artificial UV rays (sunlamps or tanning beds).

Avoid laboratory tests (e.g., liver function) are needed while taking Eulexin.

Do not stop taking Eulexin suddenly.

eulexin cost

Equol at two doses of 100 and 250mg/kgbodyweight(BW)/day was orally gavaged for 5days to groups of 4-month-old male rats. As a positive anti-androgenic control group, animals received 100mg of pure anti-androgenic drug flutamide/kgBW/day. Circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones and lipids, and expression levels of genes underlying HPTA function were determined by radioimmunoassay and TaqMan® real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively.

eulexin dose

The cardiovascular effect of estrogen is currently under intense investigation, but the role of androgens in vascular biology has attracted little attention. Because endothelial repair and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation affect atherogenesis, we analyzed the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and sex hormone antagonists on DNA synthesis in human umbilical VSMCs and in E304 cells (a human umbilical endothelial cell line). In VSMCs, both E2 and DHT had a biphasic effect on [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA: low concentrations (0.3 nmol/L for E2, 3 nmol/L for DHT) stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation (+35% and +41%, respectively), whereas high concentrations (30 nmol/L for E2, 300 nmol/L for DHT) inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation (-40%). In contrast, E2 (0.3 to 300 nmol/L) and DHT (3 to 3000 nmol/L) dose-dependently enhanced [3H]thymidine incorporation in E304 cells (peak, +85% for both). In VSMCs, high concentrations of E2 and DHT inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-or insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-induced DNA synthesis (-50% to 80%), whereas PDGF- or IGF-1-dependent DNA synthesis in E304 cells was further increased by E2. The antiestrogens tamoxifen and raloxifene mimicked the effects of E2 on DNA synthesis in both VSMCs and E304 cells. However, when coincubated with a stimulatory concentration of E2 (0.3 nmol/L), tamoxifen and raloxifene blocked E2-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation in E304 cells but not in VSMCs. Finally, the androgen antagonist flutamide inhibited the biphasic effects of DHT on VSMCs and blocked the increase in DNA elicited by DHT in E304 cells. The results suggest complex, dose-dependent, and cell-specific interactions of estrogens, androgens, and their respective antagonists in the control of cellular proliferation in the vascular wall. Gonadal steroid-dependent inhibition of VSMC proliferation and stimulation of endothelial replication may contribute to vascular protection and remodeling responses to vascular injury.

eulexin medication

To study the pharmacokinetics of 2-hydroxyflutamide (HF), a major active metabolite of flutamide (Flu), in normal and CCl4-poisoned rats.

eulexin 500 mg

Flutamide (FLT) has poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability.

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The actions of androgens in both peripheral and central tissues are linked in part to their ability to specifically bind and activate androgen receptors (ARs). ARs have been well studied in the rat hypothalamus and peripheral reproductive tissues, where they are directly involved in endocrine feedback mechanisms and reproduction. Previous studies revealed relatively high levels of AR and AR messenger RNA (mRNA) in the rat hippocampus; however, the action of androgen in this brain region remains unclear. To begin to address this issue, we used a multidisciplinary approach to quantitate hippocampal AR and AR mRNA levels and investigate their regulation after various hormonal manipulations. In vitro binding assays revealed a single, saturable, high affinity binding site for androgen in hippocampal cytosols. The expression of AR mRNA in the intact adult male rat hypothalamus and hippocampus was demonstrated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and quantified using a ribonuclease protection assay. Comparable levels of AR mRNA were found in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In addition, in situ hybridization analysis revealed a unique distribution of AR mRNA in the hippocampus. AR mRNA was found predominately in the CA1 pyramidal cells, which form the major signal output of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of total RNA from microdissected hippocampal regions confirmed this distribution. Ribonuclease protection assay demonstrated a significant decrease in the AR mRNA content of the hippocampus in animals killed 4 days after castration or in intact rats after four daily injections of the AR antagonist, flutamide (15 mg/animal), compared to that in intact controls (P < 0.01). In contrast, a 35% increase (P < 0.05) in the hippocampal AR mRNA content was found in old (22-month-old) compared to young (5-month-old) male rats. In both cases, [3H]dihydrotestosterone binding to the cytosolic preparation did not parallel the changes observed in the AR mRNA content. Taken together, these data demonstrate that hippocampal cells containing AR can respond to circulating androgen to alter AR gene expression. Furthermore, AR mRNA autoregulation appears to be both age and tissue specific and does not directly follow the regulatory patterns described for other steroid hormone receptors found in the hippocampus.

eulexin 50 mg

To determine whether testes modulate LH secretion through nonandrogenic factors, serum concentrations of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured in adult male rats at different times after orchidectomy or treatment with ethylene dimethane sulfonate (EDS), a specific toxin for Leydig cells. The destruction of Leydig cells in EDS-treated males was confirmed by histological studies and the absence of a response to hCG stimulation. FSH and LH responses were lower in EDS-treated than in orchidectomized males despite the fact that plasma testosterone levels were undetectable, and ventral prostates were similarly atrophied in both experimental groups. When male rats treated with EDS were also injected with the antiandrogen flutamide or the antiestrogen tamoxifen, differences from castrated males remained significant. In addition, orchidectomized and EDS-treated males with similar serum concentrations of testosterone after implantation of Silastic capsules containing the androgen showed also different serum LH concentrations. These data strongly suggest that a non-Leydig factor(s) was involved in the control of LH secretion. FSH and LH responses to orchidectomy or EDS treatment were also analysed in old male rats (20-22 months) and males with damage of Sertoli cell function induced by neonatal injection with estradiol or GnRH antagonist. We found that in these experimental groups, LH secretion was similar after castration or EDS treatment. We conclude that a non-Leydig cell factor(s) controlled LH secretion and that this control mechanism does not exist in old males or males neonatally injected with estradiol or GnRH antagonist.

eulexin dosage

With a median follow-up of 88 months, 5 patients (25%) continued on finasteride and flutamide, and 12 had stopped this combination and subsequently underwent medical or surgical castration. No patients experienced a flutamide withdrawal effect. All patients experienced more than a 50% decline in prostate-specific antigen after castration (mean 89%). The median protocol treatment failure-free survival was 29.9 months, the median castration-free survival was 37 months, and the median AIPC-free survival was 48.6 months. At 5 years, the overall survival rate was 65% (95% confidence interval 47% to 90%); 29% were alive and have not required castration, and 35% were alive and free of AIPC.

eulexin 250 mg

Brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is emerging as an important player in airway inflammation, remodeling, and hyperreactivity. Separately, there is increasing evidence that sex hormones contribute to pathophysiology in the lung. BDNF and sex steroid signaling are thought to be intricately linked in the brain. There is currently little information on BDNF and sex steroid interactions in the airway but is relevant to understanding growth factor signaling in the context of asthma in men versus women. In this study, we assessed the effect of sex steroids on BDNF expression and secretion in human airway smooth muscle (ASM). Human ASM was treated with estrogen (E2 ) or testosterone (T, 10 nM each) and intracellular BDNF and secreted BDNF measured. E2 and T significantly reduced secretion of BDNF; effects prevented by estrogen and androgen receptor inhibitor, ICI 182,780 (1 μM), and flutamide (10 μM), respectively. Interestingly, no significant changes were observed in intracellular BDNF mRNA or protein expression. High affinity BDNF receptor, TrkB, was not altered by E2 or T. E2 (but not T) significantly increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels. Notably, Epac1 and Epac2 expression were significantly reduced by E2 and T. Furthermore, SNARE complex protein SNAP25 was decreased. Overall, these novel data suggest that physiologically relevant concentrations of E2 or T inhibit BDNF secretion in human ASM, suggesting a potential interaction of sex steroids with BDNF in the airway that is different from brain. The relevance of sex steroid-BDNF interactions may lie in their overall contribution to airway diseases such as asthma.

eulexin 125 mg

The purpose of this work is to synthesize a pregnane derivative with a high antiandrogenic effect or a high inhibitory activity for the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase type 2. Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer are androgen dependent diseases which afflict a large percentage of the male population. Dihydrotestosterone 3, a 5 alpha-reductase metabolite of testosterone 2 has been implicated as a causative factor in the progression of these diseases, largely through the clinical evaluation of males who are genetically deficient of steroid 5 alpha-reductase enzyme. As a result of this study, the inhibition of this enzyme has become a pharmacological strategy for the design and synthesis of new drugs. The advent of finasteride 22 "figure 5" a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, has greatly alleviated the symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. On the other hand, the discovery of cyproterone acetate 4 "figure 2" alone or in combination with the antiandrogens flutamide 14 "figure 3" or bicalutamide 21 has greatly reduced the misery of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer kills about 40,000 men in the USA and approximately 400,000 prostatectomies are performed each year. In our laboratory we have recently synthesized ten new progesterone derivatives 17 alpha-acyloyloxy-6-halo (chloro, bromo) 16 beta-methyl-4, 6-pregnadiene-3, 20-diones (54a-54e and 55a-55e), "figure 10". These steroids were evaluated as antiandrogens and exhibited a much higher activity than the commercially available cyproterone acetate 4. The same compounds were also evaluated as 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors and showed a slightly higher inhibitory activity than that of finasteride 22, the drug of choice today for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia In another study we synthesized several new 4-halo (bromo and chloro) 17 alpha-benzoyloxy and also 4-halo-17 alpha-acetoxy progesterone derivatives (58-63) "figure 13". These compounds were prepared from the commercially available 17 alpha-acetoxy progesterone 56. The pharmacological evaluation of these steroids "figure 14" indicated that the 17 alpha-benzoyloxy derivatives (4-chloro and bromo) 62 and 63 were very potent antiandrogens. On the other hand, the 4-halo (bromo and chloro) 17 alpha-acetoxy (58, 59) and the 17 alpha-benzoyloxy-4-chloro analog 63 showed a very high inhibitory activity for the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase type 2 "figure 15".

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Treatment with high (0.4 mg x kg x week) but not low (0.1 mg x kg x week) doses of estradiol for 10 weeks significantly decreased the number of apoptotic acinar cells stained with an anti-single strand DNA antibody, histologic scores, and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity in 20-week-old WBN/Kob rats, in comparison with control values. The high doses also significantly attenuated the increase in pancreatic hydroxyproline content, an indicator of collagen deposition, at 20 weeks. They caused significant decreases in the numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells infiltrating the pancreas. Both doses suppressed levels of testosterone but without any influence on the serum corticosterone concentrations. Androgen receptors could not be immunohistochemically identified in the pancreas at 20 weeks, and dietary treatment with flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, did not influence the chronic pancreatitis. Estradiol significantly reduced 1% phytohemagglutinin-induced incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into the splenocytes in vitro.

eulexin capsules

Prostate carcinoma therapy with combined androgen blockade may result in high bone-turnover with significant bone loss. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antiosteoporotic efficacy of intravenous pamidronate in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

eulexin cost

This case highlights the use of bilateral adrenalectomy as a treatment option for female infertility in a patient with classic CAH and difficult-to-control hyperandrogenism secondary to adrenal nodular hyperplasia. Outstanding quality-of-life, disease control and fertility were achieved.

eulexin dose

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) administration on male reproductive organ development in F1 Sprague-Dawley rats following in utero exposure. During gestation days (GD) 10-19, pregnant rats were administered daily, orally, DBP at 250, 500, or 700 mg/kg or flutamide (1, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg/d) as a positive control. The male offspring were sacrificed at 31 d of age. DBP and flutamide dose-dependently significantly increased the incidence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism in F1 male offspring. The weights of testes and accessory sex organs (epididymides, seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles (LABC), and Cowper's glands) were significantly reduced in DBP-treated animals. Furthermore, cauda agenesis of epididymides and ventral prostate atrophy were observed in high-dose 700-mg/kg DBP males. Anogenital distance (AGD) and levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone were significantly decreased in the DBP (700 mg/kg/d)-treated groups. In particular, the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and 5α-reductase type 2 in the proximal penis was markedly depressed following administration of DBP (700 mg/kg/d) or flutamide (25 mg/kg/d). The expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the urethral epithelium of the proximal penis was significantly less in the DBP (700 mg/kg/d)- or flutamide (25 mg/kg/d)-treated groups. In addition, DBP dose-dependently significantly increased the expression of estrogen receptor (ER α) in the undescended testis. Data demonstrated that in utero exposure to DBP produced several abnormal responses in male reproductive organs, and these effects may be due to disruption of the stage-specific expression of genes related to androgen-dependent organs development.

eulexin medication

To evaluate the effect of discontinuation of the antiandrogen, flutamide, in patients with metastatic prostate cancer who are progressing on hormonal therapy.

eulexin 500 mg

To evaluate the relationship between antiandrogen withdrawal and change in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) when the antiandrogen in question is other than flutamide.

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Hyperandrogenemia is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome raising the possibility that androgen receptor signaling pathway plays an important role in the development and progression of β-cell dysfunction. Testosterone is the major circulating androgen in women. In this study, we investigated the effect of testosterone on INS-1 cells to find whether excess androgen could produce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress thereby contributing to β-cell dysfunction. The role of testosterone in INS-1 cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and electron microscopy. Expression of BIP, ATF4, and CHOP were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Testosterone/AR could not only initiate cell apoptosis but also induce the activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) cascades in INS-1 cells. Treatment of ER stress inhibitor or flutamide (AR inhibitor) could inhibit testosterone-induced cell apoptosis and CHOP expression. These results suggest that testosterone/AR pathway caused INS-1 cell apoptosis was at least in part through eIF2α/CHOP cascades.

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After a learning experience accomplished by one round of examination and feedback, LH-RH effect could be correctly distinguished from poor tumor differentiation in greater than 90% of cases by 83% of the participants. A small percentage of cases confounded complete consensus, although every case was correctly identified by most participants.

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Combination therapy with the antiandrogen flutamide and the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist [D-Trp6, des-Gly-NH2(10)] LHRH ethylamide or orchiectomy was administered to 268 patients with previously untreated metastatic stage D2 prostate cancer for an average of 1,191 d (3.26 y). Only 17 of the 268 evaluable patients (6.5%) showed no objective positive response to the combination therapy assessed according to the National Prostatic Cancer Project objective criteria of response. The median duration of the disease-free response was 2.23 y and median overall survival was 3.58 y. The median survival for patients with only 1-5 bone metastases was not yet reached at 8 y, but for patients with 6-10 bone lesions, 11-40 bone lesions, and multiple bone metastases (superscan), median survival was markedly reduced to 3.56, 2.36, and 1.76 y, respectively. Analysis of patients according to general symptomatology, pain, and performance status showed median survivals of 5.47, 2.71, and 2.1 y for minimal, moderate, and severe symptoms, respectively. The present data demonstrate that administration of combination therapy to stage D2 prostate cancer patients having 1-5 bone metastases adds a minimum of 4.4 y of good quality life compared with patients whose disease is slightly more advanced. Our findings clearly demonstrate the major importance of starting combination therapy as soon as possible after diagnosis of metastatic prostatic cancer.

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We evaluated the applicability of combining in vitro bioassays with instrument analyses to identify potential endocrine disrupting pollutants in sulfuric acid-treated extracts of liver and/or blubber of high trophic-level animals. Dioxin-like and androgen receptor (AR) antagonistic activities were observed in Baikal seals, common cormorants, raccoon dogs, and finless porpoises by using a panel of rat and human cell-based chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (CALUX) reporter gene bioassays. On the other hand, no activity was detected in estrogen receptor α (ERα)-, glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-, progesterone receptor (PR)-, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2)-CALUX assays with the sample amount applied. All individual samples (n = 66) showed dioxin-like activity, with values ranging from 21 to 5500 pg CALUX-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (TEQ)/g-lipid. Because dioxins are expected to be strong contributors to CALUX-TEQs, the median theoretical contribution of dioxins calculated from the result of chemical analysis to the experimental CALUX-TEQs was estimated to explain up to 130% for all the tested samples (n = 54). Baikal seal extracts (n = 31), but not other extracts, induced AR antagonistic activities that were 8-150 μg CALUX-flutamide equivalent (FluEQ)/g-lipid. p,p'-DDE was identified as an important causative compound for the activity, and its median theoretical contribution to the experimental CALUX-FluEQs was 59% for the tested Baikal seal tissues (n = 25). Our results demonstrate that combining in vitro CALUX assays with instrument analysis is useful for identifying persistent organic pollutant-like compounds in the tissue of wild animals on the basis of in vitro endocrine disruption toxicity.

eulexin 125 mg

For patients with stage D2 prostate cancer and disease progression or an increasing PSA concentration, withdrawal of antiandrogen therapy with bicalutamide or flutamide may result in a PSA response. The time to PSA response is longer with bicalutamide than with flutamide. The clinical significance of the antiandrogen withdrawal phenomenon is unknown.

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(i) A high leukocyte count is already present in girls with hyperinsulinaemic hyperandrogenism, and this is due to a raised neutrophil count; (ii) this hyperneutrophilia is attenuated by metformin or flutamide-metformin, and is amplified by OC monotherapy; (iii) if these treatments are combined, the normalizing effect of flutamide-metformin overcomes the OC effect on neutrophil count.

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A 75-year-old man had prostatic carcinoma and was treated with flutamide for 1-1/2 years. He presented with a several months history of blisters on the back of the hands and fingers, occurring after sun exposures. The bullae were associated with skin fragility and atrophic scarring. Histopathological examination and direct immunofluorescence showed ultrastructural features close to those described in porphyria cutanea tarda. Quantitative analysis of porphyrins in urine and laboratory blood tests were normal. Flutamide was stopped, leading to healing of the lesions, with no relapse after 11 months.

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There can be seen many investigations to examine the effects and benefits of total androgen blockade (TAB), combining an antiandrogen with surgical castration or a LH-RH analogue, for advanced prostate cancer. This review summarizes the concept, theory, method and clinical application of TAB. The concept of TAB was supported by reports that show a survival advantage using the combined blockade over LH-RH analogue alone. The theory of TAB proposes that suppression of all androgen production, adrenal and testicular androgen, should result in a better response than standard hormonal management such as castration and/or estrogens. In Japan, Chlormadinone acetate (100 mg twice daily) or Flutamide (375 mg three times daily) is orally administered and Leuprorelin acetate (3.75 mg every 4 weeks) or Goserelin acetate (3.6 mg every 4 weeks) is administered by hypodermic injection. There have been unresolved controversies surrounding this therapeutic modality, therefore future studies should help to define the role of TAB.

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eulexin 250 mg 2015-12-19

Possible reasons for this failure to detect DDE are discussed, and it is concluded that the modified assay is unsuitable for use in its present form. The use of gene buy eulexin expression analyses together with evaluation of SAT weights is a promising tool as an early and sensitive marker of antiandrogen action, but more work is needed on the choice of time frame as well as the selection of genes to monitor.

eulexin dose 2017-09-08

This study combined a randomized, controlled, double-blind buy eulexin protocol with laboratory-based cell culture experiments.

eulexin 500 mg 2015-11-27

Seventy-nine subjects were assessed. Serum testosterone concentrations decreased by 79.7% +/- 3.0% (P <0.001). Weight increased by 1.8% +/- 0.5% (P <0.001). The percentage fat mass buy eulexin increased by 11.0% +/- 1.7%, and the percentage lean mass decreased by 3.8% +/- 0.6% (P <0.001 for each comparison).

eulexin drug 2015-12-20

A 3-month course of CAD does not appear to have a significant effect on alpha1A-AR mRNA expression in the human prostate. buy eulexin

eulexin cost 2017-12-02

Case series of reports, submitted to the Adverse Drug Event Reporting buy eulexin System of the Food and Drug Administration.

eulexin tablets 2016-11-17

We conducted a cross-sectional survey to measure health-related quality of life in a cohort of 113 patients with metastatic prostate cancer, 60 in remission and 53 buy eulexin with disease progression, using a battery of questionnaires, including the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey SF-36, and a prostate cancer-specific module.

eulexin dosage 2015-02-18

To evaluate whether transient androgen deprivation improves outcome in patients irradiated after radical prostatectomy for locally advanced disease, persistent or buy eulexin rising postoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA), or local recurrence.

eulexin capsules 2016-11-25

Several presentations by attendees of the 11th International Prostate Cancer Update addressed recent advances in prostate cancer treatment. A study that examined whether a relationship exists between neuroendocrine (NE) cell differentiation and hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) concluded that the appearance of NE cells in prostatic carcinoma is an important phenomenon in the development of HRPC. Exisuland, a selective apoptotic antineoplastic drug, was compared to placebo in a recent study and was found to significantly inhibit the increase of prostate-specific antigen in patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy. A new dosing regimen for flutamide (500 mg daily) was found to have no significant differences from the currently recommended dose (250 mg every 8 hours); the new, single buy eulexin daily dose could meet with greater compliance and would reduce drug cost by 30%. The antiproliferative effect of vitamin D on prostatic carcinoma cells was discussed, along with the possible role of vitamin D supplementation during prostate cancer treatment. Finally, a presentation on hospice care acknowledged that referral for such care is unfortunately at times delayed by physicians, patients, and patients' families, leaving insufficient time for all the benefits of that stage of care to be realized.

eulexin medication 2015-11-04

Overall, the price of a total of 23 drugs belonging to 6 different categories available in 52 different formulations were analysed. Among alkylating agents, oxaliplatin (50mg; injection) showed the maximum price variation of 125.02%. In anti-metabolites, methotrexate (2.5mg; tablet) showed the maximum price variation of 75.30%. The maximum price variation among natural products was seen with paclitaxel (260 mg; injection) of 146.98%, among hormonal drugs, was seen with flutamide (250mg; tablet) of 714.24%, among targeted drugs was seen with imatinib mesylate (100mg; film coated tablet) of 5.56% and among supportive drugs, granisetron (1mg; tablet) showed the maximum price variation of buy eulexin 388.68%.

eulexin 125 mg 2016-01-29

In mammals, exposure to androgens early in development is essential for masculinization of the male reproductive phenotype. Male fetuses exposed to antiandrogens during perinatal life are permanently demasculinized in their morphology and physiology, whereas exposure to exogenous androgens permanently masculinizes females. In some litter-bearing species, proximity(italic) in utero(/italic) of females to males can partially masculinize female siblings and alter their responsiveness to endocrine-disrupting compounds. However, in our strain of rat (CD-SD Charles River), intrauterine position does not significantly influence testosterone concentrations and anogenital distance of fetuses. In comparison, administration of testosterone propionate to pregnant females, at doses that doubled fetal female testosterone levels, did masculinize the reproductive system. Discovery of androgen-active chemicals in the environment has placed increased emphasis on describing the reproductive and behavioral effects of both natural and environmental androgens and antiandrogens. Recently, the effects of an antiandrogen, vinclozolin, on the brain and behavior were cited as a special concern by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in its risk assessment of this pesticide. In rats, one such behavior that is perinatally organized by androgens is social play. Males play more than females, and administration of exogenous androgens during the neonatal period alters the juvenile expression of this sexually dimorphic behavior. Vinclozolin is an androgen receptor antagonist that inhibits androgen-dependent tissue growth in vivo. We were interested in whether developmental exposure to vinclozolin could also alter androgen-dependent behaviors such as play. Neonatal male rats were injected on postnatal days (PNDs) 2 and 3 with corn oil, the pharmacologic antiandrogen flutamide (50 mg/kg), or vinclozolin (200 mg/kg). On PNDs 36-37 animals were observed for social play. buy eulexin Behaviors associated with general social activity such as sniffing and dorsal contact were unaffected by treatment. However, play behavior in males treated with flutamide or vinclozolin was significantly reduced, resembling levels of play characteristic of females rather than untreated males. Therefore, this study demonstrates that perinatal exposure to vinclozolin, an environmental antiandrogen, can alter androgen-dependent play behavior in the male rat.

eulexin 50 mg 2015-09-01

The relative contribution of androgenic and estrogenic metabolites of testosterone to the activation of sexual behavior was studied in Japanese quail by using inhibitors of testosterone metabolism, antiestrogens and antiandrogens. These compounds were tested in castrated birds whose sexual behavior had been activated by silastic implants of testosterone (T) or daily injections of testosterone propionate (TP) or diethylstilboestrol (DES). The aromatase inhibitor ATD only depressed T-induced behavior when injected at high doses and the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, 4MA was inactive in this respect. The antiestrogens, tamoxifen (TAM) and nitromifene citrate (CI-628) strongly depressed sexual behavior but they also drastically reduced the crowing behavior which is typically androgen-dependent which throws some doubts buy eulexin on the specificity of their action. The antiandrogens, flutamide and cyproterone acetate (CA), only had limited inhibitory effects on the copulatory behavior but similarly decreased only marginally the crowing. As they strongly depressed the cloacal gland growth, it can be ascertained that they were injected in sufficient amounts and their lack of action on crowing questions the ability of these compounds to inhibit brain processes even when they are androgen-dependent. Taken together with the results of previous experiments which tested the behavioral effects of the testosterone metabolites, the present data confirm the implication of both androgenic and estrogenic metabolites of testosterone in the activation of behavior. Their interaction remains, however, poorly defined and its understanding will probably require the identification of the biochemical processes which in the brain mediate the behavior.

eulexin 250 mg 2015-10-22

Consecutive men undergoing radical prostatectomy for histologically confirmed prostate cancer were analyzed. HER-2 expression in the primary tumor was assessed buy eulexin using the HercepTest®, CPCs were identified from blood samples using standard immunocytochemistry with anti-PSA and positive samples with the HercepTest® to determine HER-2 expression. The influence of HER-2 expression on the frequency of biochemical failure and effects of androgen blockade was determined.

eulexin dose 2016-01-22

Mild-to-severe increase of circulating AST/ALT was detected in 19 (9.4%; 95% CI = 5.9%-14.4%) patients during the first year of treatment (mild = 16 [7.9%, 95% CI = 4.7%-12.7%], moderate = 2 [0.9%, 95% CI = 0.1%-3.9%], severe = 1 [0.5%, 95% CI = 0.0%-3.1%]). No buy eulexin statistical differences were observed in relation to flutamide dose regimens and coadministration of OC. The median time to hypertransaminasemia was 12 weeks (range: 2-48) with no difference between Group A and Group B. A significant correlation was observed between hepatotoxicity and pretreatment BMI, ALT basal level, and AST basal level.

eulexin 500 mg 2015-06-18

Acetanilide and flutamide were eluted at 1.8 and 2.9 min, respectively. The linearity of method was confirmed in the range of buy eulexin 62.5-16000 ng/ml (r(2) > 0.99). The limit of quantification was shown to be 62.5 ng/ml. Precision and accuracy ranges found to be (0.2-1.4%, 90-105%) and (0.2-5.3 %, 86.7-98.5 %) respectively. Acetanilide and flutamide capacity factor values of 1.35 and 2.87, tailing factor values of 1.24 and 1.07 and resolution values of 1.8 and 3.22 were obtained in accordance with ICH guidelines.

eulexin drug 2017-06-30

We have studied effects of four model EDCs (vinclozolin, flutamide, ketoconazole and dicofol) on D. magna using (i) an acute 48 h immobilization assay, (ii) a sub-chronic, 4-6 day assay evaluating development and the sex ratio of neonates, and (iii) Diamox 250 Dosage a chronic, 21 day assay studying number of neonates, sex of neonates, molting frequency, day of maturation and the growth of maternal organisms.

eulexin cost 2016-10-29

Under low-serum conditions, 3-d exposure to androgens or IGF-1 or both resulted in no significant increase in cellular myogenic commitment. After 7-d exposure, however, T and IGF-1 were both found to increase fusion index with no observable Diflucan Normal Dose synergistic effect. T also increased IGF-1 mRNA generation (P < 0.0001), whereas exogenous IGF-1 (P < 0.001) reduced IGF-1 mRNA transcription relative to control. The T effect was reversible after treatment with flutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist.

eulexin tablets 2016-02-20

Flutamide is an antiandrogen used for the treatment of prostatic carcinoma. Its principal side-effect is represented by liver toxicity. Cutaneous side-effects of flutamide are uncommon; three cases of photo-allergic dermatitis have been described, and we report with our observation, the third Singulair 5 Mg case of cutaneous pseudoporphyria induced by flutamide.

eulexin dosage 2016-07-19

Human esophageal carcinomas occur more frequently in males, suggesting that androgens may play a role in the regulation of gene expression associated with malignant transformation. We previously established an androgen-sensitive squamous cell carcinoma line, KSE-1, from a male patient with esophageal cancer; recently a novel isoform of human fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8f, isoform FGF8b) was identified and expressed following androgen stimulation of KSE-1 cells. The predicted amino acid sequence of FGF8f contained an additional 29 amino acids when compared to FGF8b. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist, inhibited both FGF8b and FGF8f transcription in a dose-dependent manner. Tissue analysis Detrol Renal Dose from tumors revealed FGF8b expression in 24 of 41 male, but in 0 of 9 female esophageal carcinomas (58.5%), and none in adjacent normal esophageal mucosa. In addition, FGF8f was detected in 9 of 24 FGF8b-positive tumors (37.5%), and this observation was significantly associated with a poor prognosis (P < 0.001). Our observations suggest that androgenic exposure will induce FGF isoforms in tumor cells, and expression of these growth factors is associated with the prevalence and prognosis of esophageal carcinoma in males.

eulexin capsules 2017-04-07

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) administration on male reproductive organ development in F1 Sprague-Dawley rats following in utero exposure. During gestation days (GD) 10-19, pregnant rats were administered daily, orally, DBP at 250, 500, or 700 mg/kg or flutamide (1, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg/d) as a positive control. The male offspring were sacrificed at 31 d of age. DBP and flutamide dose-dependently significantly increased the incidence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism in F1 male offspring. The weights of testes and accessory sex organs (epididymides, seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscles (LABC), and Cowper's glands) were significantly reduced in DBP-treated animals. Furthermore, cauda agenesis of epididymides and ventral prostate atrophy were observed in high-dose 700-mg/kg DBP males. Anogenital distance ( Imodium Capsules AGD) and levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone were significantly decreased in the DBP (700 mg/kg/d)-treated groups. In particular, the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and 5α-reductase type 2 in the proximal penis was markedly depressed following administration of DBP (700 mg/kg/d) or flutamide (25 mg/kg/d). The expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the urethral epithelium of the proximal penis was significantly less in the DBP (700 mg/kg/d)- or flutamide (25 mg/kg/d)-treated groups. In addition, DBP dose-dependently significantly increased the expression of estrogen receptor (ER α) in the undescended testis. Data demonstrated that in utero exposure to DBP produced several abnormal responses in male reproductive organs, and these effects may be due to disruption of the stage-specific expression of genes related to androgen-dependent organs development.

eulexin medication 2016-07-18

Many men who show evidence of a progression of prostate cancer by rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or other symptoms are treated with anti-androgens. Anti-androgen withdrawal represents the first line of treatment after failure of hormonal manipulation. Flutamide is an approved anti-androgen that has been incorporated in many of the combined androgen blockade studies. Bicalutamide is also a nonsteroidal anti-androgen that offers the advantages of reduced dosage amounts and reduction in side effects. Additionally, there are a variety of therapeutic agents that can suppress adrenal secretion of androgens. The most promising of these agents include aminoglutethamide, ketoconazole, and corticosteroids, with an expected response rate of 10% to 15%. Studies have shown that some patients may respond to an anti-estrogen such as tamoxifen. There are a variety of therapeutic treatment options available for patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer. However, quality-of Coumadin Replacement Drug -life issues are becoming increasingly important and should be incorporated into clinical trial endpoints.

eulexin 125 mg 2016-05-13

Sources included Ovid Medline, OVID EMBASE, OVID Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, and CINAHL from inception through April Zetia 10mg Tab 2011.

eulexin 50 mg 2017-06-29

The aim of this study was to determine the immunolocalization and expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in the pig placenta and umbilical cord during pregnancy following exposure to flutamide, a non-steroidal antiandrogen, at its various stages. Pregnant pigs were injected with flutamide at a daily dose of 50mg/kg body weight at different stages of pregnancy: from day 83-89 (n=2); from day 101-107 (n=2). They were sacrificed and tissues collected one day after the last injection. Control animals, two for each experimental point, were injected only with the vehicle (corn oil). Collected tissue samples were fixed for immunohistochemistry or frozen for protein isolation Minipress Medicine . AR protein was detected in the nucleus of trophoblast cells forming the structure of ridges and in maternal endothelial cells, which are involved in the placental barrier formation. It was also localized in the nuclei of cells forming umbilical cord components: allantoic duct epithelium, amniotic epithelium, Wharton's jelly and the muscular layer of the umbilical cord vein and arteries. Relative optical density analysis showed increased expression in the material derived from animals treated with flutamide. The presence of AR in the placental barrier and in the umbilical cord components suggests a role of androgen in those temporary organs. Flutamide could impact on the levels of the AR protein in the reproductive tracts during pregnancy in sows.

eulexin 250 mg 2015-10-06

The most common form of hormonal treatment for prostate cancer is luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-agonist therapy. During the first 1 to 3 weeks of LHRH-agonist therapy, an initial increase in testosterone is associated with a condition known as "flare." Blockade of flare can be accomplished with a number of agents, including flutamide, bicalutamide, nilutamide, diethylstilbestrol, ketoconazole, and cyproterone acetate. Evidence from the early use of LHRHagonists suggested that flare could be serious in nature, with an exacerbation of pain, increase in uremia, development of neurologic sequelae, and possibly death. These events have been uncommonly reported of late, most probably owing to the use of flare blockade in most patients with advanced disease, as well as the fact that many patients are currently being treated with much earlier disease. Evidence is conflicting as to whether flare makes a difference in less advanced disease. A few reports have noted complications during flare in patients in whom a blockade of flare was not required, including two deaths from Paxil Xr Dosage one institution. Reported series, however, seem to suggest that with flare blockade, acute complications are extremely uncommon. Evidence suggests that 1) advanced disease should be blocked; 2) blockade should probably include an antiandrogen beginning about 1 week prior to administration of the LHRH-agonist; and 3) that patients without advanced disease but with very high PSA levels should be considered for flare blockade.

eulexin dose 2015-04-01

To compare in a randomized clinical trial the therapeutic Duricef Reviews efficacy of the nonsteroidal antiandrogen flutamide 250 mg tid to testicular androgen suppression by orchidectomy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

eulexin 500 mg 2017-03-24

Plasma levels of androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol glucuronide (3 alpha-diol-G) and androsterone glucuronide (ADT-G) have been found to be effective markers of C-19 steroid metabolism in periphery in man. The present study has been performed in order to study in castrated patients the effect of antiandrogen administered alone or in combination with aminoglutethimide (AG) on the metabolism of adrenal C-19 steroid. Lanoxin 150 Mg Ten castrated patients with prostatic cancer received flutamide (FLU) alone for 2 months and, afterwards, the combined therapy of FLU and AG for 2 months. Antiandrogen treatment alone reduces the levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), dehydroepiandrosterone glucuronide (DHEA-G) and androstenedione (4-ene-dione) by 43, 34 and 38% (P less than or equal to 0.01) respectively while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol (5-ene-diol) and androst-5-ene-3 beta,17 beta-diol-glucuronide (5-ene-diol-G) levels show a nonsignificant inhibition. In these patients, plasma 3 alpha-diol-G and ADT-G concentrations are nonsignificantly stimulated to 122 and 143%. Moreover, when patients were receiving the combined administration of FLU and AG, adrenal C-19 steroids were further inhibited while both 3 alpha-diol-G and ADT-G show a small but nonsignificant decrease. Our data indicate that the antiandrogen increases the formation and/or the metabolism of adrenal C-19 steroids into steroid glucuronides.

eulexin drug 2015-11-23

The antiandrogenic drug, flutamide (Odyne), is widely used in the treatment of carcinoma of prostate. It is well known that flutamide has adverse effects of liver disorders. To ascertain the risk of liver disorders before administering this drug, past history and lifestyle preferences were resurveyed in 123 patients who had been treated with flutamide. The results obtained were assessed in relation to the occurrence of liver disorders by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The incidence of liver disorders was 26% (33/123), with 64% of the disorders occurring within 9 months. The chi-square test for dependent variables revealed that three variables, i.e., body mass index, past history of liver disorders and elevated glutamic-pyruvic transaminase levels were significantly related to the incidence of liver disorders (p > 0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that a history of liver disorders and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were related to a higher incidence of liver disorders. Elevated ALT levels were associated with a higher incidence of liver disorders and smoking was related to a lower incidence of the liver disorders.