Ceftin is used for treating bacterial infections (sinus, skin, lung, urinary tract, ear, and throat). It may also be used to treat Lyme disease and gonorrhea.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Cefuroxime.
Ceftin is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by interfering with the formation of the bacteria's cell wall so that the wall ruptures, resulting in the death of the bacteria.
Generic name of Ceftin is Cefuroxime.
Ceftin is also known as Cefuroxime axetil, Zinacef, Bacticef, Cefasun, Cefudura, Cefuhexal, Cefurax, Cefutil, Cetil, Froxime, Elobact, Oraxim, Zinnat.
Brand name of Ceftin is Ceftin.
Take Ceftin by mouth with or without food.
Swallow Ceftin whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.
Ceftin works best if it is taken at the same time each day.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ceftin suddenly. To clear up your infection completely, take Ceftin for the full course of treatment. Keep taking it even if you feel better in a few days.
If you overdose Ceftin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Ceftin are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Ceftin if you are allergic to Ceftin components.
Ceftin should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.
Be careful if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.
Be careful if you are diabetes patient. Ceftin may cause the results of some tests for urine glucose to be wrong.
To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Ceftin.
It can be dangerous to stop Ceftin taking suddenly.
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The effects of repeated oral administration of cefuroxime axetil were assessed in Beagles. The test material, an ester, is hydrolysed following absorption from the intestine to yield the therapeutically active moiety, cefuroxime, together with acetic acid and acetaldehyde; in this study cefuroxime and unhydrolyzed cefuroxime axetil were detected in the blood. Cefuroxime axetil was administered twice daily during 27 weeks by gavage of aqueous, suspensions, total daily doses were equivalent to 100, 400 or 1600 mg cefuroxime/kg/day. Apart from three cases of intercurrent illness, unrelated to treatment, the dogs remained in good health. Effects observed in the 1600 mg/kg group included vomiting and slight suppression of body weight gain. Minor variations in haematological measurements included rather low haemoglobin levels, packed cell volumes and erythrocyte counts. Slightly smaller numbers of neutrophils were thought to reflect reduced demand on normal defensive mechanisms due to continued antibiotic treatment. Prolongation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time is attributed to disturbance of the intestinal microbial flora and reduced synthesis of vitamin K, on which the dog is highly dependent. Cefuroxime does not have the N-methylthiotetrazole side chain thought to be responsible for inhibition by other cephalosporins of the vitamin K-dependent step in the synthesis of clotting factors. Variations in plasma chemistry included rather low levels of plasma protein. Electrophoresis showed this to be a generalised reduction; only gamma globulins were proportionally decreased and this finding, like the low neutrophil counts, is attributed to the protective action of the antibiotic. Minor metabolic adjustments to the compound are reflected in plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. This spectrum of findings was seen only to a very limited extent in the 400 mg/kg group; the 100 mg/kg group was, with very few exceptions, unaffected by the treatment. Macroscopic post mortem examination and microscopic examination of tissues revealed no treatment-related features indicative of toxicity. Cefuroxime axetil was thus shown to possess very little toxicity when administered repeatedly in large doses to Beagles. The lowest dose level in this study was ten times the proposed daily clinical dose in man.
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Cefuroxime axetil is the esterified form of cefuroxime, injectable second generation cephalosporine antibiotic that can be given orally. Stereo and structural isomers of cefuroxime axetil (CA), anti-cefuroxime axetil (ACA) and Delta(3)-cefuroxime axetil (DCA), can be present in cefuroxime dosage forms as the process related impurities as well as possible degradation product. Sensitive and precise reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of cefuroxime axetil in the presence of its degradation products in solid dosage forms. The RSD values for cefuroxime axetil, anti-cefuroxime axetil and Delta(3)-cefuroxime axetil of 1.80, 1.99 and 2.48%, respectively, indicated a good precision of the RP-HPLC method. Developed RP-HPLC method was sensitive with LOD = 0.08 microg mL(-1) and LOQ = 0.60 microg mL(-1) for anti-cefuroxime axetil and LOD = 0.06 microg mL(-1) and LOQ = 0.45 microg mL(-1) for Delta(3)-cefuroxime axetil. Holding studies were carried out on Ceroxim tablets, according to ICH regulation at 30 degrees C/60% relative humidity (RH) and 40 degrees C/75% RH for 1, 2, 3 and 6 months. The review data from the stability studies conducted, show the significant content change of Delta(3)-cefuroxime axetil.
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To assess the safety and efficacy of cefuroxime axetil in the treatment of infections during pregnancy.
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Four hundred and eighty five patients were included in the study: in France (n = 301), Tunisia (n = 48), Poland (n = 69) and Argentina (n = 67) between January 2001 and February 2002. Cultures were positive in 199/434 patients (46%), mainly S. pneumoniae (34.2%), H. influenzae (21.5%), S. aureus (15.4%), and M. catharralis (7.9%). The clinical cure rate at day 12-19 in the per protocol population, the main study criterion, was equal to 91.4% (201/220) and 91.1% (195/214) respectively in the pristinamycin and cefuroxime axetil groups; delta = 0.14%; 95%CI: [-5.1%; 5.3%]. The non-inferiority of 4-day pristinamycin versus 5-day cefuroxime axetil was demonstrated. The efficacy at follow up after treatment (day 26-31) was 88.6% and 85.8% respectively, confirming the non-inferiority. The bacteriological cure rate at day 12-19 was 87% (87/100) and 87.9% (87/99) respectively. Both treatments were well tolerated.
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Antibiotic concentrations in serum and middle ear effusion (MEE) are important in determining treatment success in acute otitis media, but studies to measure concentration levels are often performed in chronically infected patients where there is little inflammation. In this open, single-center study, 26 patients with acute otitis media were enrolled to assess antibiotic penetration in inflamed ears. Of the 26 patients, 4 were non-evaluable, 6 formed a control group and the others were randomized into three groups. Each of the three groups was given a single oral dose of cefuroxime axetil suspension, 15 mg/kg. Food was administered approximately 20 minutes before the drug in order to maximize drug absorption. Cefuroxime concentrations in serum and MEE were assessed at 2-3 (group 1), 3-4 (group 2) and 4-5 (group 3) hours following dosing. Sampling of MEE was performed with tympanocentesis under local anesthesia and the drug was assayed by HPLC-mass spectrometry. The serum concentrations of cefuroxime were found to be above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for penicillin-sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae for 100% of the dosing interval and 42% of the time for intermediate-resistant strains. For both Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis, serum cefuroxime levels were above the MIC for 42% of the time between doses. This study indicates that cefuroxime axetil penetrates the inflamed middle ear effectively in acute otitis media after oral dosing. Serum levels were maintained above the MICs of important bacterial pathogens in otitis media for more than 5 hours after dosing, which is equivalent to 42% of the dosing interval. Thus, the important statistic of 40-50% of time above MIC, required for beta-lactam antibiotics to produce the maximal bacteriological cure rate of 80-85%, is achieved.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the penetration into the aqueous humor of cefuroxime after a single oral dose as cefuroxime axetil. Fourteen patients scheduled for cataract extraction received a single oral dose of cefuroxime axetil corresponding to 500 mg of cefuroxime 2-8 h preoperatively. Aqueous humor samples were obtained at the beginning of the cataract surgery and blood samples were drawn at the time of anesthesia. Cefuroxime levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The aqueous levels were (mean +/- SEM) 0.48 +/- 0.13 microgram/ml from 3 to 8 h after administration. Serum levels averaged 3.80 +/- 0.58 micrograms/ml. These data indicate that detectable levels of cefuroxime, exceeding the MIC of some bacterial species that frequently cause intraocular infections, may be achieved in uninflamed eyes after a low dose of cefuroxime axetil.
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This study compared the use and efficacy of ciprofloxacin to cefuroxime axetil for adult patients with acute bacterial sinusitis.
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For clinically evaluable patients, the clinical response rates were equivalent for cefuroxime tid and bid groups posttreatment (cure/improvement, 79% and 84%, respectively) and at follow-up (maintained cure, 87% and 82%, respectively). All signs and symptoms of pneumonia showed improvement at the time of switch from IV to oral therapy. A total of 111 pathogens were isolated, the most common being Streptococcus pneumoniae (23%), Haemophilus influenzae (18%), and Enterobacteriaceae (15%). Bacteriologic clearance was obtained posttreatment in 47 of 49 and 36 of 42 of bacteriologically evaluable patients in the cefuroxime tid and bid groups, respectively. Both regimens were well tolerated with a low incidence of drug-related adverse events, the most common being GI.
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The aim of the study was to substantiate clinically and microbiologically administration of such oral cephalosporins as cefuroxime axetil and ceftibuten in acute sinusitis. The spectrum of causative agents of acute sinusitis was determined, most common pathogens were identified and their sensitivity to antibiotics was tested. The conclusion is made that cephalosporins of the II-III generation meet the requirements to antibacterial drugs for treatment of acute sinusitis.
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In this open, single center study, the concentration of cefuroxime achieved in the serum and middle ear effusion of pediatric acute otitis media patients with purulent effusion was assessed between 2 and 5 h after a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg cefuroxime axetil suspension.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of tigecycline against carbapenem resistant A. baumannii complex.
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Cefuroxime axetil 250 mg twice daily and amoxycillin 250 mg three times daily were compared in an investigator-blind, randomised, parallel group, multicentre study of acute or acute-on-chronic bronchitis. The two compounds had broadly similar efficacy. Analysis of patients on an intention-to-treat basis 24-72 hours after completion of the course of study medication showed that amoxycillin afforded clinical cure or improvement in 123/153 (80.4%) of patients and cefuroxime axetil in 109/143 (76.2%). This result was not significantly different, but the amoxycillin cure rate was not sustained and there were significantly more clinical relapses during the 4-week follow-up period following the end of treatment. Only 4/68 (5.9%) of patients receiving cefuroxime axetil relapsed and required further treatment, whereas 16/77 (20.8%) of those receiving amoxycillin needed further treatment (P = 0.016). These were all patients who had initially responded to treatment and had been adjudged clinically cured or improved. The significant difference in relapse rates suggests that the apparent clinical success with amoxycillin was not sustained. There were no differences between the two treatments in the numbers of patients experiencing adverse events, which were generally mild and transient.
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Five clinical trials included 1989 patients eligible for analysis. The dosage was 500 mg once or twice a day depending on the studies. Levofloxacin was compared with amoxicillin (3 g/d), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (1500 mg/d), ceftriaxone (1-4 g/d combined or not with a macrolide and/or relay cefuroxime axetil).
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Published and unpublished data summarized from the scientific literature and experience from the experts present.
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Despite its seeming relevance, limited information exists about antibiotic sinus tissue penetration and how it is affected by inflammation. Thus the reason for the present investigation.
Fosfomycin trometamol (fosfomycin tromethamine) [Monuril(®), Monurol(®), Monural(®)] is approved in numerous countries worldwide, mainly for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Fosfomycin has good in vitro activity against common uropathogens, such as Escherichia coli (including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli), Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and the susceptibility of uropathogens to fosfomycin has remained relatively stable over time. A single oral dose of fosfomycin trometamol 3 g (the approved dosage) achieves high concentrations in urine. Results of recent randomized trials indicate that single-dose fosfomycin trometamol had similar clinical and/or bacteriological efficacy to 3- to 7-day regimens of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, cotrimoxazole or nitrofurantoin in women with uncomplicated lower UTIs. In addition, single-dose fosfomycin trometamol had similar bacteriological efficacy to a 5-day course of cefuroxime axetil or a 7-day course of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria, and similar clinical and/or bacteriological efficacy to a 5-day course of cefuroxime axetil or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or a 3-day course of ceftibuten in pregnant women with a lower UTI. Single-dose fosfomycin trometamol was generally well tolerated, with gastrointestinal adverse events (e.g. diarrhoea, nausea) reported most commonly. In conclusion, single-dose fosfomycin trometamol is an important option for the first-line empirical treatment of uncomplicated lower UTIs.
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Telithromycin is the first of the ketolide antibacterials to receive US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for clinical use. It is approved for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB), and acute maxillary sinusitis (AMS) in adults.
In the presence of wound infection from snakebite injury in Hong Kong, first line empirical antibiotics include amoxicillin/clavulanic acid plus levofloxacin. Prophylactic antibiotics may be considered in selected cases of Chinese cobra (N. atra) bite, otherwise prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended in snakebite unless tissue necrosis is present.
Treatment with azithromycin was as effective as cefuroxime plus erythromycin in the empirical management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent patients who were hospitalized. Azithromycin was well tolerated.
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Single 400-mg doses of cefixime and ceftibuten, and 500-mg doses of cefuroxime axetil and cefaclor.
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Microdilution MIC assays were performed using CLSI-approved methods. S. pneumoniae 19A strains were identified by quellung reaction.
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A 10-d course of cefuroxime axetil offered no clinical benefit to children with an acute respiratory illness and imaging evidence of acute sinusitis.
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A prospective, multicentre, randomized, open-label, parallel group study compared the efficacy, safety and tolerability of cefuroxime 750 mg iv administered either twice daily (bd) or three times daily (tds) for 48-72 h, followed by oral cefuroxime axetil 500 mg bd for 5-7 days in a sequential therapy regimen for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. A total of 628 adult patients entered the study; 323 in the cefuroxime tds group and 305 in the cefuroxime bd group. For clinically evaluable patients, the post-treatment clinical response rate was 86% and 88% in the cefuroxime tds and bd groups, respectively. Cure was maintained at follow-up (14-28 days after treatment completion) in 85% of the cefuroxime tds group and 84% of patients in the cefuroxime bd group. A total of 189 pathogens was isolated, the most common being Haemophilus influenzae (17%), other Haemophilus spp. (15%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (15%) and Enterobacteriaceae (23%). At the post-treatment assessment, 66% and 70% of pathogens were cleared in the cefuroxime tds and bd groups, respectively. Both treatment regimens were well tolerated. The incidence of drug-related adverse events was 7% in the cefuroxime tds group and 6% in the cefuroxime bd group; the most common side-effects were gastrointestinal. Qualitative and quantitative markers were used to determine the optimal time to switch from iv to oral therapy and, of these, peak expiratory flow rate was shown to be the most useful in the present study. In conclusion, the findings of this study support the use of a bd dosing schedule of cefuroxime in a sequential therapy regimen with oral cefuroxime axetil, demonstrating it to be clinically equivalent to the standard tds dosage currently used, as well as being simpler and more convenient to administer at a lower cost.
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Evidence is evolving regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, HGA, and babesiosis. Recent evidence supports treating patients with erythema migrans for no longer than 10 days when doxycycline is used and prescription of a 14-day course of oral doxycycline for early neurologic Lyme disease in ambulatory patients. The duration of antimicrobial therapy for babesiosis in severely immunocompromised patients should be extended to 6 weeks or longer.
An SAR-based approach could help physicians and pharmacists provide allergic patients with relevant advice and propose viable alternatives regarding drug therapy.
Cefuroxime Axetil nanoemulsion was formulated to address the problem of poor oral bioavailability. Formulation was manufactured utilizing Capmul MCM, Soya lecithin, Deoxycholic acid, Pluronic F127 and distilled water. Mean globular size of 121.3 nm was obtained. Drug content of nanoemulsion was found to be 97.12±0.27%(w)/(v). 80.7261% of the drug was diffused from nanoemulsion, as compared with 51.0048% diffused from the plain Cefuroxime axetil suspension. In vivo studies indicated AUC(0-24): 325.3 for nanoemulsion in comparison to AUC(0-24): 165.3 for plain suspension. Therefore a good orally bioavailable formulation was developed successfully.
Both treatment regimens gave rise to similar alterations of the normal oropharyngeal microflora. In both groups, the amount of Streptococcus salivarius was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The most common causative pathogens of acute otitis were S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. On the day of enrollment, approximately half of the patients, in both groups, were infected with more than one pathogen. The rate of infection or colonization with more than one potential pathogen was low on day 7 but recurred 2 weeks after treatment to similar levels as on day 0. The total number of patients with reinfection, recolonization or recurrence of pathogens on day 21 was 11/12 in the amoxycillin-clavulanate group and 4/7 in the cefuroxime axetil group. The most common beta-lactamase producer was M. catarrhalis.
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The study examines the use of an oral antibiotic with a wide spectrum of action tested in dentistry belonging to the cephalosporin class: acetoxyethylcefuroxime. The pharmaceutical industry has succeeded in synthesising a prodrug of parenteral cephalosporin "Metoxyrinic cefuroxime sodium", thus resolving the problems presented by earlier molecules such as: scarce bioavailability, poor palatability and collateral effects at a gastroenteric level. This is a 2nd generation cephalosporin whose mechanism of action consists in the capacity to selectively block the synthesis of the peptidoglycan, a fundamental component of the cell wall of both Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. The study, which was performed in the Division of Odontostomatology of the Mauriziano Hospital in Turin, examined 59 patients suffering from some of the most commonplace dental pathologies such as: apical periodontitis-alveolitis-odontogenic abscesses-eighth teeth in dysodontiasis-maxillary cysts. The following clinical parameters were evaluated in both outpatients and those undergoing surgery: swelling, pain, lymphoadenopathy at the start of treatment, and at days 3 and 5 of treatment. A 250 mg tablet was administered every 12 hours for 5 days. Owing to the rapid resolution of symptoms and the limited collateral effects observed, the authors conclude that the drug may be regarded as the elective form of treatment.
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Many existing and new drugs fail to be fully utilized because of their limited bioavailability due to poor solubility in aqueous media. Given the emerging importance of using nanoparticles as a promising way to enhance the dissolution rate of these drugs, a method must be developed to adequately reflect the rate-change due to size reduction. At present, there is little published work examining the suitability of different dissolution apparatus for nanoparticles.
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