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This paper describes the synthesis of three different subfamilies of cyclic imides: methylphtalimides, carboxyl acid phtalimides and itaconimides.
Ten isolated strains of Candida albicans obtained from 10 patients with oral candidiasis and a collection strain of C. albicans were treated with antifungal agents in different concentrations or combinations of them. Virulence factors analyzed were the cell surface hydrophobicity, the germinative tube development, the phospholipase activity and the post-antifungal effect of that exposure.
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Two review authors independently performed the study selection. One review author performed the data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessment, which another review author checked.
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A series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-[(4-substitutedphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-propan-2-ols have been designed and synthesized on the basis of the structure-activity relationships and antimycotic mechanism of azole antifungal agents. Their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, MS, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. Results of preliminary antifungal tests against six human pathogenic fungi (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida tropicalis, inherently fluconazole-resistant Candida krusei, Candida glabrata) in vitro showed that all title compounds exhibited activity against fungi tested to some extent except against C. tropicalis. Compound 5b showed higher activity against C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei than fluconazole, and its MIC values were determined to be 0.5microg/mL, 1microg/mL and 4microg/mL, respectively. Compound 5k showed higher activities against Torulopsis glabrata than fluconazole (with the MIC value of 2microg/mL). Compounds 5a, 5c, 5f, 5g, 5i exhibited higher activities against C. parapsilosis than fluconazole (with the MIC values of 2microg/mL, 2microg/mL, 2microg/mL, 1microg/mL and 2microg/mL, respectively).
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the aetiology and susceptibility of different Candida species originating from blood cultures received from different clinical wards of the University Hospital in Szeged, Hungary, from 1996 to 2000. A total of 145 episodes of fungaemia occurred in 68 patients. In 73.5% of the patients the infections were due to Candida albicans, 7.3% to C. parapsilosis, 5.9% to C krusei, 4.4% to C. tropicalis and 3% each to C. glabrata, other Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans. There were no appreciable differences in the distribution of yeast species during the 5-year period: C. albicans remained the predominant species causing bloodstream infections in this hospital, similar to the results of other studies (Norway, SENTRY Program in USA, Canada and South America). Most of the Candida isolates (39.3%) were from blood cultures of patients hospitalised in surgical wards, 28.3% were from adult intensive care units (ICUs), 13.8% from paediatric ICUs, 11% from haematology and 7.6% from cardiology departments. MICs for amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole were determined for 83% of the isolates. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B. The percentage of yeast isolates with decreased susceptibility or resistance to fluconazole was smaller (15.7%) than that for itraconazole (24%).
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Understanding local susceptibility patterns, especially those of non-C. albicans Candida species, can significantly aid in the selection of an effective antifungal agent. The in vivo response of C. krusei vaginitis to various antifungal therapeutics remains unknown and requires further research.
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We evaluated whether the likelihood of developing invasive candidiasis (IC) differed depending upon the anatomic site of Candida colonization in 182 surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients who participated in a randomized trial of fluconazole to prevent candidiasis. We also determined the impact of Candida colonization of different anatomic sites on all-cause SICU and hospital mortality. A total of 2851 surveillance fungal cultures collected from 5 anatomic sites were analyzed. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequency of IC comparing patients with and without urinary (13.2% versus 2.8%, P = .02), respiratory (8.0% versus 1.2%, P = .04), and rectum/ostomy (8.4% versus 0%, P = .01) colonization. Patients with negative rectum/ostomy cultures and patients with both negative urine and respiratory tract cultures did not develop IC. Candiduria detected at any time in the SICU was independently associated with SICU mortality (odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-7.74). Surveillance fungal cultures of particular anatomic sites may help differentiate patients at higher risk of developing IC from those at low risk.
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We investigated the inhibitory effects of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents against Fusarium spp. Seven Fusarium spp: four F. falciforme (Fusarium solani species complex), one Fusarium spp, one Fusarium spp. (Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex), and one F. napiforme (Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), isolated from eyes with fungal keratitis were used in this study. Their susceptibility to antibacterial agents: flomoxef, imipenem, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, and Tobracin® (contained 3,000 μg/ml of tobramycin and 25 μg/ml of benzalkonium chloride (BAK), a biocidal agent: BAK, and antifungal agents: amphotericin B, pimaricin (natamycin), fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, voriconazole, and micafungin, was determined by broth microdilution tests. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50), 100% inhibitory concentration (IC100), and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Fusarium isolates were determined. BAK had the highest activity against the Fusarium spp. except for the antifungal agents. Three fluoroquinolones and two aminoglycosides had inhibitory effects against the Fusarium spp. at relatively high concentrations. Tobracin® had a higher inhibitory effect against Fusarium spp. than tobramycin alone. Amphotericin B had the highest inhibitory effect against the Fusarium spp, although it had different degrees of activity against each isolate. Our findings showed that fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and BAK had some degree of inhibitory effect against the seven Fusarium isolates, although these agents had considerably lower effect than amphotericin B. However, the inhibitory effects of amphotericin B against the Fusarium spp. varied for the different isolates. Further studies for more effective medications against Fusarium, such as different combinations of antibacterial, biocidal, and antifungal agents are needed.
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Itraconazole and terbinafine demonstrate efficacy against some cases of S. brevicaulis toe onychomycosis. These agents also appear to be safe in the course of therapy for toe onychomycosis. Griseofulvin is ineffective against toe onychomycosis caused by S. brevicaulis. Ketoconazole is not recommended for toe onychomycosis given its potential for adverse effects, particularly with the availability of the newer antifungal agents.
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FLU 10 and 20 mg/kg as well as AMB 1 mg/kg significantly decreased the fungal burden (p < 0.05) for all eight isolates of the three species. CAS 2 and 5 mg/kg were efficacious against all C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates (p < 0.05), but only 5 mg/kg CAS was effective against C. parapsilosis isolates (p < 0.05).
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Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined.
In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method is described for determination of fluconazole (FLA) in human plasma samples using phenacetin as the internal standard (IS). Sample preparation was accomplished through one-step protein precipitation by methanol, and chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×50 mm, 1.7 μm) with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid (40:60, v/v) at a flow of 0.45 mL/min. Mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a QTrap 5500 mass spectrometer coupled with an electro-spray ionization (ESI) source in the positive ion mode. The MRM transition of m/z 307.2→238.2 was used to quantify for FLA. The linearity of this method was found to be within the concentration range of 10-6 000 ng/mL for FLA in human plasma. Only 1.0 min was needed for an analytical run. The method herein described was superior to previous methods and was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of FLA in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration.
Pseudozyma spp are amorphic yeasts. They are commonly plant pathogens, but rarely cause invasive fungal disease in humans. Only three cases of central venous catheter (CVC)-associated blood stream infections due to this organism have been reported in the literature. Main underlying risk factors for Pseudozyma spp infection are bowel surgery, CVC and total parenteral nutrition. We present a rare case of Pseudozyma spp catheter-associated blood stream infection that was successfully treated with antifungal therapy and removal of CVC. It is important to recognise and differentiate this species from other yeasts as it may require the use of amphotericin B or voriconazole instead of fluconazole, to which the organism is variably resistant.
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The incidence of mycotic infections in immunocompromised patients has reached a 20-fold rise for the last two decades.
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Candida albicans is one of the main causes of vaginitis, especially in women with recurrent episodes. The appearance of drug resistant C. albicans and adverse effects of chemical agents have raised interest in Echinophora platyloba as one of four native species in Traditional Persian-Iranian medicine.
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Fungal peritonitis is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication for patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. This retrospective study evaluated the efficacy of fluconazole in fungal peritonitis treatment and the incidence of fungal peritonitis in different peritoneal dialysis disconnect systems. Fungal peritonitis was caused by Candida species in 67% of episodes. The most common pathogen in this series was Candida parapsilosis (29%), followed by Candida albicans (14%). One patient (5%) died within 1 month after admission for treatment of fungal peritonitis. Only 1 patient (5%) in this series could resume peritoneal dialysis. Treatment with fluconazole alone has an effect comparable to intraperitoneal (IP) amphotericin B alone or IP amphotericin B combined with oral or intravenous fluconazole. The incidence of fungal peritonitis in patients who used the spike, Y-set, and UV antiseptic systems was 5.69, 6.20, and 2.93 times, respectively, as frequent as that of fungal peritonitis in patients who used the twin-bag disconnect system.
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TE or PG are widely expressed among Candida spp., although they do not seem to influence clinical outcome.
Single-dose intraoperative fluconazole prophylaxis did not have a statistically significant effect on overall mortality (odds ratio = 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-1.06; p = .059) in patients with intra-abdominal perforation. The recovery rate of yeast from intraoperative specimens from the abdominal cavity was high (>30%) and was associated with death and a complicated postoperative course.
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Three echinocandin antifungal agents are currently approved for use in the US: caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin. The echinocandins have a unique mechanism of action, inhibiting beta-(1,3)-D-glucan synthase, an enzyme that is necessary for the synthesis of an essential component of the cell wall of several fungi. The echinocandins display fungistatic activity against Aspergillus spp. and fungicidal activity against most Candida spp., including strains that are fluconazole-resistant. The echinocandins have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis, candidemia, and invasive candidiasis. In addition, caspofungin has demonstrated efficacy as empiric treatment of febrile neutropenia and salvage therapy for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, and it is the only echinocandin approved for use in pediatric patients. Micafungin is the only echinocandin approved for use as prophylaxis against Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Overall, resistance to echinocandins is still rare, and all agents are well tolerated, with similar adverse effect profiles and few drug-drug interactions.
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A total of 431 patients with HIV infection were admitted to this centre during the study period, of these 15 were diagnosed to have CM. Majority of the patients had a subacute presentation with signs of meningeal irritation seen in only seven patients. India ink preparation and positive fungal culture on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) established diagnosis in all cases. All patients were treated with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Complete response was noticed in seven patients, two patients were lost to follow-up and six patients died during the course of therapy. Raised intracranial tension (ICT) and disseminated disease were associated with poor prognosis.
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In selected patients with candidemia, low-dose amphotericin B was as efficacious as high-dose amphotericin B. Based on other studies and ours, fluconazole seems to be an alternative therapeutic option to amphotericin B in selected patients.