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Elavil

Elavil is the medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of depression. Elavil is acting by increasing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain that are needed to maintain mental balance. It is tricyclic antidepressant.

Other names for this medication:

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Also known as:  Amitriptyline.

Description

Elavil target is the treatment of depression. Elavil is acting by increasing the amounts of certain natural substances in the brain that are needed to maintain mental balance. It is tricyclic antidepressant.

Generic name of Elavil is Amitriptyline.

Elavil is also known as Amitriptyline, Amitryptyline, Amidon, Amitryn, Tryptanol, Endep, Elatrol, Tryptizol, Trepiline, Laroxyl, Saroten, Triptyl, Amitrip.

Brand names of Elavil are Elavil, Endep, Vanatrip.

Dosage

Take Elavil tablets orally with water, with or without food.

Take Elavil for one to four times a day at the same time.

The treatment can be resulting after 4 weeks.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Elavil suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Elavil and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Elavil overdosage: seizures, loss of consciousness for a period of time, seeing things or hearing voices that do not exist, agitation, feeling drowsy, rigid muscles, vomiting, high temperature, cold body temperature, problems concentrating, abnormal heartbeats, confusion.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Elavil are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Elavil if you are allergic to Elavil components.

Do not take Elavil if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful with Elavil if you suffer from or have a history of a history of heart attack, stroke, bipolar disorder (manic-depression), schizophrenia or other mental illness, diabetes, overactive thyroid, glaucoma, problems with urination, heart disease, seizures.

Be careful with Elavil if you are taking guanethidine (Ismelin), disulfiram (Antabuse), heart rhythm medications such as flecainide (Tambocor), propafenone (Rhythmol), quinidine (Cardioquin, Quinidex, Quinaglute), cimetidine (Tagamet).

Avoid alcohol.

Be careful! Taking Elavil you can become suicidal.

Be careful when you are driving or operating machinery.

Be careful with Elavil if you are going to have a surgery.

It can be dangerous to stop Elavil taking suddenly.

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Electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation has been found to influence the brain (norepinephrine metabolism in experimental animals). Preliminary clinical research has shown that EA treatment is as effective as amitriptyline for patients with depression. In this study, two consecutive clinical studies on the treatment of depression with EA are conducted. The first study was double blind placebo controlled, in which 29 depressed inpatients were recruited. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: EA + placebo; amitriptyline; and EA + amitriptyline. They received EA and/or amitriptyline treatment for 6 weeks. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Clinical Global Impression and ASBERG scales for the side effect of antidepressants were used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and side effects. Based on the results and research protocol of the first study, a multi-centered collaborative study was conducted, in which 241 inpatients with depression were recruited. Patients were randomly divided into two treatment groups: the EA + placebo and the amitriptyline groups. The results from both studies showed that the therapeutic efficacy of EA was equal to that of amitriptyline for depressive disorders (P > 0.05). Electro-acupuncture had a better therapeutic effect for anxiety somatization and cognitive process disturbance of depressed patients than amitriptyline (P < 0.05). Moreover, the side effects of EA were much less than that of amitriptyline (P < 0.001). The article suggested that EA treatment was an effective therapeutic method for depressive disorders. Particularly, it was a treatment of choice for depressed patients who were unable to comply with the classic tricyclic antidepressants because of their anticholinergic side effects. The possible mechanism of EA treatment is discussed.

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PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressants for treatment of both adult (nonelderly) MDD (patients aged < 65 years) and late-life MDD (patients aged ≥ 55 years). The search was limited to articles published between January 1, 1980, and March 3, 2010 (inclusive). The year 1980 was used as a cutoff in our search to decrease diagnostic variability, since the DSM-III was introduced in 1980. Our search cross-referenced the term placebo with each of the following antidepressants: amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, clomipramine, trimipramine, protriptyline, dothiepin, doxepin, lofepramine, amoxapine, maprotiline, amineptine, nomifensine, bupropion, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, isocarboxazid, moclobemide, brofaromine, fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, zimelidine, tianeptine, trazodone, nefazodone, agomelatine, venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, milnacipran, reboxetine, mirtazapine, and mianserin. We also reviewed the reference lists of all studies identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE search.

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We studied the inhibition of peroxidation by local anesthetics in an inflammatory animal model. Inflammatory lipid peroxidation was assessed by the thiobarbituric assay in plasma from rats injected or not injected with carrageenan (Carra) and killed 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h thereafter. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in inflammatory animals were maximal 6 h after Carra administration. This result, in accordance with the evolution of paw edema width during time, supports that TBARS reflect the intensity of inflammation. Local anesthetics (bupivacaine, lidocaine, ropivacaine, or bupivacaine-loaded microspheres) or amitriptyline were injected in clinically relevant concentrations as a sciatic nerve block or intraperitoneally in inflamed animals. Ropivacaine did not exhibit any protective effect on Carra-induced lipid peroxidation in rats. With all the other drugs administered as a sciatic nerve block, the maximal TBARS increase was not observed at 6 h. Our conclusion is that bupivacaine (plain or encapsulated), lidocaine, and amitriptyline in clinically relevant concentrations administered via the sciatic nerve showed antioxidant properties toward lipid peroxidation induced by Carra inflammation. Intraperitoneal injection of those drugs gave the same effect as nerve block; this result suggests that their mechanism of action is not strictly limited to the nerve. IMPLICATIONS. We investigated the antioxidant effects of local anesthetics and amitriptyline in an inflammatory rat model. Amitriptyline exhibits antioxidant properties per se, whereas lidocaine and bupivacaine (plain or encapsulated) seem to inhibit the peroxidation process. This may have future application in limiting toxic oxygen metabolite production during the inflammatory process.

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The method is effective, simple, reliable and can be used in the determination of doxepin in whole blood.

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An analytical procedure for the subcellular fractionation of rat brain cortex is presented; it consists of a two-step procedure involving a differential centrifugation using the five-fraction scheme and an isopycnic centrifugation in continuous sucrose gradients. All fractions obtained were analyzed for their content of various constituents, such as receptor binding, uptake, and several marker enzymes. Special attention was paid to the subcellular distribution of the serotonin S2 receptors; they were mainly recovered in the microsomal P fraction, but a significant amount was also associated with the mitochondrial (M and L) fractions. After equilibration in density gradients, serotonin S2 receptors revealed two peaks, which were similarly affected after treatment with amitriptyline and/or yohimbine. There is no evidence to suggest that serotonin S2 receptors are associated with nerve endings containing the neurotransmitter serotonin. Although three main profiles, a microsomal, a mitochondrial, and a mixed one, clearly appear from the differential centrifugation, subgroups of these main profiles were also found. For instance, the microsomal distribution patterns of serotonin S2 receptors and 5'-nucleotidase are very similar, but differ from that of UDP-galactosyltransferase. Similarly, the mitochondrial profiles of cytochrome oxidase and 5-HT (serotonin) uptake are different. An analytical approach for brain fractionation, when performed with appropriate measurements (cytochrome oxidase, amine uptake, 5'-nucleotidase, and receptor binding), is rapid and clearly differentiates pre- and postsynaptic constituents.

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In the past 10 years, great strides have been made in the field of feline analgesia. A better understanding of the cat's unique metabolism has led researchers to realize that extrapolation across species boundaries is unwise,and this has resulted in feline-specific studies. The opioids are now used more commonly in cats, with good analgesic effect and few side effects. Excellent acute pain management is achievable in cats by using opioids, NSAIDs, alpha2-agonists, and local anesthetics. Although much of the research data has compared the use of single drugs, a multimodal approach using agents that work at different parts of the pain pathway is commonly used in clinical settings, with added benefit. Compared with dogs, few pain-scoring systems have been developed for cats, and this remains an important goal. Management of chronic pain in cats is a challenge because of the potential problems with long-term NSAID use; however, reports of low doses given at extended intervals are encouraging. As we gain experience with less traditional analgesics, such as amitriptyline, amantadine, and gabapentin, and critically evaluate complimentary therapies, our ability to provide comfort to this population of cats will improve.

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NP after definitive surgery for OS is frequently encountered, can persist for a significant time, and NP outcomes are similar in limb sparing and amputation groups.

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A prospective, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled study was initiated at two centres. Patients with vulvar vestibulitis were assigned to apply cromolyn or placebo cream to the vestibule. Symptoms (burning, irritation) and signs (erythema, extent of erythema, tenderness) were recorded on a 0-3 scale. In the sexually active patient subgroup, dyspareunia was also evaluated.

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Considering depression as a condition that damages physical, mental and social wellbeing, in the individual as well as in the community, research was made in the evolution of symptoms of depressive syndromes of 33 subjects, when treated with amytryptiline compounds. Treatment was begun with 25 mg daily and increased to 150 mg; doses were divided to avoid somnolence, and maintained for 8 to 14 weeks. Depressive syndromes showed improvement in 100% of cases, with resolution of clinical depression in 80%.

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Depression is a common and treatable condition among nursing facility residents, with low body weight being a frequent concomitant concern. A common prescribing dictum is that older tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) enhance appetite and may facilitate weight gain, while newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) cause anorexia and resultant weight loss in older adults. Evidence is lacking on whether the small weight changes noted during short-term antidepressant efficacy trials translate into larger weight changes during prolonged treatment periods. Our main objective was to compare weight outcomes at 6 months among users of three different antidepressant groups with a control group of non-antidepressant users. A secondary objective was to determine whether antidepressant selection was associated with weight pattern before drug initiation, to capture possible prescribing bias that would affect study inferences.

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It is well established that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, characterized by elevated circulating cortisol concentrations and impaired negative feedback inhibition, is associated with affective disorders. As normalization of the HPA axis function and mood-stabilizing effects occur simultaneously during antidepressant treatment, it is likely that these effects are either directly or indirectly dependent. Although data concerning the outward transport of glucocorticoids from the brain by P-glycoprotein (Pgp) are inconsistent, it has been hypothesized that antidepressants exert their clinical activity in parts by inhibiting Pgp, subsequently leading to enhanced brain glucocorticoid levels and the normalization of the HPA axis function. Here, we report on the effects of different antidepressants (amitriptyline, fluoxetine, mirtazapine, St John's wort extract) on the brain/plasma distribution of corticosterone in mice after acute and subchronic treatment. The four antidepressants exerted different effects on the corticosterone concentration in brain and plasma. Changes in corticosterone levels were highly correlated, suggesting passive diffusion between both tissues. St John's wort extract and fluoxetine elevated brain and plasma corticosterone concentrations after subchronic treatment. Mirtazapine and amitriptyline had no effect on corticosterone concentration after subchronic treatment, possibly because both are also potent antagonists at the 5-HT2 receptor, which mediates HPA axis stimulation by serotonergic stimuli. In addition, St John's wort is the only antidepressant tested which slightly elevated Pgp protein level in the brain.

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Women formed 2/3 of each group, the mean age in both groups being similar. Psychological symptoms were noted in the majority of both groups, but South Asians presented more physical complaints than the White group (67.5% compared to 22%, Chi squared=18.86, P=0.00001). The South Asian group were significantly more likely to be prescribed amitriptyline at doses of 75 mg or less than the White group (Fisher exact 2 tailed test, P=0.008), had significantly shorter median durations of antidepressant treatment (60 days, compared with 160 days for the White group, Mann Whitney test P=0.005). No differences were found between the groups in their continuity of care.

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Preliminary reports suggested that the addition of lithium carbonate to the regimen of patients treated with, but not responding to, a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) drug can induce a rapid alleviation of depression. We examined the effect of lithium carbonate addition in 39 patients with unipolar depression whose conditions were not improved by at least three weeks' TCA drug administration. In 30 of 42 observations, lithium carbonate brought about a greater than 50% improvement within 48 hours. In a second study, the effects of lithium carbonate addition were compared in five amitriptyline hydrochloride-pretreated and five placebo-pretreated patients who showed no improvement after a three-week treatment. All five patients receiving amitriptyline showed a greater than 50% improvement 48 hours after lithium carbonate addition, whereas only one patient in the placebo group showed a marked response. In a third study the effect of lithium carbonate withdrawal was studied in nine TCA-resistant patients who had shown a marked improvement 48 hours after lithium addition. Only five of these patients had a relapse five days after lithium discontinuation. Since animal studies have shown that TCA drugs sensitize forebrain neurons to serotonin and that lithium enhances the activity of serotonin-containing neurons, we propose that the antidepressant effect of lithium addition in TCA-resistant patients might be mediated by enhancing serotonin neurotransmission.

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A significant positive correlation was observed between the plasma amitriptyline concentration and road-tracking performance (r = 0.543, P < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the plasma amitriptyline concentration and other driving performance, cognitive functions, and subjective somnolence.

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Chiropractic was more beneficial than placebo in reducing pain and more beneficial than either placebo or muscle relaxants in reducing GIS.

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Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a standard form. Responders to treatment were calculated on an intention-to-treat basis: drop-outs were always included in this analysis. When data on drop-outs were carried forward and included in the efficacy evaluation, they were analysed according to the primary studies; when dropouts were excluded from any assessment in the primary studies, they were considered as treatment failures. Scores from continuous outcomes were analysed including patients with a final assessment or with the last observation carried forward. Tolerability data were analysed by calculating the proportion of patients who failed to complete the study and who experienced adverse reactions out of the total number of randomised patients. The primary analyses used a fixed effects approach, and presented Peto Odds Ratio (PetoOR) and Standardised Mean Difference (SMD).

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Extensive global use of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor Amitriptyline (AMI) for treatment of mental health problems has led to its common occurrence in the aquatic environment. To assess AMI bioconcentration factors, tissue distribution, and metabolite formation in fish, we exposed gilt-head bream (Sparus aurata) to AMI in seawater for 7 days at two concentrations (0.2 μg/L and 10 μg/L). Day 7 proportional bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 6 (10 μg/L dose, muscle) to 127 (0.2 μg/L dose, brain) and were consistently larger at the low dose level. The relative tissue distribution of AMI was consistent at both doses, with concentrations decreasing in the order brain ≈ gill > liver > plasma > bile ≫ muscle. Using a suspect screening workflow based on liquid chromatography-high resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry we identified 33 AMI metabolites (both Phase I and Phase II), occurring mostly in bile, liver and plasma. Ten structures are reported for the first time. Remarkably, all 33 metabolites retained the tricyclic ring structure common to tricyclic antidepressants, which may be toxicologically relevant. Collectively these data indicate that, in addition to AMI, a broad suite of metabolites should be included in biomonitoring campaigns in order to fully characterize exposure in aquatic wildlife.

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Fifty-eight actively psychotic inpatients who initially met criteria for long-standing schizophrenia and subsequently met Research Diagnostic Criteria for a current episode of schizoaffective disorder (mainly schizophrenic) with a depressive syndrome, and who scored at least 30 (mean = 55, SEM = 1.6) on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and 17 (mean = 23, SEM = 0.7) on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, were treated for 5 weeks with haloperidol hydrochloride and benztropine. Haloperidol and benztropine treatment was continued, while those patients who consistently scored greater than 17 on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression were randomly assigned to the following double-blind treatment groups for 4 weeks: adjunctive amitriptyline hydrochloride, desipramine hydrochloride, or placebo. Adjunctive desipramine or amitriptyline showed no significant therapeutic advantage, when compared with haloperidol and placebo, on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale or the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. After 4 weeks of combine therapy, patients receiving adjunctive amitriptyline or desipramine, as compared with those receiving adjunctive placebo, tended to score higher on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale hallucinatory behavior item and on the thinking disturbance factor than patients receiving placebo. These results suggest that adjunctive antidepressants are not indicated for the treatment of depressive symptoms in actively psychotic schizophrenic inpatients. Adjunctive antidepressants may retard the rate of resolution of psychosis in this population.

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Disruption of normal neuronal networks and neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine levels in post traumatic brain injury (TBI) are observed to be the primary causative agent for depression/anxiety. This communication reports the efficacy of various classes' anti-depressants in the treatment of depression/anxiety following TBI in rats. Chronic treatment with anti-depressants (escitalopram and venlafaxine) leads to improvement in the depressive/anxiogenic-like behaviour in the TBI rat and corroborates the notion of the involvement of serotonin and norepinephrine in the behavioural consequences of post-TBI. Chronic treatments with escitalopram and venlafaxine significantly reversed the effect of TBI as compared to vehicle-treated TBI group. The results showed a quantitative battery of neuro-behavioural functional assessments that correlates with neuronal damage following traumatic brain injury.

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We conducted a series of definitive systematic reviews and meta-analyses of RCTs. Claims data from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Wan Fang, and Cochrane Library databases were used. We also reviewed articles and reference lists of relevant articles pertaining to human subjects published prior to March 26, 2016. No language restrictions were imposed. Two authors independently reviewed the titles and abstracts of the retrieved studies, which were matched using Review Manager 5.3 software. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The outcome data were the number of subjects whose symptoms declined, measured by cough or Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) score. Random effect meta-analyses were used to pool the findings. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots.

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The relationship between delayed gastric emptying and symptom pattern in gastroparesis and, related to it, its separation from functional dyspepsia remains an area of controversy and uncertainty. Pathophysiological studies have focused on the role of pyloric resistance and duodenal motility in generation of symptoms. In diabetic patients, glycemic control did not determine short-term changes in gastric emptying rate in type 2 diabetes, but poor glycemic control was a major risk factor for long-term development of gastroparesis in type 1 diabetes. At the cellular level, diabetic gastroparesis is characterized by loss of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs), and this is inversely correlated to the number of CD206+ macrophages, which are thought to have a protective effect on ICCs. Treatment trials have focused on dietary factors and a nasal spray formulation of metoclopramide. A meta-analysis of prokinetic studies found no association between symptom improvement and enhancement of gastric emptying in gastroparesis. Two controlled studies showed no benefit of tricyclic antidepressants (nortriptyline, amitriptyline) in idiopathic gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia with delayed emptying.

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The majority of those affected were adolescent Caucasian females. Subjects with chronic nausea had a more severe presentation with daily 88% (vs 26%) and constant 60% (vs 10%) nausea (P < .001), one-half with peak morning intensity. In the chronic nausea group, 62% had migraines, and 71% (vs 22%) had familial migraines (P < .001), 36% had postural tachycardia syndrome and 27% cyclic vomiting syndrome. Both groups suffered comorbid symptoms (anxiety, dizziness, fatigue, and sleep problems). The chronic nausea cohort underwent extensive, negative medical evaluations.

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In this communication two cases of possibly drug induced hyponatremia secondary to amitriptyline and thioridazine have been reported. What is particularly important is the fact that in one, irreversible neurological symptoms were left as sequelae and in the other, the patient was in a coma and thus suffered from a potentially lethal complication. The physicians should be aware of this disturbing side effect while treating their patients with antidepressant and neuroleptic medications.

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A total of 36 subjects were randomized; 34 completed both dosing periods (1 subject was lost to follow-up, 1 withdrew consent). Steady state was reached for CER 30 mg on day 7. Mean C(max,ss), C(min,ss), and C(avg,ss) were 41.1, 21.4, and 31.4 ng/mL, respectively. The median T(max,ss) for CER 30 mg was 7.0 hours, with a mean t(½) of 34.8 hours. At steady state, CER produced a sustained plasma cyclobenzaprine concentration with a single peak in plasma concentration during the 24-hour dose interval. The R(ac) for CER was 2.65. Because of a protocol violation (insufficient data), no steady-state pharmacokinetic assessments could be performed for CIR. Most adverse events were mild or moderate in intensity. Somnolence was the most frequently reported adverse event (100% of subjects) in those receiving CER, followed by dry mouth (58%), dizziness (19%), and headache (17%).

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A total of 12% of residents were prescribed one or more of 10 presumptively inappropriate medications on a standing basis, a figure that differed substantially between states (14.0% vs 7.4% (P < .001)). The most prevalent inappropriate medications were dipyridamole (5.4% of residents), amitriptyline (3.3%), and methyldopa (1.8%). Among patients receiving 0 to 3, 4 to 6, and 7+ medications, 5%, 12%, and 19%, respectively, were receiving at least one inappropriate medication. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the strongest predictors of inappropriate medication use were state and the total number of standing medications prescribed. Including other statistically significant predictors of inappropriate medication use (age > 65 years, never having been married, severe functional limitations, being a long-stay patient, and medical diagnosis) did not substantially improve the overall predictive ability of the model.

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Single doses of amitriptyline (50 mg) and zimelidine (100 mg) were administered orally to 4 young and 4 elderly healthy volunteers (aged 21--26 and 68--75 respectively) in a comparative study of the two drugs. Systolic time intervals, supine and standing blood pressure, salivary flow and indices of sedation were measured at regular intervals up to 6 hours post dose. No conclusive changes in the QS2 interval, left ventricular ejection time (LVETc) LVET index, pre-ejection period (PEPc), resting heart rate, or blood pressures were observed with either drug. Salivary flow was reduced by about 40% at 3.5 hours and 50% at 5.5 hours after ingestion of amitriptyline. No change in salivary flow was observed after zimelidine (significant difference between treatments; P less than 0.01 at 3.5 and 5.5 hours). Subjective drowsiness as measured by visual analogue ratings was significantly greater for amitriptyline at 3.5 hours (P less than 0.01). Postural sway was also increased by amitriptyline but not zimelidine (difference between treatments significant at 3.5 and 5.5 hours; P less than 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). Auditory reaction time increased with amitriptyline, the difference between treatments achieving significance at 5.5 hours. No differences in response to either drug between young and elderly volunteers were demonstrable in these small groups, although variability was greater in the older group. Possible implications of these findings for the treatment of depression in the elderly are discussed.

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Of nine studies of manipulation for tension-type headaches that reported quantitative outcomes, four were randomized clinical trials and five were case series designs. These studies reported on 729 subjects, 613 of whom received manipulation. Outcomes ranged from good to excellent. Manipulation seems to be better than no treatment, some types of mobilization and ice, and it seems to be equivalent to amitriptyline but with greater durability of effect than this medication. Of three studies on migraine, only one was a randomized clinical trial. These studies reported on 202 subjects, 156 of whom received manipulation. The outcomes ranged from fair to very good.

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The objective of this study was to provide a quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) of the efficacy and harms of antidepressants in the management of adult FMS patients.

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The current study examines the effects of amitriptyline administration on extracellular levels of monoamines and their metabolites in hypothalamus of conscious rat using in vivo microdialysis. Systemic amitriptyline (30 mg/kg, i.p.) maximally increased extracellular norepinephrine to nearly 19 times, dopamine 12 times, and serotonin 2.5 times that of their respective basal values. Local administration of amitriptyline (10 microM) in the perfused artificial cerebrospinal fluid increased extracellular serotonin levels to 2.7 times basal levels - a similar increase to that observed with systemic administration. In contrast, local administration of amitriptyline (10 microM) increased extracellular norepinephrine and dopamine to only 5.3 and 3.8 times basal levels. Systemic administration of amitriptyline (30 mg/kg, i.p.) during local amitriptyline perfusion increased norepinephrine and dopamine levels to 28 and 12.9 times their respective basal levels without affecting serotonin levels. Systemic amitriptyline administration preferentially increases extracellular norepinephrine and dopamine levels over serotonin levels in the rat hypothalamus and the effects on the catecholamine levels may be partially due to mechanisms other than local uptake inhibition.

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Clinical, preclinical, and pharmacological studies have suggested that decreased enkephalin tone is associated with depression-like symptoms and increase in enkephalin signaling could have a therapeutic value in the treatment of depression. In this study we demonstrate that, surprisingly, animals lacking enkephalin (preproenkephalin, Penk1(-/-)) showed no depression-related phenotype in the Porsolt forced swimming or tail suspension tests. Moreover, Penk1(-/-) mice had a lower frequency of depression-related behavior in stress-induced hypoactivity and ultrasonic vocalization models of depression, similar to animals treated with antidepressant drugs, although this effect was specific to the genetic background. In addition, there was no significant difference in the efficacy of antidepressant reference compounds in wild-type and knockout animals. Nialamide and amitriptyline were even slightly more effective in animals with genetic deletion of Penk1, whereas the minimal effective dose of imipramine and fluoxetine was the same in the two genotypes. The dual peptidase inhibitor RB-101 was also effective in Penk1(-/-) as well as in Penk1(-/-)/Pdyn(-/-) animals, although its efficacy was somewhat reduced compared with wild-type animals. This result was also surprising because the antidepressant effects of RB-101 were thought to be due to the elevation of enkephalin levels.

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elavil anxiety medication 2016-05-28

Chronic daily headache (CDH) associated with long-term misuse of headache medication is a common clinical problem which is refractory to most treatments. The present study is a retrospective analysis of the effect of drug withdrawal therapy in patients with CDH and frequent long-term use of headache symptomatic medication. One hundred and one adult patients (74 women and 27 men, aged between 16 and 72 years, mean age 43 years) were evaluated 1-3 months after drug withdrawal therapy had been initiated. The mean headache frequency at baseline was 26.9+/-4.0 days per month. Fifty-seven (56%) patients were significantly improved (defined as at least 50% reduction in number of headache days) after a period of drug withdrawal therapy. Based on the outcome of the drug withdrawal therapy, the patients were divided into three categories: group I, those who had between 0 and 10 headache days per month (n = 41), group II, those who had 11-20 days (n = 37), and group III, those who had 21-30 days (n = 23). The mean headache frequencies in groups I, II and III were 5.6+/-2.8 days, 15.7+/-2.5 days and 28.7+/-2.4 days, respectively. Treatment with amitriptyline was offered to patients in whom no improvement had been buy elavil achieved. Ten of those 22 patients (36%) experienced a significant (> or = 50%) reduction of headache days. It is concluded that out-patient drug withdrawal therapy is the treatment of choice in patients with CDH and frequent long-term use of headache symptomatic medication, and that about one quarter of these CDH patients do not respond to drug withdrawal therapy only.

elavil drug interactions 2015-11-25

Data on CH characteristics, diagnostic process and treatment history were gathered using a self-administered questionnaire with 90 items in CH patients buy elavil that presented to 4 neurology outpatient clinics.

elavil yellow pill 2017-11-09

Three studies of DLX, six of PGB, two of GBP and none of AMT met the inclusion criteria. In random-effects and fixed-effects analyses of DLX, PGB and GBP, all were superior to placebo for all efficacy parameters, with some tolerability trade-offs. Indirect comparison of DLX with PGB found buy elavil no differences in 24 h PS, but significant differences in PGI-I/C, favouring PGB, and in dizziness, favouring DLX were apparent. Comparing DLX and GBP, there were no statistically significant differences.

elavil 75 mg 2015-10-18

Sleep-related eating disorders distinct from daytime eating disorders have recently been shown to be associated with sleepwalking (SW), periodic limb movement (PLM) disorder and triazolam abuse in a series of 19 adults. We now report eight other primary or combined etiologies identified by clinical evaluations and polysomnographic monitoring of 19 additional adults (mean age 40 years; 58% female): i) obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), with eating during apnea-induced confusional arousals (n = 3); ii) OSA-PLM disorder (n = 1); iii) familial SW and sleep-related eating (n = 2); iv) SW-PLM disorder (n = 1 buy elavil ); v) SW-irregular sleep/wake pattern disorder (n = 1); vi) familial restless legs syndrome and sleep-related eating (n = 2); vii) anorexia nervosa with nocturnal bulimia (n = 2) and viii) amitriptyline treatment of migraines (n = 1). In our cumulative series of 38 patients (excluding six with simple obesity from daytime overeating), 44% were overweight (i.e. > 20% excess weight) from sleep-related eating. Nightly sleep-related binge eating (without hunger or purging) had occurred in 84% of patients. Onset of sleep-related eating was also closely linked with i) acute stress involving reality-based concerns about the safety of family members or about relationship problems (n = 6), ii) abstinence from alcohol and opiate/cocaine abuse (n = 2) and iii) cessation of cigarette smoking (n = 2). Current treatment data indicate a primary role of dopaminergic agents (carbidopa/L-dopa; bromocriptine), often combined with codeine and clonazepam, in controlling most cases involving SW and/or PLM disorder. Fluoxetine was effective in two of three patients. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy controlled sleep-related eating in two OSA patients.

elavil dosage sleep 2015-07-24

We describe a case of tricyclic antidepressant poisoning where significant clinical toxicity (QRS prolongation, metabolic acidosis) was observed for up to 4 days following ingestion of a modified- buy elavil release preparation of amitriptyline. Successful patient recovery was associated with the use of multidose activated charcoal and repeated administration of intravenous sodium bicarbonate.

elavil 35 mg 2015-05-31

We buy elavil therefore investigated the impact of a single evening dose of 10 mg ESCIT on polysomnographically recorded nocturnal sleep, day-time sleepiness and performance in comparison to 75 mg AMI and placebo (PLAC) in healthy male subjects.

elavil dosage cats 2015-06-11

A comparative buy elavil double-blind study of paroxetine and amitriptyline in the treatment of depressed hospital outpatients was undertaken at 15 centres in Italy. Three hundred and nine patients of either sex were admitted to the study. The starting dose of paroxetine was 20 mg daily and of amitriptyline 75 mg daily in divided doses; at week 3 these doses could be increased at the investigators' discretion. Efficacy was measured on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and on Clinical Global Impression. Both treatment groups showed significant improvement at week 6 with no significant between-group differences. Significantly fewer patients receiving paroxetine reported adverse events compared with those on amitriptyline (44% vs 62%; p < 0.01 in favour of paroxetine).

elavil and alcohol 2017-09-05

The evidence is from short-term studies and subgroup analyses may result in buy elavil chance results.

elavil therapeutic dose 2016-12-22

We report on an 11-year-old pupil who present-ed to a neurological practice in the company of his parents because of migraine and strong headaches. Precise anamnesis of drugs yielded the diagnosis of a drug-induced headache with underlying migraine disease. The boy was afflict-ed with a hereditary taint, as both parents also suffered from migraine. The mother was also continuously in treatment because of a chronic pain disorder. Therapy with up to 50 mg per day of amitriptyline enabled the boy to stop consuming analgesics without suffering from head-aches. Moreover, under 47.5 buy elavil mg per day of metoprolol, the migraine symptoms did not re-occur.

elavil max dose 2016-07-12

A temperature controlled (37 °C) metabolic reaction chamber with a volume of 1 mL was coupled directly to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) by the use of a 50 μm deep counter flow micro-chip electromembrane extraction (EME) system. The EME/ESI-MS system was used to study the in vitro metabolism of amitriptyline in real time. There was no need to stop the metabolisms by protein precipitation as in conventional metabolic studies, since the EME selectively extracted the drug and metabolites from the reaction solution comprised of rat liver microsomes in buffer. Compositional changes in the reaction chamber were continuously detected 9 seconds later in the MS. Most of this time delay was due to transport of the purified extract towards the ESI source. The EME step effectively removed the enzymatic material, buffer and salts from the reaction mixture, and prevented these species from being introduced into the ESI-MS system. The on-chip EME/ESI-MS system provided repeatability for the amitriptyline signal intensity within 3.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) (n = 6), gave a linear response for amitriptyline in the tested concentration range of 0.25 to 15 μM, and was found not to be prone to ion-suppression from major metabolites introduced simultaneously into the EME/ESI-MS system. The setup allowed the study of fast reactions kinetics. The half-life, t(1/2), buy elavil for the metabolism of 10 μM amitriptyline was 1.4 minutes with a 12.6% RSD (n = 6).

elavil 25 mg 2015-01-11

Anticonvulsants and antidepressants are mostly used buy elavil in management of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN). However there are few direct comparisons between drugs of these classes, making evidence-based decision-making in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy difficult.

buy generic elavil 2017-04-28

Cellular viability was measured using alamarBlue(®) , testing cumulative and specific time point effects of NMs on human skin keratinocytes and oral keratinocytes. Effects of the NMs on cell counts were investigated by CCK-8 assay. Drug concentrations released from NM orabase pastes after 30-min incubation were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Using these clinical concentrations, morphological changes and cytokine expression were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and human inflammatory antibody array ( buy elavil AAH), respectively.

elavil 50 mg 2015-02-28

A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to assay 4-chlorophenylbiguanide (4-CPBG) and cycloguanil formed from proguanil by microsomes buy elavil prepared from human liver. The limit of detection was 0.08 nmol mg-'. h-I.

elavil migraine dosage 2015-05-16

Most patients with cyclic vomiting syndrome recovered completely and benefited from prophylactic therapy, although half of them Coreg Tablets developed migraines.

elavil overdose charcoal 2016-03-01

We describe a 55-year-old woman with extensive digestive resection and recurrent depressive disorder Aciphex Generic Alternative resistant to oral clomipramine tablets but not to an oral solution of amitriptyline. In the light of this case report, the potential mechanisms of drug resistance after digestive resection are discussed, including the importance of drug monitoring.

elavil drug classification 2016-12-13

These results suggest that pharmacologic management can be Diamox 1500 Mg used for treating trigeminal nerve injury pain after dental implant surgery.

elavil user reviews 2017-12-16

There were 13,404 amitriptyline starters, 18,420 duloxetine starters, 23,268 gabapentin starters, and 19,286 pregabalin starters. The mean age ranged from 48–51 years and 72–84% in each group were women. Back pain Paxil Online was the most frequent comorbidity in all 4 groups (range 48–64%) and hypertension, headache, depression, and sleep disorder were also common. The median daily dose at the start of followup was 25 mg for amitriptyline, 60 mg for duloxetine, 300 mg for gabapentin, and 75 mg for pregabalin, and >60% of patients remained on the same dose throughout the follow up period. Only one-fifth of patients continued the treatment started for ≥1 year. The mean number of different prescription drugs at baseline ranged from 8–10 across the groups. More than one-half of patients took opioids and one-third took benzodiazepines, sleep disorder drugs, and muscle relaxants.

elavil dosage 2017-06-10

Patients with cirrhosis were found to be extremely sensitive to tranylcypromine, and the use of this drug for the treatment of depression in such patients is contraindicated. Amitriptyline has Imitrex Dose Injection a wider margin of safety in such patients, but caution is necessary when the higher therapeutic doses are prescribed.

1 mg elavil 2015-07-12

To investigate the effect of amitriptyline, bupropion, doxepin or venlafaxine on the gene expression of the neuroprotective enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD1 Betnovate Mg ) in a catecholamine cell in vitro model.

elavil reviews depression 2017-05-08

We investigated the effect of the CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotypes on the metabolism of amitriptyline (AT) in Japanese psychiatric patients. Steady-state concentrations of AT and its metabolites (nortriptyline [NT], trans-10-hydroxy-nortriptyline [EHNT], cis-10-hydroxy-nortriptyline [ZHNT], trans-10-hydroxy-amitriptyline [EHAT], and cis-10-hydroxy-amitriptyline [ZHAT]) in 50 patients were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly higher plasma concentrations of AT corrected for dose and body weight in the subjects with two mutated alleles of CYP2C19 than in those with no mutated alleles of CYP2C19 were observed (no mutated alleles vs. two mutated alleles: 36.0 +/- 18.2 vs. 64.0 +/- 25.2 ng/mL/mg/kg, p = 0.025). A significantly higher AT/NT ratio was seen in the subjects with two mutated alleles of CYP2C19 than in those with no mutated alleles of CYP2C19 (no mutated alleles vs. two mutated alleles: 1.27 +/- 0.59 vs. 3.40 +/- 1.02, p = 0.001). A trend for higher NT/EHNT ratio in the subjects with two mutated alleles of CYP2D6 than in those with no mutated alleles of CYP2D6 was observed (no mutated alleles vs. two mutated alleles: 0.73 +/- 0.39 vs. 1.31 +/- 0.81, p = 0.068). A trend for higher plasma concentrations of total hydroxylated metabolites of AT (EHAT + ZHAT) corrected for dose and body weight in the subjects with two mutated alleles of CYP2C19 than in those with no mutated alleles of CYP2C19 was found (no mutated alleles vs. two mutated alleles: 9.5 +/- 5.8 vs. 17.8 +/- 8.9, p = 0.051). Therefore, the genotype of CYP2C19 is one of the important determinants of the plasma concentrations of AT and the capacity to desmethylate AT. Mother compound AT is shunted via hydroxylation pathways from AT to EHAT and ZHAT in the subjects with homozygotes of mutated alleles of CYP2C19 Prevacid Otc Dose in order to compensate for the decreased capacity to desmethylate AT.

elavil drug class 2017-06-01

The present study was designed to further investigate the effect of amitriptyline, a classical tricyclic antidepressant, on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats.

elavil generic cost 2016-04-19

Depending on the criterion applied, between 20% and 25% of residents had at least one inappropriate prescription. Propoxyphene, long-acting benzodiazepines, dipyridamole, and amitriptyline were prescribed most frequently. Residents with inappropriate drug prescriptions had more complex drug regimens prescribed on a routine basis.

elavil 30 mg 2016-07-23

The efficacy of antidepressants was investigated by using disability pensions due to major affective disorders as the efficacy variable from a large Finnish population (n = 14182) during a 3-year follow-up.

elavil 150 mg 2017-02-16

Patients, between 16 and 65 years prescribed an antidepressant between November 1993-1995, were selected from an east London training practice by searching the practice computer system EMIS. From a total of 438 patients identified, 40 cases were selected on the basis of their surname [3] as South Asian, and 50 cases formed the White comparison group. Data was collected retrospectively from the computer and paper records and analysed using Stata. The main outcome measures were presenting symptoms, maximum dose of antidepressant prescribed, duration of treatment and continuity of care.

elavil insomnia dosage 2016-02-14

This study identifies eight patients who during routine therapy with conventional doses of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) experienced elevated plasma concentrations and suffered a grand mal seizure. We correlate the incidence of TCA-induced seizures with TCA plasma level and suggest that the incidence of TCA-induced seizures can be significantly reduced with the judicious use of therapeutic drug monitoring.

elavil tablet 2017-11-05

Biochemical variates that may be related to depressive illness have been shown to vary significantly according to the season. This factor must therefore be carefully considered in biochemical and therapeutic investigations into depression, and may account for the seasonal variation in depression and suicide that have been reported by many investigators.

elavil 25mg reviews 2015-06-08

The results of this study provide support for the use of duloxetine in the long-term management of DPNP.

elavil patient reviews 2017-09-21

Using the ratio of MID to standard deviation in the trials with an established MID, we imputed the MID for instruments without an established MID and pooled across all trials. We applied this approach to two meta-analyses.