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Acute MI in rats led to a significant increase of AT2R expression in BMMNCs. Preconditioning of BMMNCs via AT2R stimulation directly with an AT2R agonist CGP42112A or indirectly with angiotensin II plus AT1R antagonist valsartan led to ERK activation and increased eNOS expression as well as subsequent nitric oxide generation, ultimately improved cardiomyocyte protection in vitro as measured by co-culture approach. Intramyocardial transplantation of BMMNCs preconditioned via AT2R stimulation improved survival of transplanted cells in ischemic region of heart tissue and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and inflammation at 3 days after MI. At 4 weeks after transplantation, compared to DMEM and non-preconditioned BMMNCs group, AT2R stimulated BMMNCs group showed enhanced vessel density in peri-infarct region and attenuated infarct size, leading to global heart function improvement.
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Seventeen elderly patients with essential HT who failed to achieve a target home BP level with treatment of 5 mg amlodipine plus 80 mg valsartan or 8 mg candesartan for at least 2 months were enrolled. Then the patients were assigned to replace their valsartan or candesartan with 40 mg telmisartan. The subjects were instructed to measure their own BP at home every day during the study periods.
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The most common risk factors for heart failure are hypertension and myocardial infarction. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) attenuate the deleterious effects of angiotensin II. Valsartan is a once or twice daily ARB that is FDA-approved for hypertension, LV dysfunction post-myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure as both an adjunct in ACE-inhibitor tolerant, and alternative in ACE-I intolerant patients.
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The randomized trial included 1668 patients (756 [45.3%] female, 392 [23.5%] black, 109 [6.5%] Hispanic, 220 [13.2%] elderly, 970 of 1641 [59.1%] obese, 166 [10.0%] with diabetes, 467 [28.0%] smokers) with stage 2 hypertension. Among those allocated to combination therapy compared with monotherapy, the mean (SD) change in SBP at 6 weeks was -27.4 (18.5) and -19.3 (17.7) mm Hg in women, -21.4 (17.6) and -12.6 (18.5) mm Hg in black subjects, -21.7 (17.6) and -16.3 (16.5) mm Hg in Hispanic subjects, -25.5 (20.2) and -16.9 (17.9) mm Hg in the elderly, and -23.6 (18.1) and -15.9 (16.2) mm Hg in obese subjects. With the exception of the results for Hispanics, all comparisons of combination therapy and monotherapy were statistically significant (Por=65 years (43.9% vs 24.5%; P=0.004), overweight subjects (49.0% vs 31.2%; P<0.001), and obese subjects (41.4% vs 26.0%; P<0.001). In the entire study cohort, patients assigned to combination therapy had a significantly higher incidence of dizziness compared with those assigned to monotherapy (8.5% vs 4.7%; P=0.002); however, there was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of adverse events between treatment groups in the prespecified subgroups.
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Serum BNP seviyeleri akut MI modelinde artarken, kronik MI modelinde artmamıştır. RAM ve VAL uygulamasının, sıçanlarda ISO uygulamasıyla oluşan, akut MI’dan sonra artmış olan BNP seviyelerini anlamlı şekilde azalttığı belirlenmiştir. Kronik MI+ ilaç gruplarında da intakt ve kronik MI’lı kontrol grupları ile karşılaştırıldığında anlamlı bir değişiklik saptanmamıştır.
The authors previously reported that addition of valsartan ameliorated the negative metabolic effects of hydrochlorothiazide in obese hypertensive patients through an enhanced postprandial insulin response. In this secondary analysis, the authors tested whether this enhanced insulin response to valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide was influenced by serum potassium levels, which were reduced to a lesser extent, when compared with amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide. Results showed that the early insulin response with valsartan plus hydrochlorothiazide occurred regardless of serum potassium levels. Heightened insulin response was, however, not significantly different when patients with normal potassium (>3.9 mEq/L) at baseline and low potassium (≤3.9 mEq/L) at the end of the study were compared with the amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide group. Despite the influence of serum potassium on insulin secretory response to a glucose challenge, the addition of valsartan maintained normoglycemia in patients given hydrochlorothiazide. Thus, the metabolic response to hydrochlorothiazide was improved with addition of valsartan through an enhanced insulin response that was not greatly affected by changes in potassium levels.
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With the aim of developing a novel valsartan-loaded solid dispersion with enhanced bioavailability and no crystalline changes, various valsartan-loaded solid dispersions were prepared with water, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). Effects of the weight ratios of SLS/HPMC and carrier/drug on both the aqueous solubility of valsartan and the drug-release profiles of solid dispersions were investigated. The physicochemical properties of solid dispersions were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The bioavailability of the solid dispersions in rats was evaluated compared to valsartan powder and a commercial product (Diovan). Unlike the conventional solid dispersion system, the valsartan-loaded solid dispersion had a relatively rough surface and did not change the crystalline form of the drug. It was suggested that the solid dispersions were formed by attaching hydrophilic carriers to the surface of the drug, thus changing from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic form without changing the crystalline form. The drug-loaded solid dispersion composed of valsartan/HPMC/SLS at a weight ratio of 3/1.5/0.75 improved the drug solubility by about 43-fold. It gave a higher AUC, C(max) and shorter T(max) compared to valsartan powder and the commercial product. The solid dispersion improved the bioavailability of the drug in rats by about 2.2 and 1.7-fold in comparison with valsartan powder and the commercial product, respectively. Thus, the valsartan-loaded solid dispersion would be useful for delivering poorly water-soluble valsartan with enhanced bioavailability and no crystalline changes.
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The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a transdermal gel formulation of valsartan using Box-Behnken design and to evaluate it for pharmacokinetic study.
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Twenty African-Americans (12 men, 8 women), with a history of uncomplicated hypertension (blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg).
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Mean 24-h ambulatory SBP change from baseline to Weeks 12 and 26 was comparable between valsartan a.m. (-10.6 and -13.3 mmHg) and p.m. (-9.8 and -12.3 mmHg) and lisinopril (-10.7 and -13.7 mmHg). There was no benefit of valsartan p.m. versus a.m. on night-time BP, early morning BP and morning BP surge. Evening dosing also did not improve BP lowering in patients requiring add-on HCTZ or in nondippers at baseline. All treatments were well tolerated.
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In patients with end-stage renal disease, angiotensin II type 1A receptor (AT1) blockade attenuates the associated cardiac dysfunction. We investigated the molecular signaling mediating that effect.
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists (or blockers) are a newer class of antihypertensive agents. These drugs are selective for angiotensin II (type 1 receptor); unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, they do not inhibit bradykinin metabolism or enhance prostaglandin synthesis. Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are well tolerated. Cough occurs much less often with these agents than with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and they do not adversely affect lipid profiles or cause rebound hypertension after discontinuation. Clinical trials indicate that angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are effective and safe in the treatment of hypertension. Their use in congestive heart failure and renal disease is under investigation.
Previously, we have shown that slightly to moderately aged arteries in middle-aged males can be rejuvenated functionally by sub-therapeutic, low-dose fluvastatin and valsartan treatment. Here, we explore whether this treatment could also increase telomerase activity. We hypothesized that telomerase activity might be associated with (1) an improvement of arterial wall properties and (2) a reduction of inflammatory/oxidative stress parameters (both observed in our previous studies).
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The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) blockade by means of valsartan on the colonic and systemic circulation in pigs during low flow sigmoideal ischemia in combination with hypovolemic shock. This condition resembles the situation that occurs in patients suffering from a ruptured aneurysm and a compromised colonic circulation. An experimental study in pigs was performed : 6 pigs with low flow sigmoideal ischemia and hypovolemic shock were treated with valsartan and a control group of 5 pigs with low flow sigmoideal ischemia and hypovolemic shock without medical treatment.Valsartan, 3 mg/kg, was administered intravenously. The operation was performed via left sided lumbotomy. The distal aorta was partially occluded to a flow reduction of 30% of the initial value. Hypovolemic shock was induced by withdrawing 20 ml/kg blood in 45 min. Resuscitation with 30 ml/kg haemaccel was iniated after 2 h of shock. The following parameters were measured: blood pressure, cardiac output; hemoglobin, lactate, angiotensin II in mixed venous blood (obtained from pulmonary artery) and in splanchnic blood (obtained from caudal mesenteric vein); and endoluminal pulse oximetry of the sigmoideal mucosa. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed rank test. There was a significant increase of lactate levels both in systemic and splanchnic circulation (P<0.05) in both groups. In the control group, the mean angiotensin II concentrations in the systemic circulation increased, after induction of ischaemia and shock. In the experimental group, the increase in angiotensin concentrations after resuscitation was significantly more prominent. In the colonic circulation, in both groups, there was a significant increase in angiotensin II levels in the splanchnic circulation following ischaemia and reperfusion (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the groups. There were no detectable mucosal signals measured by pulse oximetry after induction of shock throughout the experiment, whereas in the experimental group, median mucosal oxygen saturations of 81, 74.5 and 85% were achieved after resuscitation and declamping (P<0.01).In conclusion, angiotensin II inhibition during hypovolemic shock improves the colonic circulation, measured by pulse oximetry. However, other parameters of tissue ischaemia did not improve.
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Plasma levels of individual neurohormones (NH) have been proposed as reliable indicators for risk stratification of patients with heart failure (HF). Mainly because of small sample size, the predictive value of different NH has never been compared, while taking into account demographic, clinical and echocardiographic markers of risk in HF.
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Early use of ARB/HCTZ combination therapy achieves critical decrease in BP and is an effective treatment for patients with moderate to severe HTN. Angiotensin receptor blockers also have renal- and CV-protective properties in conjunction with their antihypertensive effects, providing additional benefit to patients who at risk of vascular disease.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between valsartan, an anti-hypertension drug, and human serum albumin (HSA) using spectroscopic techniques, including fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible absorption, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD). The results demonstrated that valsartan and HSA form a complex and that a static quenching mechanism occurs. In addition, the binding constant and the number of binding sites for valsartan on HSA were analyzed. Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds were the predominant forces in the association reaction based on thermodynamic parameters. The distance between the donor (HSA) and the acceptor (valsartan) was 1.994 nm as derived from Forster's theory. Alterations in the secondary structure of HSA in the presence of valsartan were assessed using synchronous fluorescence and CD. This study provides an enhanced understanding of the pharmacodynamic effects of valsartan on the physiologically important protein HSA.
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All three treatments reduced 24-h BP as well as night-time and daytime BP levels from baseline. Twenty-four hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) was reduced by 15.9+/-1.0 mmHg (least-squares mean change+/-SE), 19.3+/-1.0 mmHg and 16.1+/-1.1 mmHg in the V160/HCTZ12.5, V160/HCTZ25 and A10 groups, respectively and 24-h diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was reduced by 9.3+/-0.6 mmHg, 11.4+/-0.6 mmHg and 9.6+/-0.7 mmHg in the three groups. The differences between the V160/HCTZ25 group and the A10 group were significant (p<0.05) for the changes in 24-h systolic BP as well as for changes in daytime systolic BP and night-time diastolic BP. Control rates defined as ABPM < or =130/80 mmHg were: 48.4%, 60.8% and 50.9% in the V160/HCTZ12.5, V160/25 and A10 groups, respectively. The differences in control rates between the V160/HCTZ25 group and the other two treatment groups were significant at p<0.05.
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LCZ696 is a novel angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor in development for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction of LCZ696 (400 mg, single dose or once daily [q.d.]) when co-administered with omeprazole 40 mg q.d. (n = 28) or metformin 1000 mg q.d. (n = 27) or levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol 150/30 μg single dose (n = 24) in three separate open-label, single-sequence studies in healthy subjects. Pharmacokinetic parameters of LCZ696 analytes (sacubitril, LBQ657, and valsartan), metformin, and levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol were assessed. Omeprazole did not alter the AUCinf of sacubitril and pharmacokinetics of LBQ657; however, 7% decrease in the Cmax of sacubitril, and 11% and 13% decreases in AUCinf and Cmax of valsartan were observed. Co-administration of LCZ696 with metformin had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of LBQ657 and valsartan; however, AUCtau,ss and Cmax,ss of metformin were decreased by 23%. Co-administration of LCZ696 with levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol and LBQ657 or AUCinf of levonorgestrel. The Cmax of levonorgestrel decreased by 15%, and AUCtau,ss and Cmax,ss of valsartan decreased by 14% and 16%, respectively. Co-administration of LCZ696 with omeprazole, metformin, or levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol was not associated with any clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions.
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We analyzed illicit drugs and their metabolites and pharmaceuticals in wastewater from 15 selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Slovakia. Our results indicate that methamphetamine is one of the most commonly used illegal drugs in all the regions of Slovakia monitored in this study. Compared with the international results, the Slovak cities of Dunajská Streda (479 mg/day/1000inh) and Trnava (354 mg/day/1000inh) are among the cities with the largest numbers of methamphetamine users in Europe. These results indicate an increase in the incidence of drugs in big cities and in the satellite cities (Trnava and Dunajská Streda) near Bratislava. These results also confirm the police statistics about production and use of illicit drugs in Slovakia. The highest specific loads of cocaine were found in Bratislava (112 mg/day/1000inh), followed by Petržalka (74 mg/day/1000inh). Compared with other European cities, Bratislava and the other Slovak cities in this study have a relatively low number of COC consumers. The ecstasy load in wastewater from larger cities also significantly increased over the weekend and during music festivals. The highest 2-year mean concentrations of THC-COOH, a cannabis biomarker, were observed in the sewage from BA-Petržalka and BA-Central (191 and 171 ng/L, respectively). A first complex monitoring of pharmaceuticals in all therapeutic groups was also realized in selected Slovak WWTPs. Occurrence of wide spectrum of pharmaceuticals with very high concentrations as well as consumptions were observed mainly in small Slovak cities. Considering all 120 monitored pharmaceuticals, Valsartan had the highest concentrations: 6000 ng/L, on average.
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To evaluate the effect on cardiac hemodynamic parameters of valsartan in patients with chronic stable congestive heart failure previously untreated with ACE inhibitors.
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Azilsartan, an angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blocker (ARB), was recently approved by regulatory authorities for treatment of hypertension and is the 8th ARB to join the clinical market. This article discusses the medical reasons for introducing a new AT(1) receptor blocker and reviews the experimental and clinical studies that have compared the functional properties of azilsartan to those of other ARBs. The main question addressed is: Does azilsartan have distinguishing features that should motivate choosing it over any of the other sartans for use in clinical practice? Based on studies conducted to date in hypertensive patients without serious comorbidities, azilsartan appears to be characterized by a superior ability to control 24-hour systolic blood pressure (BP) relative to other widely used ARBs including valsartan, olmesartan, and candesartan, and presumably others as well (eg, losartan). Compared to these other ARBs, azilsartan may increase the BP target control and response rate by an absolute value of 8%-10%. Greater antihypertensive effects of azilsartan might be due in part to its unusually potent and persistent ability to inhibit binding of angiotensin II to AT(1) receptors. Preclinical studies have indicated that azilsartan may also have potentially beneficial effects on cellular mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease and insulin sensitizing activity that could involve more than just blockade of AT(1) receptors and/or reduction in BP. However, the clinical relevance of these additional actions is unknown. Given that the general ability of antihypertensive drugs to protect against target organ damage is largely mediated by their ability to decrease BP, the enhanced antihypertensive effects of azilsartan should serve to justify clinical interest in this ARB relative to other molecules in the class that have a lower capacity to reduce BP.
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Preliminary observations were made to assess the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of treatment with valsartan plus spironolactone. Thirteen hypertensive patients were studied, 7 were males (54%), and 6 females (46%) with an age range from 61 years to 83 years (mean: 74+/-7.1 years). Patients had a mean daytime SBP/DBP of 164+/-9.2/99+/-9.5 mmHg. Echocardiography showed cardiac hypertrophy and mild cavity enlargement in all patients. After baseline measurements of HR, serum creatinine and electrolytes (potassium and sodium), patients received valsartan 80 mg/day plus spironolactone 100 mg/day for concomitant chronic heart failure due to hypertension. Study parameters were measured at the 30, 60, and 90 day of therapy. Mean ambulatory SBP/DBP monitoring, mean Holter heart rate, mean serum creatinine, and mean serum electrolytes (sodium and potassium) were recorded. These parameters did not show statistically significant changes after 90 days of follow up, except in one patient who had an increase in serum potassium concentration from 4.3 mmol/l to 5.8 mmol/l after 30 days of therapy. Mean BP was reduced up a maximum of 7%. No side effect was seen in the study patients. Combination therapy valsartan and spironolactone seemed to be an effective and safe approach for older hypertensive patients with mild concomitant chronic heart failure.
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Progression of atherosclerosis is associated with a greater risk for adverse outcomes. Angiotensin II plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the effects of angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockade with Valsartan on carotid wall atherosclerosis, with the hypothesis that Valsartan will reduce progression of atherosclerosis.
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There has been demonstrated an antioxidative effect of valsartan that was additive to that of 17 beta-estradiol. Thus this combination has the potential to be useful in the treatment of postmenopausal women with hypertension.
A total of 245 Smart Blister-equipped packages were used by valsartan recipients during the eight-month study. The device was largely effective in recording patient and blister-card identification data and other desired information. However, in 17% of cases, the Smart Blister system registered multiple tablet-removal events at the same time, presumably indicating unintentional breakage of nearby conductive circuits and the need for design refinements. The Smart Blister-equipped medication cards were generally well received by patients and pharmacies.
This 24-week, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, titration-to-effect, parallel-group study was conducted at 35 outpatient centers in Italy. Elderly (aged 60-80 years) patients with ISH received oral treatment with valsartan 80-mg capsules or amlodipine 5-mg capsules once daily. After 8 weeks of treatment, the dose of the patients with poorly controlled systolic BP (SBP) was titrated to 160 mg (valsartan) or 10 mg (amlodipine) once daily. At week 16, if trough SBP was still not adequately controlled, a low-dose diuretic (hydrochlorothiazide [HCTZ] 12.5 mg) was added to the treatment regimen for an additional 8 weeks. Tolerability was assessed at all study visits using physical examination and patient interview.
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In the present work, the influence of intracellular injection of angiotensin-(1-12) [Ang-(1-12)] on the electrical properties of the intact left ventricle of Wistar Kyoto rats was investigated with electrophysiological methods. Particular attention was given to the role of chymostatin on the effect of the peptide. The results indicated that intracellular administration of the peptide elicited a depolarization of the surface cell membrane and an increase of duration of the action potential followed by the generation of early afterdepolarizations. The increment of action potential duration caused by Ang-(1-12) (100 nM) was due to a decrease of total potassium current recorded from single cardiomyocytes using the whole cell configuration of pCAMP. The decrease of potassium current was related to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) because the specific inhibitor of kinase C, Bis-1 (10(-9) M), abolished Ang-(1-12) effects on the potassium current. The question of whether the effect of Ang-(1-12) was related to the formation of Ang II by chymase was investigated.The results revealed that the intracellular administration of chymostatin, a chymase inhibitor (10(-9) M) abolished the effect of intracellular Ang-(1-12) on the potassium current. Moreover, intracellular Ang II (100 nM), by itself, reduced the potassium current, an effect decreased by intracellular valsartan (100 nM). Valsartan (10-9 M) dialyzed into the cell abolished the effect of Ang-(1-12) (100 nM). These observations demonstrate that the effect of Ang-(1-12) on potassium current was related to the formation of Ang II and that the peptide has arrhythmogenic properties.
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Patients with type 2 diabetes are at increased cardiovascular risk. The aim was to explore whether the impaired arterial wall characteristics typical of these patients could be improved by the unique beneficial effects of a very low-dose combination of fluvastatin and valsartan (low-flu/val).
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ALT aggregated with components of MetS, and the pattern of aggregation of ALT with other features of MetS was similar across regions except Asia, possibly indicating a different pathophysiology for NAFLD in Asia. Predictive models of NAFLD may need to be adjusted for regional and ethnic differences.