We performed a retrospective chart analysis of the clinical and microbiological data of 97 consecutive patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis presenting to a tertiary eye care hospital in South India.
Multiple genes coding for efflux pumps involved in chloramphenicol resistance were present in all strains. Polymyxin B monotherapy at all concentrations produced rapid bacterial killing followed by rapid regrowth with the emergence of polymyxin resistance; chloramphenicol monotherapy was largely ineffective. Combination therapy significantly delayed regrowth, with synergy observed in 25 out of 28 cases at both 6 and 24 h; at 24 h, no viable bacterial cells were detected in 15 out of 28 cases with various combinations across all strains. No polymyxin-resistant bacteria were detected with combination therapy. These results were supported by pharmacodynamic modelling. SEM revealed significant morphological changes following treatment with polymyxin B both alone and in combination.
First, pre-extraction and extraction procedures were optimized. With this standardized procedure, a 143 mould strains reference spectra library was built. Then, the mould isolates cultured from sequential clinical samples were prospectively subjected to this MALDI-TOF MS based-identification assay. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was considered correct if it was concordant with the phenotypic identification; otherwise, the gold standard was DNA sequence comparison-based identification.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic emergent pathogen causing hospital-acquired infections. It is resistant to majority of the broad spectrum antibiotics due to several mechanisms which significantly limit the treatment options. Although the relationship between integrons, mobile genetic elements which play role in transferring resistance genes, and the antibiotic resistance in different gram-negative bacteria have been investigated, the data are limited in Turkey especially for S.maltophilia. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of different classes of integrons and plasmids in clinical isolates of S.maltophilia and to investigate the antibiotic resistance profiles of those isolates. One hundred S.maltophilia strains isolated from various clinical samples (32 sputum, 25 tracheal aspirates, 9 urine and blood, 7 exudates and catheters, 4 sterile body fluids and wounds, 2 CSF, 1 conjunctiva) in our microbiology laboratory during January 2011-September 2012, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by VITEK2 Compact (BioMerieux, France) or Phoenix 100 (BD, USA) automatized systems, and the susceptibilities of the strains to levofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftazidime and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazol (SXT) were evaluated via broth microdilution method according to the CLSI recommendations. Class 1 (intI-1), class 2 (intI-2), class 3 (intI-3) integron gene cassettes and integron 5'-3' conserved gene regions (intI-5'-3'CS) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers in all of the strains. Nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR products was performed in case of positive result, and the presence and size of plasmids were further investigated. The susceptibility rates of S.maltophilia strains to ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, SXT and levofloxacin were found as 24%, 66%, 93% and 95%, respectively, while MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were 64-128 µg/ml, 8-16 µg/ml, 1/19-2/38 µg/ml and 1-2 µg/ml, respectively. In PCR amplification with intI-1, intI-2 and intI-3 primers, 12%, 2% and 10% of the isolates yielded expectative bands, respectively. DNA sequence analysis of the amplified products revealed five isolates to harbour intI-1 gene, while intI class 2 and class 3 genes were not detected in any of the strains. Furthermore in PCR amplification with intI-5'CS and 3'CS primers, 20% of the strains yielded expected bands. Sequence analysis of these amplicons revealed the presence of quaternary ammonium compound resistance protein genes (qacL) in two, aminoglycoside adenyltransferase gene (aadA) in one and integron-associated recombination site (attI1) genes in five strains. Additionally, the presence of plasmids have been detected in 9 (9%) of the strains, however all of them was integron-negative. The sizes of plasmids were 2340, 1350, 2760, 18600, 20000, 3570-2540, 2510 and 5000-2540 base pairs, respectively. When the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of strains were compared with the presence of intI gene regions, no statistically significant relationship was observed (p> 0.05). In conclusion, the demonstration of integron class 1 genes and plasmids among clinical S.maltophilia strains is regarded as a warning data to indicate the potential for spread of those resistant strains in our hospital.
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To identify proteins that can bind the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) we screened human cDNA libraries using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae three-hybrid system. Screening with an RNA sequence derived from the 3'-terminal 98 nucleotides (3'X region) of an infectious clone of HCV (H77c) yielded clones of human ribosomal proteins L22, L3, S3, and mL3, a mitochondrial homologue of L3. We performed preliminary characterization of the binding between the 3'X region and these proteins by a three-hybrid mating assay using mutant 3'X sequences. We have further characterized the interaction between 3'X and L22, since this protein is known to be associated with two small Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA species (EBERs) which are abundantly produced in cells latently infected with EBV. The EBERs, which have similar predicted secondary structure to the HCV 3'X, assemble into ribonucleoprotein particles that include L22 and La protein. To confirm that L22 binds HCV 3'X we performed in vitro binding assays using recombinant L22 (expressed as a glutathione S-transferase [GST] fusion protein) together with a 3'X riboprobe. The 3'X region binds to the GST-L22 fusion protein (but not to GST alone), and this interaction is subject to competition with unlabeled 3'X RNA. To establish the functional role played by L22 in internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of HCV sequences we performed translational analysis in HuH-7 cells using monocistronic and bicistronic reporter constructs. The relative amount of core-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter protein translated under the control of the HCV IRES was stimulated in the presence of L22 and La when these proteins were supplied in trans.
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The concordant results of PFGE and coag-RFLP demonstrated the presence of a persistent MRSA clone in the hospital during the study period.
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The equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) immediate-early (IE) phosphoprotein is essential for the activation of transcription from viral early and late promoters and regulates transcription from its own promoter. The IE protein of 1487 amino acids contains a serine-rich tract (SRT) between residues 181 and 220. Deletion of the SRT decreased transactivation activity of the IE protein. Previous results from investigation of the ICP4 protein, the IE homolog of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), revealed that a domain containing a serine-rich tract interacts with EAP (Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small nuclear RNA-associated protein), a 15-kDa nucleolar-ribosomal protein (R. Leopardi, and B. Roizman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 4572-4576, 1996). DNA binding assays revealed that (i) glutathione S-transferase (GST)-EAP disrupted the binding of HSV-1 ICP4 to its cognate DNA in a dose-dependent manner, (ii) GST-EAP interacted with the EHV-1 IE protein, but did not disrupt its binding to its cognate site in viral DNA. GST-pulldown assays indicated that the SRT of the IE protein is required for physical interaction with EAP. The IE protein and EAP colocalized in the cytoplasm of the infected equine ETCC cells at late times of the infection cycle. This latter finding may be important in EHV-1 gene regulation since late viral gene expression is greatly influenced by the EICP0 trans-activator protein whose function is antagonized by the IE protein.
Of the 84 Shigella isolates, 54 were Shigella flexneri and 20 were Shigella dysenteriae type 1. High rates of resistance were observed against ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; 6% of the S. flexneri isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid.
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To determine the bacteriological profile of common aetiologic agents of neonatal septicaemia and their antibiotics sensitivity pattern.
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or benzo(a)pyrene interfere with hormonal regulatory pathways, leading to endocrine disruption. Notably, the activated AhR exerts complex effects on estrogens and retinoids at both levels of their metabolism and regulation of cognate genes. Our current investigation of these AhR effects revealed the TCDD-dependent activation of a subset of retinoid-dependent genes (tissue-transglutaminase, IGF binding protein-3, AhR) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A collection of in vitro hormone-dependent reporter gene models showed that AhR activation by TCDD stimulated transactivation by several class I heteromeric receptors (retinoic and thyroid hormone receptors) while it antagonized homodimeric nuclear receptors (estrogen and progesterone receptors, ER and PR). TCDD exerted a dose-dependent effect on a retinoic acid-dependent reporter gene expressed in MCF-7 cells. AhR was shown to be involved in a mutual antagonism with RARalpha corepressor SMRT (silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors). This, and the documented physical interaction between AhR and SMRT suggested that SMRT sequestration by AhR might activate RARalpha in the absence of ligand. Immunocytochemical studies of AhR and SMRT strongly suggested they colocalized in nuclear bodies during this sequestration. Concurring with this interpretation, we observed an interaction in vitro between AhR and the PML protein, the core component of nuclear bodies. This ability of AhR to elicit spurious activation of retinoid receptors expands the scope of AhR ligands influence beyond ER antagonism and specific Dioxin-responsive genes. Unknown AhR endogenous ligands may also elicit gene transactivation by class I receptors, while being inactive on classic xenobiotic-responsive genes.
Safety and probiotic characteristics such as antimicrobial activities of three Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, FSMM15, FSMM22 and FSMM26, previously isolated as potential probiotics from fermented mare's milk were investigated. The three FSMM strains were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, whereas they were resistant to erythromycin (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 4-8 µg/mL) and clindamycin (MIC = 4 µg/mL); bioconversion of bile salts, hemolytic activity and mucin degradation activity were negative; enzymatic activities of α-chymotrypsin and β-glucosidase were detected, but those of α-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, were undetectable. Among the strains, strain FSMM15 was chosen as a safer probiotic candidate due mainly to the lack of plasminogen binding ability. Despite lower acid production of strain FSMM15 than others, its cell-free culture supernatant inhibited growths of Salmonella Typhimurium LT-2, Shigella sonnei, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157 with comparable levels of ampicillin, suggesting a favorable aspect of strain FSMM15 as a probiotic strain.
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Clinical onychomycosis was found in 77 of the 152 diabetics tested giving a prevalence of 50.7% (95% CI 42.4-58.9) in diabetics in Fako. No socio-demographic or clinical factor studied was significantly associated with onychomycosis. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common isolate (62%). Other isolates included Trichophyton metagraphyte (22%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (16%). Dermatophytes were sensitive to miconazole (66%), amphotericin B (19%) and ketoconazole (14%).
Sixty Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) strains from pigs in Taiwan were examined. Serotyping revealed that these belonged to serovars 1 (n=53), 2 (n=3), and 5 (n=4). Agar disk diffusion susceptibility testing of the isolates showed 55 (92%) were resistant to three or more antimicrobial agents. Six resistance patterns were observed. Ampicillin-chloramphenicol-flumequine-nalidixic acid-streptomycin-sulfonamide/trimethoprim-tetracycline was the most common multi-resistance pattern. Minimal inhibitory concentration of 14 antimicrobial agents was determined. The isolates were highly susceptible to ceftiofur and trimethoprim in vitro. Isolates were resistant to streptomycin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid. All isolates were examined for the presence of plasmids using the alkaline lysis method. Forty three (72%) isolates had four plasmid bands with an approximate sizes of 3.5, 4.3, 5.8 and 6.0 kb; 12 (20%) had three bands at 3.5, 4.3 and 5.2 kb, and 5 (8%) had no plasmid bands. Antimicrobial resistance plasmids were detected in resistant strains of App. Three antimicrobial resistance plasmids were transformed into E. coli DH5 alpha. pTMY1 (4.3 kb) encoded a streptomycin kinase and a dihydropteroate synthase; pTMY2 (6.0 kb) encoded ROB-1 beta-lactamase and aminoglycoside 3'-phosphotransferase; pTMY3 (5.2 kb) encoded only ROB-1 beta-lactamase. The 4.3 kb plasmid was sequenced and consisted of 4242 bp with 42.9% GC content. The 4.3 kb plasmid DNA sequence was 98% homologous to a plasmid previously isolated from Pasteurella haemolytica.
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We previously demonstrated that infection of cultured cells with murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) resulted in activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (Raf/MEK/ERK) signal transduction pathway (Y. Cai et al., Virology 355:152-163, 2006). Here we show that inhibition of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway by the MEK inhibitor UO126 significantly impaired MHV progeny production (a reduction of 95 to 99% in virus titer), which correlated with the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2. Moreover, knockdown of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 by small interfering RNAs suppressed MHV replication. The inhibitory effect of UO126 on MHV production appeared to be a general phenomenon since the effect was consistently observed in all six different MHV strains and in three different cell types tested; it was likely exerted at the postentry steps of the virus life cycle because the virus titers were similarly inhibited from infected cells treated at 1 h prior to, during, or after infection. Furthermore, the treatment did not affect the virus entry, as revealed by the virus internalization assay. Metabolic labeling and reporter gene assays demonstrated that translation of cellular and viral mRNAs appeared unaffected by UO126 treatment. However, synthesis of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs was severely suppressed by UO126 treatment, as demonstrated by a reduced incorporation of [3H]uridine and a decrease in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in a defective-interfering RNA-CAT reporter assay. These findings indicate that the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is involved in MHV RNA synthesis.
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To investigate the potential of double-stranded RNA interferencing with gene expression in Dunaliella salina, a plasmid pBIRNAI-Dsa was constructed to express hairpin RNA (hpRNA) containing sequences homologous to phytoene desaturase gene (pds), a key gene in carotenoid biosynthesis, and transformed into D. salina by electroporation. The relative transcription level of pds in pBIRNAI-Dsa-treated cells to nontreated cells was quantitated and the gene silencing efficiency by RNAi was evaluated via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The transcriptions of pds of the pBIRNAI-Dsa-treated group changed compared to those of the control group, and the 2(-delta deltaC)(T) was lowest on the 7th day, corresponding to 0.281265-fold of the relative pds control transcript; a relatively strong gene inhibition effect was therefore deduced. The transcript of pds may be modulated in a wide range, and a reduced transcription even to 28% of the normal level may be tolerated for its survival. This study shows that dsRNA-mediated genetic interference can induce sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression and pBIRNAI-Dsa can be used for transient suppression of gene expression in D. salina. The aim of this study was to exploit dsRNA-mediated gene silencing and to provide a foundation for gene function research in D. salina.
Double stranded RNA (dsRNA), an intermediate that is common during viral infection, directly induces much higher levels of expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA than does the cytokine IL-1beta. Interferon alpha (IFNalpha) by itself does not induce expression of IL-6; nonetheless, IFNalpha pretreatment dramatically enhances IL-6 induction by dsRNA but not by IL-1beta. Mutation of either the activating transcription factor/cyclic AMP response element binding protein (ATF/CREB) or the NF-IL-6 binding element within the IL-6 promoter eliminates most responsiveness of CAT reporter constructs to either dsRNA or to IL-1beta. IFNalpha pretreatment partially restores responsiveness to dsRNA but not to IL-1beta when either the ATF/CREB site or the NF-IL-6 site is mutated, but at least one of these sites must be intact for responsiveness to be restored. Mutation of the kappaB binding site in the IL-6 promoter eliminates responsiveness to either IL-1beta or to dsRNA, and pretreatment with IFNalpha does not restore any responsiveness. Incubation with dsRNA leads to a decrease in protein translation, especially in cells that have been pretreated with IFNalpha. Nonetheless, IFNalpha pretreatment followed by dsRNA leads to very high IL-6 protein levels. These studies demonstrate that major differences exist in the induction of IL-6 at both the mRNA and protein levels by dsRNA compared to cytokines and that IFNalpha pretreatment selectively enhances IL-6 induction by dsRNA but not by IL-1beta. The high levels of IL-6 expression that result when cells encounter class I IFN prior to dsRNA suggest a mechanism for a heightened host response to viral infection with heightened production of this pleotropic cytokine.
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Nine clinical isolates of P. mirabilis containing eight fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates and one fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolate as the causative pathogen were collected from different patients with urinary tract infections. Fluoroquinolone resistance was characterized by PCR and DNA sequencing. The role of the AcrAB efflux pump was investigated by semi-quantifying the transcriptional expression of the acrB gene.
A new analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of 12 pharmaceuticals using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Six nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, naproxen, sulindac, and piroxicam) and six antibiotics (tinidazole, cefuroxime axetil, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, and chloramphenicol) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted DLLME using dichloromethane (800 μL) and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v, 1200 μL) as the extraction and dispersive solvents, respectively. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the type and volume of extraction and dispersive solvent, vortex and ultrasonic time, sample pH, and ionic strength, were optimized. The ultrasound-assisted process was applied to accelerate the formation of the fine cloudy solution by using a small volume of dispersive solvent, which increased the extraction efficiency and reduced the equilibrium time. Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.04-20 ng mL(-1) (ciprofloxacin and sulfadiazine), 0.2-100 ng mL(-1) (ketoprofen, tinidazole, cefuroxime axetil, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, and sulindac), and 1-200 ng mL(-1) (mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, piroxicam, and chloramphenicol). The LODs and LOQs of the method were in the range of 0.006-0.091 and 0.018-0.281 ng mL(-1), respectively. The relative recoveries of the target analytes were in the range from 76.77 to 99.97 % with RSDs between 1.6 and 8.8 %. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and analysis of 12 pharmaceuticals in five kinds of water samples (drinking water, running water, river water, influent and effluent wastewater) with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Twelve pharmaceuticals in water samples analyted by UHPLC-MS/MS using ultrasound-assisted DLLME.
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MSMEG_0220 from Mycobacterium smegmatis, the ortholog of the Rv0183 gene from M. tuberculosis, recently identified and characterized as encoding a monoacylglycerol lipase, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein (rMSMEG_0220), which exhibits 68% amino acid sequence identity with Rv0183, showed the same substrate specificity and similar patterns of pH-dependent activity and stability as the M. tuberculosis enzyme. rMSMEG_0220 was found to hydrolyze long-chain monoacylglycerol with a specific activity of 143 +/- 6 U mg(-1). Like Rv0183 in M. tuberculosis, MSMEG_0220 was found to be located in the cell wall. To assess the in vivo role of the homologous proteins, an MSMEG_0220 disrupted mutant of M. smegmatis (MsDelta0220) was produced. An intriguing change in the colony morphology and in the cell interaction, which were partly restored in the complemented mutant containing either an active (ComMsDelta0220) or an inactive (ComMsDelta0220S111A) enzyme, was observed. Growth studies performed in media supplemented with monoolein showed that the ability of both MsDelta0220 and ComMsDelta0220S111A to grow in the presence of this lipid was impaired. Moreover, studies of the antimicrobial susceptibility of the MsDelta0220 strain showed that this mutant is more sensitive to rifampin and more resistant to isoniazid than the wild-type strain, pointing to a critical structural role of this enzyme in mycobacterial physiology, in addition to its function in the hydrolysis of exogenous lipids.
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The antibiotic resistance pattern and plasmid profiles were studied for a total of 89 Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates recovered from faecal specimens of children hospitalized with diarrhoea in Rahma hospital for children, Irbid-Jordan. Twenty-four of these were identified as diarrhoeagenic E. coli by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure. Seventy-one E. coli isolates showed a multiple resistance pattern (to 10 antibiotics) and 13 isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. All the 89 isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid. Plasmid content and profile studies showed that the 76 E. coli drug resistant isolates (including 6 and 12 isolates that showed single resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin respectively) carried plasmids ranging from 54.0 kb to 1.5 kb in size. The number of plasmids in each of these isolates ranged from one to six of different sizes. All the E. coli isolates contained a common plasmid with a molecular weight of 25.0 kb which proved to confer resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and possibly chloramphenicol.
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The chloramphenical acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene or DTA gene was linked to the 5' upstream region of the AFP gene. The plasmids were transfected into AFP-producing or non-producing cells by the lipopolyamine-coated DNA method. Expression of CAT activity and effects on cell growth of transfected cells were assessed.
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The oxazolidinone antibiotic linezolid targets the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) on the bacterial ribosome. Thirteen single and four double 23S rRNA mutations were introduced into a Mycobacterium smegmatis strain with a single rRNA operon. Converting bacterial base identity by single mutations at positions 2032, 2453, and 2499 to human cytosolic base identity did not confer significantly reduced susceptibility to linezolid. The largest decrease in linezolid susceptibility for any of the introduced single mutations was observed with the G2576U mutation at a position that is 7.9 Å from linezolid. Smaller decreases were observed with the A2503G, U2504G, and G2505A mutations at nucleotides proximal to linezolid, showing that the degree of resistance conferred is not simply inversely proportional to the nucleotide-drug distance. The double mutations G2032A-C2499A, G2032A-U2504G, C2055A-U2504G, and C2055A-A2572U had remarkable synergistic effects on linezolid resistance relative to the effects of the corresponding single mutations. This study emphasizes that effects of rRNA mutations at the PTC are organism dependent. Moreover, the data show a nonpredictable cross-resistance pattern between linezolid, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and valnemulin. The data underscore the significance of mutations at distal nucleotides, either alone or in combination with other mutated nucleotides, in contributing to linezolid resistance.
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The antibiotic chloramphenicol produces modifications in 23S rRNA when bound to ribosomes from the bacterium Escherichia coli and the archaeon Halobacterium halobium and irradiated with 365 nm light. The modifications map to nucleotides m(5)U747 and C2611/C2612, in domains II and V, respectively, of E.coli 23S rRNA and G2084 (2058 in E.coli numbering) in domain V of H.halobium 23S rRNA. The modification sites overlap with a portion of the macrolide binding site and cluster at the entrance to the peptide exit tunnel. The data correlate with the recently reported chloramphenicol binding site on an archaeal ribosome and suggest that a similar binding site is present on the E.coli ribosome.
A null mutation in the mexS gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa yielded an increased level of expression of a 3-gene operon containing a gene, xenB, whose product is highly homologous to a xenobiotic reductase in Pseudomonas fluorescens shown previously to remove nitro groups from trinitrotoluene and nitroglycerin (D. S. Blehert, B. G. Fox, and G. H. Chambliss, J. Bacteriol. 181:6254, 1999). This expression, which paralleled an increase in mexEF-oprN expression in the same mutant, was, like mexEF-oprN, dependent on the MexT LysR family positive regulator previously implicated in mexEF-oprN expression. As nitration is a well-known result of nitrosative stress, a role for xenB (and the coregulated mexEF-oprN) in a nitrosative stress response was hypothesized and tested. Using s-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) as a source of nitrosative stress, the expression of xenB and mexEF-oprN was shown to be GSNO inducible, although in the case of xenB, this was seen only for a mutant lacking MexEF-OprN. In both instances, this GSNO-inducible expression was dependent upon MexT. Chloramphenicol, a nitroaromatic antimicrobial that is a substrate for MexEF-OprN, was shown to induce mexEF-oprN but not xenB, again dependent upon the MexT regulator, possibly because it resembles a nitrosated nitrosative stress product accommodated by MexEF-OprN.
In this study, we investigated reductive degradation of nitroaromatic antibiotic chloramphenicol to non-effective antibacterial amine product in fed-batch biocatalyzed electrolysis systems (BES) (applied voltage was 0.5 V) under low temperature (12 +/- 2 degrees C). The ohm resistance of the whole BES reactor increased when the phosphate buffer solution concentrations decreased. Efficiencies (ErCAP) of chloramphenicol reduction with biocathode (PBS, 25 mmol/L) in presence of glucose was (86.3 +/- 1.69)% within 24 h and sludge fermentation liquor was (74.1 +/-1.44)% within 24 h. While the ErCAP of abiotic cathode under the same condition was only (57.9 +/- 1.94)% within 24 h. It suggested that biocathode could be a promising technology for reductive biodegradation of nitroaromatic antibiotics-containing wastewater in areas with relatively low annual mean temperature.
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Twenty-one E. faecalis isolates, from canals of root filled teeth with persisting periapical lesions, were tested for their antibiotic susceptibilities. The following antibiotics were used: benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, erythromycin, azithromycin, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the antimicrobial agents were determined using the E-test System (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden), and the E. faecalis strains classified as susceptible or resistant according to the guidelines of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS). The strains were also tested for beta-lactamase production with nitrocefin (Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK).
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A total of 3,205 group A streptoccal isolates were collected in 1997 through a private laboratory which serves community physicians in southern Ontario and which represents a population base of 6 million people. Nonsusceptibility to erythromycin was detected for 67 (2.1%) isolates both by disk diffusion and by broth microdilution. Of these, 47 (70%) were susceptible to clindamycin and were found by PCR to possess the mef gene. Of the other 20 strains, 18 and 2 showed inducible and constitutive resistance, respectively, to clindamycin. Nineteen of these strains were shown by PCR to possess the ermTR gene, and a single constitutively resistant strain harbored an ermB gene. Sixteen (24%) erythromycin-resistant strains were also resistant to tetracycline. All were susceptible to penicillin and chloramphenicol.
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A method to achieve the insertion of genetic material into the chromosome of Escherichia coli is described. The method is based on the use of integration vectors from the pBRINTs-rAnbR family. These vectors offer the choice of using the antibiotics chloramphenicol, gentamycin, or kanamycin to select for chromosomal integration events. In addition, it is possible to eliminate these chromosomal antibiotic resistance markers, after integration has taken place. The overall insertion strategy is as follows: a fragment containing the gene(s) to be integrated in the chromosome is inserted into the multiple cloning site of a pBRINTs-rAnbR vector and the resulting plasmid is used to transform E. coli cells. The plasmid is first allowed to replicate in the cell at the permissive temperature of 30 degrees C. Next, the temperature of the culture is raised to 44 degrees C to inhibit plasmid replication and to select for the integrants in the presence of the appropriate antibiotic. Chromosomal excision of the AnbR gene can then be catalyzed by the Cre recombinase that is transiently expressed in the cell from the temperature-sensitive pJW168 plasmid. This plasmid is finally eliminated from the cells by increasing the temperature of the culture to 44 degrees C.
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We demonstrate a beneficial effect of PACK-CXL as primary treatment, either as stand-alone or as an adjuvant to antimicrobial therapy.