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Development of endometrial glands corresponded to an early secretory phase in five out of six cases supplemented with DG (out-phase). In contrast, five out of six cases treated with micronized progesterone showed an endometrium corresponding to a mid-luteal phase (in-phase) (P = 0.021 versus DG). There was a significant difference in the mean progesterone value [8.6 versus 0.3 microg l(-1) (P = 0.013)], the mean LH value [12.9 versus 22.5 IU l(-1) (P = 0.049)] and the mean FSH value [13.0 versus 23.9 IU l(-1) (P = 0.047)] between the progesterone and DG group, respectively, on day 21 of the cycle.
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In this pilot study, sexual desire in transsexual women improved significantly after treatment with the testosterone patch, without noticeable side effects.
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After 12 months of the transdermal HT, a decrease in both fasting (P < 0.002) and postprandial (P < 0.05) plasma glucose levels was observed. Oral HT reduced only the fasting plasma glucose level in the 12th month of treatment (P < 0.05). Regardless of the route of administration, HT reduced postprandial plasma levels of insulin (oral HT: P < 0.05; transdermal HT: P < 0.02). Fasting plasma levels of GIP were reduced after 6 and 12 months of transdermal HT (P < 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively). Moreover, levels of postprandial GIP were reduced after 6 and 12 months of transdermal HT (P < 0.002 in both cases). Fasting and postprandial GLP-1 levels were reduced by transdermal HT after 12 months of supplementation. Oral HT also decreased these levels, but not significantly. The observed differences may, however, be related not only to the route of administration, but also to the difference in the dose of estradiol. Regardless of the route of administration, HT did not influence plasma levels of CCK.
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The only adverse endometrial outcome at the end of the study was one case of simple hyperplasia. This gives an overall incidence of 0.27% (95% CI: 0.01-1.48%) in the per protocol sample (n=395). The overall rate of amenorrhoea in the full sample (n=446) was 68% and 14% had only one or two bleeding/spotting episodes. The rate of amenorrhoea in months 10-12 (n=413) was 88%. The number of bleeding/spotting days per cycle fell during the study. The mean number of bleeding/spotting days was 5.8 and the mean number of days without bleeding was 358.2. Spotting alone was the most prevalent bleeding intensity, whilst heavy bleeding was rare.
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The women were randomised to receive continuous 17 beta-oestradiol, either orally (2 mg daily; n = 35) or transdermally (50 micrograms daily; n = 35), plus 10 mg dydrogesterone daily for 14 days of each 28-day cycle; or 2.5 mg tibolone daily (n = 35). Thirty-five untreated women acted as controls.
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Within 15 months of 17 beta-estradiol and dydrogesterone treatment no clinically relevant differences were found in the M-mode, quantitative 2-dimensional, and Doppler echocardiographic parameters measured in this study. It is suggested that 15 months of treatment probably is too short a period for detection of direct effects on the heart itself.
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We have observed different kind of hormonal reaction according to FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone levels due to various hormonal replacement therapy. The administration of various HRT regimens presented with a decrease in the blood concentration of estradiol E2 and progesterone and a concomitant increase of FSH and LH. These findings demonstrate a shift to physiological ranges and a simultaneous improvement of symptoms associated with CI-POF.
Combined sequential HRT with progestogen given for 12-14 days very rarely fails to protect the endometrium. Such failures can not be detected by noting the bleeding pattern. The only suspicious pattern is non-cyclic bleeding, but this will not detect every case of hyperplasia or persistent proliferative endometrium.
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Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Serum Lp(a) concentrations increase after menopause, and postmenopausal estrogen replacement appears to decrease Lp(a) levels. In a randomized, double blind study, we examined the effects of 6-month treatment with daily 17 beta-estradiol (E2; 2 mg, orally) continuously combined with one of four dosages [2.5 mg (n = 41), 5 mg (n = 38), 10 mg (n = 38), and 15 mg (n = 20)] of dydrogesterone on fasting serum Lp(a) concentrations in 137 healthy postmenopausal women. At baseline, no significant differences were noted among the four treatment groups. During the study period of 6 months the median serum Lp(a) concentration decreased significantly from 128 mg/L (range, 5-1660) to 110 mg/L (range, 1-1530) in the total population, corresponding to a reduction of 13% (P < 0.001). The percent changes in serum Lp(a) correlated positively with the percent changes in serum E2 at 3 as well as 6 months of therapy (r = 0.38; P < 0.001 and r = 0.35; P < 0.001, respectively). A dose response of dydrogesterone on serum Lp(a) was not found. In addition, serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins improved significantly in all four treatment groups. In conclusion, oral E2 continuously combined with dydrogesterone has beneficial effects on the lipid and lipoprotein profile and is effective in lowering Lp(a) concentrations in postmenopausal women.
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Although the minimal dose of 17beta-estradiol in hormone replacement regimens was originally considered to be 2 mg/day, it is now increasingly accepted that a lower dose of 1 mg/day is effective in protecting women from the detrimental effects of the menopause. A 1-year, multicentre, double-blind, randomised study was conducted in 214 healthy postmenopausal women in order to assess the effect of 17beta-estradiol (1 mg/day) continuously combined with dydrogesterone (5, 10 or 20 mg/day) in preventing bone loss. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluable in 177 women who completed the study. In all women, a statistically significant increase from baseline in lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) BMD was seen after 6 months ( + 2.4%; p < 0.01); this increase was somewhat greater after 12 months ( + 3.6%; p < 0.01). Similar effects were seen in the hip. After 6 months, BMD in the femoral neck, Ward's triangle and trochanter had increased by 0.20% (not significant [n.s.]), 0.32% (n.s.) and 1.08% (p < 0.01), respectively, compared with baseline. Greater increases were again seen after 12 months ( + 1.16%, + 1.62% and + 2.83%, respectively), all of which were statistically significant (p < 0.01) compared with baseline. The change in BMD from baseline did not differ significantly between the three dydrogesterone dosages for either L2-L4 or hip. All dosages were well-tolerated and amenorrhoea was achieved in over 70%. In conclusion, 17beta-estradiol (1 mg/day) continuously combined with dydrogesterone (5, 10 or 20 mg/day) results in a significant increase in lumbar vertebrae and hip BMD in postmenopausal women. The lower dose of oestrogen and the avoidance of cyclical bleeding make this a particularly suitable regimen for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in older women.
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Fifty-nine women completed the study. After 6 months of therapy, homocysteine concentrations showed a statistically significant reduction in the treated groups versus both baseline and controls, and no further significant variations were found thereafter. The mean reduction in the homocysteine levels throughout the study was 13.6% in the oral and 8.9% in the transdermal group, respectively, without significant difference between the two routes of estradiol administration. Women with the highest baseline levels of homocysteine experienced the greatest reduction. No significant variations in homocysteine concentrations were found in the control group.
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To assess serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and oral glucose tolerance in postmenopausal women treated with 17 beta-oestradiol (2 mg/day) and cyclical dydrogesterone (10 mg/day for 14 days per 28 day cycle).
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Healthy postmenopausal women.
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Both the natural and surgical menopause patients were found to have more favorable lipid profiles after treatment with estrogen progesterone combined formulations and estrogen only replacement.
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The objective of this open, longitudinal, controlled study was to assess the effect of transdermal estradiol alone or combined with cyclical dydrogesterone on the markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. The control group consisted of postmenopausal diabetic women who declined menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Twenty-eight postmenopausal women (19 on HRT and 9 controls) with type 2 diabetes were followed up for 12 months. From the active treatment group 14 women with a uterus in situ had 80 microg/24 hr transdermal estradiol (Fematrix 80; Solvay Healthcare Ltd, Southampton, UK) and oral dydrogesterone 10 mg daily for the first 12 days of the calendar month, whereas 5 women with previous hysterectomy had 80 microg/24 hr transdermal estradiol (Fematrix 80) alone. CVD risk markers were measured before and at regular intervals after starting HRT. The main outcome measures were weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glucose/insulin ratio, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein (a), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, and endothelin-1. Transdermal estradiol with or without dydrogesterone in women with type 2 diabetes did not adversely affect any of the measured markers of cardiovascular risk. There was a significant decrease in HbA1c, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol at 6 months in women receiving HRT. Some of the cardiovascular disease risk markers may improve in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes with transdermal estradiol. This effect may have important clinical implications and it deserves further investigation in appropriately designed trials.
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Estrogen/gestagen replacement therapy prevents excess bone loss in postmenopausal women. The mode of action by which these sex steroids exert their anabolic effects on bone has not been completely clarified yet. In this study, 17 beta-estradiol (E2), as well as progestins progesterone (P), dydrogesterone (DD), 20 alpha-dihydroxydydrogesterone (DHD), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), and cyproterone acetate (CPA) were able to stimulate the mitogenesis and differentiation of normal adult human osteoblast-like (HOB) cells harvested from female trabecular bone explants. The different progestins exerted a more pronounced stimulatory effect on HOB proliferation than E2 did. The combination of E2 with P, DD, or DHD did not result in a statistically significant further increase of HOB proliferation, as compared with the progestins alone. In general, E2 showed a stronger differentiation-inducing effect than the progestins, as measured by histochemical staining of the HOB cells for alkaline phosphatase activity. Combining E2 and the progestins did not result in a further increase of the number of alkaline phosphatase positive cells, compared with E2 alone. The different progestins proved to be equally potent in stimulating HOB proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, progestins as well as E2 exerted anabolic but differential effects on normal adult human osteoblasts in vitro.
Estraderm TTS 100 micrograms twice weekly is as effective as 200 micrograms twice weekly in reducing symptom levels in severe premenstrual syndrome but is better tolerated. Estraderm 100 micrograms suppresses ovulation and results in a mean plasma oestradiol level similar to that observed in a spontaneous cycle.
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Abstract Background Ultra-low-dose estradiol is known to improve menopausal symptoms and increase bone mineral density. However, the effect of ultra-low-dose estradiol on vascular function has not been clarified. Objectives We examined the effects of ultra-low-dose estradiol on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and circulating markers of cardiovascular risk. Patients and methods Twenty-eight postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study. Fourteen women received oral estradiol (0.5 mg) and dydrogesterone (5 mg) every day for 12 months (ultra-low-dose group) as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and 14 women as a control group did not receive HRT. The baPWV, lipid profiles, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and vascular inflammatory markers were measured. Results The baPWV level significantly decreased in the ultra-low-dose group (p = 0.037), while the baPWV level did not significantly change in the control group. HOMA-IR tended to decrease in the ultra-low-dose group (p = 0.076). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly in either group. Conclusion An HRT regimen using oral ultra-low-dose estradiol and dydrogesterone has an effect on arterial stiffness and insulin resistance.
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Congenital heart disease is the most frequent form of congenital anomaly in newborn infants and accounts for more than a quarter of all serious congenital afflictions worldwide. A genetic etiology is identified in <20 % of cases of congenital heart defects, and in most cases the etiology remains a mystery. In the context of the health burden caused by congenital heart disease, the contribution of non-inherited risk factors is important especially if it turns out to be caused by a drug which can be avoided during pregnancy. We sought to determine whether maternal dydrogesterone treatment in early pregnancy is associated with congenital heart disease in the infant. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of birth defects and associated risk factors. Data were obtained and compared between 202 children born with congenital heart disease and a control group consisting of 200 children. All children were born in the period of 2010-2013. Dydrogesterone exposure was defined as any reported use during the first trimester of pregnancy. Exclusion criteria included stillbirths, children with chromosomal abnormalities and infants of mothers with chronic medical illnesses, e.g., diabetes. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data and attempt to identify a causal relationship between drug exposure and congenital heart disease. Mothers of children born with congenital heart disease received more dydrogesterone during first trimester of pregnancy than mothers of children in the control group [adjusted odds ratio 2.71; (95 % CI 1.54-4.24); P = 0.001]. We identified a positive association between dydrogesterone usage during early pregnancy and congenital heart disease in the offspring. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm these results.
Dydrogesterone is widely used for menstrual disorders, endometriosis, threatened and habitual abortion and postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy. Although progestins have a promiscuous nature, dydrogesterone does not have clinically relevant androgenic, estrogenic, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid activities. To date, systematic biochemical characterization of this progestin and its active main metabolite, 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone, has not been performed in comparison to progesterone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the selectivity and potential androgenic/antiandrogenic effects of dydrogesterone and its metabolite in comparison to progesterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate by analyzing their interference with AR signaling in vitro. We characterized dydrogesterone and its metabolite for their binding and transactivation of androgen and other steroid hormone receptors and for their potential inhibitory effects against androgen biosynthetic enzymes, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 3 and 5 and 5α-reductase types 1 and 2. We found that dydrogesterone resembled progesterone mainly in its progestogenic effects and less in its androgenic, anti-androgenic, glucocorticoid and antiglucocorticoid effects; whereas, 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone showed reduced progestogenic potency with no androgenic, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects. Effects on the androgen and glucocorticoid receptor differed depending on the technology used to investigate transactivation. Progesterone, but not dydrogesterone and 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone, exerted anti-androgenic effects at the pre-receptor level by inhibiting 5α-reductase type 2. Dydrogesterone, 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone and progesterone inhibited the biosynthesis of testosterone catalyzed by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 3 and 5; however, due to their micromolar K(i) values, these activities appeared to be not of relevance at therapeutic levels. Overall, our data show that the anti-androgenic potential of dydrogesterone and 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone is less pronounced compared to progesterone.
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To establish reference estimates of the effects of different hormone replacement therapy (HRT) regimens on lipid and lipoprotein levels.
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Long-term combined hormone replacement therapy with E2 and dydrogesterone in healthy women was associated with sustained improvement in some aspects of endothelial function and in clottable fibrinogen levels.
Fibrinogen was reduced in both groups but more markedly in the DYDR group. Factor VIIc activity levels decreased in both groups with a greater change in the T-group. Factor VII antigen was increased in both groups with a greater increase in the DYDR group. Factor VIIa was increased in the DYDR group only. Plasminogen levels were also increased in both groups with a greater increase in the T-group. There were no statistically significant changes in lipid variables between the different regimens. Changes in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were correlated positively with changes in factor VIIc in the DYDR group and negatively with changes in factor VIIc in the T-group. Trigemestone was associated with a better bleeding pattern.
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Gestational hypertension (GH) remains one of the main causes of high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide with the highest incidence among primigravidae of about 10%-15%. However, it was noted that the incidence of GH in primigravidae who conceived following assisted reproductive technique (ART) or intrauterine insemination (IUI) supplemented with dydrogesterone during the first trimester was low.
The peak of progesterone concentration was assessed in the midluteal phase (7th day) in both supplemented groups, significantly higher than in the placebo group, also in group with dydrogesterone and HCG it was higher than in group with dydrogesterone alone. Progesterone concentration decrease on the 11th day after the ovulation to the values comparable with the placebo group.
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The study enrolled 81 patients aged 18 to 50 years with stage III or IV endometriosis, as diagnosed by surgery. All patients were given GnRHa 3.6 mg by subcutaneous injection once every 28 days for a total of three times. Patients were divided into three groups: the first (n = 35; GnRHa only group) received GnRHa only without add-back therapy, the second (n = 35; 0.5 mg E(2)+P add-back group) received GnRHa plus 0.5 mg estradiol valerate and 5 mg dydrogesterone orally every day, and the third (n = 11; 1 mg E(2)+P add-back group) received GnRHa plus 1 mg estradiol valerate and 10 mg dydrogesterone orally every day for the duration of treatment. All patients were required to follow up at our hospital at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after treatment initiation to assess efficacy and levels of serum reproductive hormones.
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A randomized placebo controlled trial in which a methionine-loading test was performed, in 25 healthy postmenopausal women, before and after a 12-week oral treatment with placebo or daily 4 mg 17beta-estradiol with (HRT) or without (ERT) 10 mg dydrogesterone. Fasting and post-load homocysteine as well as Vitamins B(6), B(12) and folate were determined.
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To determine the effectiveness of both the progestagens and anti-progestagens in the treatment of painful symptoms ascribed to the diagnosis of endometriosis.
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The progestagen medroxyprogesterone acetate (100 mg daily) appeared to be more effective at reducing all symptoms up to 12 months of follow-up (MD -0.70, 95% CI -8.61 to -5.39; P < 0.00001) compared with placebo. There was evidence of significantly more cases of acne (six versus one) and oedema (11 versus one) in the medroxyprogesterone acetate group compared with placebo. There was no evidence of a difference in objective efficacy between dydrogesterone and placebo.There was no evidence of a benefit with depot administration of progestagens versus other treatments (low dose oral contraceptive or leuprolide acetate) for reduced symptoms. The depot progestagen group experienced significantly more adverse effects.There was no overall evidence of a benefit of oral progestagens over other medical treatment at six months of follow-up for self-reported efficacy. Amenorrhoea and bleeding were more frequently reported in the progestagen group compared with other treatment groups.There was no evidence of a benefit of anti-progestagens (gestrinone) compared with danazol. GnRH analogue (leuprorelin) was found to significantly improve dysmenorrhoea compared with gestrinone (MD 0.82, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.49; P = 0.02) although it was also associated with increased hot flushes (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.06 to -0.63; P = 0.006).
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Pharmacological regulation of transcription of estrogen-converting enzymes in human endometrium cultured in nude mice may help to develop new therapeutic concepts based on local regulation of estrogen metabolism in endometriosis.