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There is evidence indicating that the carbapenem antibiotic panipenem decreases plasma concentrations of valproic acid (VPA) in epileptic patients during VPA therapy. The mechanism for panipenem-induced changes in the pharmacokinetics of VPA was investigated in rats with and without bile duct cannulation. The effect of panipenem on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac, which undergoes extensive enterohepatic recirculation, was also examined. VPA (50 mg/kg of body weight) or diclofenac (10 mg/kg of body weight) was administered intravenously under the steady-state plasma panipenem concentration of 4 microgram/ml, which had been achieved by a constant infusion rate. Panipenem decreased the plasma VPA concentrations in rats without bile duct cannulation but did not change the volume of the initial space and protein binding of VPA. However, panipenem had no effect on the plasma VPA concentrations and the biliary excretion of VPA in rats with bile duct cannulation. The secondary increase in plasma diclofenac concentration observed in the absence of panipenem was diminished in the presence of panipenem. These findings suggest that panipenem decreases plasma VPA concentrations by suppressing its enterohepatic recirculation, probably due to a panipenem-induced decrease in the numbers of enteric bacteria.
Subjects received a titrated schedule of lithium, divalproex sodium, or risperidone. Medications were increased weekly only if there was inadequate response, and no dose-limiting adverse effects, to maximum doses of lithium carbonate (1.1-1.3 mEq/L), divalproex sodium (111-125 μg/mL), and risperidone (4-6 mg).
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It is well established that valproate increases hypothalamic concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although little research has been done on the role of GABA in the control of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in humans, our group recently found that administration of valproate had no significant effect on pulsatile LH secretion in late follicular and mid-late luteal phase normal women. However, the results of several studies of rats suggest that GABAergic regulation of LH secretion may depend on steroid levels. The objective of this work was to determine whether regular administration of sodium valproate inhibits pulsatile LH secretion in ovariectomized women. Twelve women who had undergone ovariectomy for causes other than malignant tumors were each studied in two 8 h sessions, in each of which blood samples were taken every 5 min. The first session was the control; for the second. 400 mg of sodium valproate was administered every 8 h during the seven preceding days and at 08.00 h and 14.00 h on the day of the study session. Serum valproate was determined by repolarization fluorescence spectrophotometry, and LH, estradiol and progesterone by radioimmunoassay. The serum LH series were subjected to a deconvolution procedure to reconstruct the pattern of pituitary LH secretion. Luteinizing hormone pulses were identified by the authors' non-parametric method. Control and post-valproate results were compared with regard to number of pulses, pulse duration, the quantity of LH secreted in each pulse, interpulse interval and mean serum LH level. There was no statistically significant difference between control and post-valproate results for any of the variables considered. It is concluded that sustained serum valproate levels do not alter pulsatile secretion of LH in ovariectomized women. This implies that, in humans, GABA is probably not a decisive factor in the regulation of the GnRH pulse generator.
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The in vitro test battery of the European research consortium ESNATS ('novel stem cell-based test systems') has been used to screen for potential human developmental toxicants. As part of this effort, the migration of neural crest (MINC) assay has been used to evaluate chemical effects on neural crest function. It identified some drug-like compounds in addition to known environmental toxicants. The hits included the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin, the chemotherapeutic arsenic trioxide, the flame-retardant PBDE-99, the pesticide triadimefon and the histone deacetylase inhibitors valproic acid and trichostatin A. Transcriptome changes triggered by these substances in human neural crest cells were recorded and analysed here to answer three questions: (1) can toxicants be individually identified based on their transcript profile; (2) how can the toxicity pattern reflected by transcript changes be compacted/dimensionality-reduced for practical regulatory use; (3) how can a reduced set of biomarkers be selected for large-scale follow-up? Transcript profiling allowed clear separation of different toxicants and the identification of toxicant types in a blinded test study. We also developed a diagrammatic system to visualize and compare toxicity patterns of a group of chemicals by giving a quantitative overview of altered superordinate biological processes (e.g. activation of KEGG pathways or overrepresentation of gene ontology terms). The transcript data were mined for potential markers of toxicity, and 39 transcripts were selected to either indicate general developmental toxicity or distinguish compounds with different modes-of-action in read-across. In summary, we found inclusion of transcriptome data to largely increase the information from the MINC phenotypic test.
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Biopsy specimens of human myometrium were obtained at elective cesarean section (n = 18). Dissected myometrial strips suspended under isometric conditions, undergoing spontaneous, and oxytocin-induced contractions, were subjected to cumulative additions of 3 histone deacetylase inhibitors: trichostatin A, suberic bishydroxamate (1 nmol/L-10 micromol/L) and valproic acid (100 nmol/L--1 mmol/L). Control experiments were run simultaneously. Integrals of contractile activity were measured by using the PowerLab hardware unit and Chart v3.6 software. Data were analyzed by using 1-way analysis of variance, followed by post hoc analysis.
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To determine the safety, toxicity, and maximum-tolerated dose of a sequence-specific combination of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), valproic acid (VPA), and epirubicin in solid tumor malignancies and to define the clinical feasibility of VPA as an HDACi.
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Refractory status epilepticus describes continuing seizures despite adequate initial pharmacologic treatment. This situation is common in children, but few data are available to guide management. We review the literature related to the pharmacologic treatment and overall management of refractory status epilepticus, including midazolam, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, propofol, inhaled anesthetics, ketamine, valproic acid, topiramate, levetiracetam, pyridoxine, corticosteroids, the ketogenic diet, and electroconvulsive therapy. Based on the available data, we present a sample treatment algorithm that emphasizes the need for rapid therapeutic intervention, employs consecutive medications with different mechanisms of action, and attempts to minimize the risk of hypotension. The initial steps suggest using benzodiazepines and phenytoin. Second steps suggest using levetiracetam or valproic acid, which exert few hemodynamic adverse effects and have multiple mechanisms of action. Additional management strategies that could be employed in tertiary-care settings, such as coma induction guided by continuous electroencephalogram monitoring and surgical options, are also discussed.
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In polytherapy patients on c. 32.1 mg/kg/day, steady-state (no missed doses) mean VPA minimum (C(min)) and maximum (C(max)) concentrations were 67 and 98 mg/L, respectively. When dose(s) were missed for 12, 18 and 24 h, mean C(min) fell to 37, 28 and 20 mg/L, respectively, below the threshold 50 mg/L VPA concentration generally required to maintain efficacy. Replacing, then resuming the next regularly scheduled divalproex dose increased mean C(max) to 113, 117 and 129 mg/L upon replacement at 12, 18 and 24 h, respectively; a mean increment of 31 mg/L for replacement at 24 h. Less pronounced changes in VPA concentrations occurred in monotherapy patients (enzyme-uninduced) on approximately 16.1 mg/kg/day.
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The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of clobazam and its active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB) in children with Dravet syndrome receiving the stiripentol/valproic acid/clobazam combination therapy of reference and to determine the concentrations of clobazam and N-CLB obtained in this population for the usual 0.2 mg/kg twice-daily dose.
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of valproic acid (VPA) use in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP).
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The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of major antiepileptic agents are presented. The onset of action and the factors leading to extraction across the blood brain barrier are described as well as the mechanism and extent of metabolism, and the main interactions with other drugs. For each class, the dosing scheme and practical issues related to administration are described, based on evidence when available in the literature.
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More than half of all individuals with bipolar disorder have a substance abuse problem at some point in their lifetime. Patients with comorbid substance abuse disorders often are excluded from clinical trials. Thus, treatments targeting this high-risk clinical population are lacking.
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The presence of suicidal ideation was similar between patients who were taking any lithium and those who were not (22.2 percent and 25.8 percent, respectively) and between those who were taking any divalproex and those who were not (20.3 percent and 21.5 percent). Suicidal ideation was significantly more prevalent among patients who were taking a second-generation antipsychotic than those who were not (26 percent and 17 percent) and those who were taking an antidepressant and those who were not (25 percent and 14 percent). After other variables had been controlled for, lithium prescriptions were significantly more common among patients who had suicidal ideation.
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Subacute encephalopathy with seizures in chronic alcoholism (SESA) was first described in 1981 by Niedermeyer who reported alcoholic patients presenting with confusion, seizures and focal neurological deficits and is quite distinct from patients presenting with typical alcohol withdrawal seizures. EEG often reveals periodic discharges and spikes, but SESA presenting with non-convulsive status epilepticus has rarely been described. We report a case of SESA with non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient who was initially suspected of having a typical alcohol withdrawal seizure. A 61 year old woman with a history of chronic alcoholism was admitted at an outside hospital for confusion thought to be secondary to an alcohol withdrawal seizure. She had right hemiparesis and later developed right facial twitching that did not respond to intravenous fosphenytoin and levetiracetam. She was transferred for further management. Upon arrival, lorazepam and fosphenytoin were given and right face clonic movements resolved. However, continuous EEG monitoring revealed ongoing non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). Following treatment with IV valproate and lacosamide, there was resolution of NCSE. SESA is likely an under recognized clinical syndrome that is quite distinct from typical alcohol withdrawal seizures and requires a different diagnostic and management approach. NCSE is likely to account for the encephalopathy and focal neurological deficits seen in patients presenting with the clinical syndrome of SESA. Therefore, a high degree of suspicion is warranted and continuous EEG monitoring is recommended for alcoholic patients with encephalopathy and focal neurological deficits.
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Introduccion. La epilepsia mioclonica benigna del lactante (EMBL) es un sindrome electroclinico de caracteristicas homogeneas y bien definidas, considerado clasicamente de buen pronostico. Sin embargo, en los ultimos años se han publicado estudios con resultados variables en cuanto a evolucion neuropsicologica. Objetivo. Analizar la evolucion natural y el pronostico neurocognitivo y conductual de los pacientes con EMBL. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 10 pacientes con EMBL, con un periodo de seguimiento de mas de cinco años, durante los cuales se realizo una evaluacion neurocognitiva y conductual. Resultados. En el 60% de los pacientes las crisis se controlaron con acido valproico en monoterapia, y el 80% no presento nuevas crisis durante su seguimiento. El cociente intelectual de la cohorte se situo entre 74 y 93; tres pacientes tuvieron un cociente intelectual en rango de inteligencia limite, y seis, en rango de inteligencia media-baja. Nueve pacientes cumplieron criterios de trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad y dos asociaban otro trastorno del aprendizaje, uno de ellos trastorno de aprendizaje no verbal, y el otro, trastorno especifico de la lectoescritura. Todos los pacientes presentaron datos de pobre coordinacion motriz y visuoespacial, y tres fueron diagnosticados de trastorno de conducta. Conclusiones. El termino 'benigno' en la EMBL debe utilizarse con precaucion en cuanto a su pronostico neurocognitivo y conductual. El inicio precoz y un peor control de las crisis podrian suponer factores de riesgo de evolucion neuropsicologica desfavorable.
There is insufficient evidence to demonstrate superiority of IV-VPA over IV-PB for the treatment of GCSE in terms of efficacy. Some direct and indirect comparisons suggest that VPA has a better safety profile than PB. However, the limited numbers of underpowered RCTs included in this meta-analysis are not sufficient to justify a change in clinical practice. More rigorous and appropriately powered RCTs are therefore required to definitively determine the efficacy and tolerability of VPA for the treatment of GCSE.
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In utero exposure to LTG did not have the detrimental effect on child development that was seen with NaV and with CBZ.
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Neuroretinal ischemic injury contributes to several degenerative diseases in the eye and the resulting pathogenic processes involving a series of necrotic and apoptotic events. This study investigates the time and extent of changes in acetylation, and whether this influences function and survival of neuroretinal cells following injury. Studies evaluated the time course of changes in histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, histone-H3 acetylation and caspase-3 activation levels as well as retinal morphology and function (electroretinography) following ischemia. In addition, the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin-A and valproic acid were also investigated. In normal eyes, retinal ischemia produced a significant increase in HDAC activity within 2 h that was followed by a corresponding significant decrease in protein acetylation by 4 h. Activated caspase-3 levels were significantly elevated by 24 h. Treatment with HDAC inhibitors blocked the early decrease in protein acetylation and activation of caspase-3. Retinal immunohistochemistry demonstrated that systemic administration of trichostatin-A or valproic acid, resulted in hyperacetylation of all retinal layers after systemic treatment. In addition, HDAC inhibitors provided a significant functional and structural neuroprotection at seven days following injury relative to vehicle-treated eyes. These results provide evidence that increases in HDAC activity is an early event following retinal ischemia, and are accompanied by corresponding decreases in acetylation in advance of caspase-3 activation. In addition to preserving acetylation status, the administration of HDAC inhibitors suppressed caspase activation and provided structural and functional neuroprotection in model of ischemic retinal injury. Taken together these data provide evidence that decrease in retinal acetylation status is a central event in ischemic retinal injury, and the hyperacetylation induced by HDAC inhibition can provide acute neuroprotection.
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Valproate treatment has been associated with high rates of menstrual abnormalities, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries in women with epilepsy. This pilot study investigated whether valproate treatment had the same associations in women with bipolar disorder.
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Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified records, selected studies for inclusion, extracted data, cross-checked the data for accuracy and assessed the methodological quality. We performed no meta-analyses due to the limited available data.
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Episodes of anxiety have been reported to be the most common psychological symptoms in patients with partial seizures. They may occur before, during and after seizures and can also appear in isolation without any convulsive symptoms. The epileptic anxiety syndrome is strikingly similar to panic attacks, and panic disorder is an important differential diagnosis. The close relationship between epileptic seizures and panic attacks is of special interest for a better pathophysiological understanding of panic attacks. In the literature an epileptiform neuronal activity is discussed as a possible underlying mechanism for panic disorder. The finding that anxiety was the most common experiential phenomenon produced by electrical stimulation of amygdala and hippocampus with depth electrodes points in this direction. PET has demonstrated abnormalities of hippocampal structures during the nonpanic state of patients with panic disorder. In addition, some EEG studies have demonstrated a high incidence of epileptiform EEG patterns in patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. This was the reason why several investigators proposed that a subset of panic attacks may be related to abnormal epileptiform neuronal activity in the limbic system. The size of this subset is difficult to determine because discharges in the depth of the limbic system often cannot be seen in the scalp EEG. Concerning the hypothetical pathophysiological mechanism of panic disorder therapeutic measures were taken with antiepileptic agents. The best results were obtained for valproic acid. It seems to be reasonable to make a therapeutic trial with antiepileptic medication after nonresponse to standard pharmacotherapy.
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Serum thyroid hormone concentrations are low in CBZ- or OCBZ-treated men. However, these low levels do not seem to be due to liver enzyme induction or activation of immunologic mechanisms. Therefore, interference with hypothalamic regulation of thyroid function by CBZ and OCBZ seems possible. VPA does not have any significant effects on thyroid function.
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Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid aplasia characterized as a normochromic macrocytic anemia with a selective deficiency in red blood cell precursors in otherwise normocelullar bone marrow. DBA is known to be associated with mental retardation and learning disabilities. Although comorbidities with other psychiatric conditions have not been reported in the existing literature, we report in this paper a case of a DBA patient with previously undiagnosed comorbidity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), successfully treated with sertaline 200 mg/day and valproic acid 600 mg/day. This case of comorbid presentation has clinical, therapeutic and pathophysiological implications. Given the difficulty of distinguishing among mental retardation, learning disabilities and OCD and the importance of precocious diagnosis in treating OCD especially since there are treatment methods interfering with anemia symptoms, physicians should adapt an adequate screening tool treating a child with DBA and comorbid mental disorder.