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Calan (Verapamil Hydrochloride)
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Calan

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders. It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Cartia XT, Cardizem, Cardizem LA, Nifedical XL , Propranolol, Procardia, Procardia XL

 

Also known as:  Verapamil Hydrochloride.

Description

Calan is in a group of drugs called calcium channel blockers. Calan is used to treat hypertension, angina and certain heart rhythm disorders.

It works by relaxing the muscles of your heart and blood vessels.

Calan is also known as Verapamil, Calaptin, Isoptin, Verelan, Bosoptin, Covera-HS.

Dosage

Take Calan orally.

Do not take Calan in large amounts.

Do not crush, chew, break, or open a controlled-delivery or extended-release tablet or capsule.

Swallow the whole pill.

It is important to use verapamil regularly to get the most benefit.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Calan and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Calan overdosage: slow heartbeat, fainting fit.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 25 degrees C (59 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Calan are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Calan if you are allergic to Calan components.

Be careful with Calan if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not take Calan if you have poor heart condition, low blood pressure, recent heart attack.

Be careful with Calan if you suffer from kidney, liver disease, congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy.

Be careful with Calan if you take medications such as any other blood pressure medications; buspirone (BuSpar); carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol); cimetidine (Tagamet, Tagamet HB); cyclosporine (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune); digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin, Lanoxicaps); lithium (Eskalith, LithoBid); lovastatin (Mevacor); phenobarbital (Solfoton); rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater); theophylline (Elixophyllin, Theo-24, Uniphyl); a sedative such as midazolam (Versed) or triazolam (Halcion); an antibiotic such as clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S., Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), telithromycin (Ketek), or voriconazole (Vfend); a beta-blocker such as atenolol (Tenormin), bisoprolol (Zebeta, Ziac), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol), propranolol (Inderal, InnoPran), sotalol (Betapace), timolol (Blocadren), and others; a heart rhythm medication such as amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), disopyramide (Norpace), flecainide (Tambocor), or quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release); HIV/AIDS medicine such as amprenavir (Agenerase), atazanavir (Reyataz), delavirdine (Rescriptor), fosamprenavir (Lexiva), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), or ritonavir (Norvir, Kaletra).

Do not use potassium supplements or salt substitutes.

Avoid eating grapefruit or drinking grapefruit juice while taking Calan.

If you want to achieve most effective results without any side effects it is better to avoid alcohol.

Be very careful when you are driving machine.

Do not stop taking Calan suddenly.

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Caco-2 cell monolayer model was used to study the bi-direction transport of icariin. The effects of time, drug concentration and inhibitor on the absorption of icariin were studied. The concentration of icariin in cell culture medium was measured by UPLC and the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) was calculated.

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The antiarrhythmic drugs quinidine and verapamil are known to block alpha1-adrenoceptors (alpha1ARs). Alpha1ARs are a heterogeneous family of three subtypes (alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1D), and little is known about the effects of quinidine and verapamil on the different human alpha1AR subtypes.

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Anesthetized Wistar rats were instrumented to record BP, heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO) and QRS-duration. Propranolol or verapamil were infused continually. When BP dropped by 50%, propranolol-poisoned rats received one of 10% FDP125 mg/kg or 10% FDP250 mg/kg loading dose over 20 minutes followed by infusion 20 mg/kg/h. Verapamil-poisoned rats received the higher dosing regimen of FDP250. Controls received comparable volumes of 10% glucose. Haemodynamic time-points were compared for FDP to control by unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney test as appropriate (p <  0.05). Survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

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ADRBK1 regions were sequenced for 48 individuals. Putative functional SNPs were tested for mRNA expression differences in 96 lymphoblastoid cell line samples and 12 leukocyte samples from hypertensives. BP response to atenolol and hydrochlorothiazide by ADRBK1 SNPs and GRK5 Gln41Leu was tested in 418 patients from the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses Study using linear regression. The influence of ADRBK1 SNPs and GRK5 Gln41Leu on death, myocardial infarction or stroke in treated hypertensives was evaluated in a case-control cohort (1 : 3) of the International Verapamil SR/Trandolapril Study GENEtic Substudy using logistic regression models.

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The relevance of P170-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) for the sensitivity to CPT-11 was investigated in human malignant cell lines as well as in human tumour xenografts. In vitro, the P-gp-positive sublines BRO/mdr1.1 (transfected with MDR1) and 2780AD were slightly cross-resistant against carboxylesterase-activated CPT-11. Cross-resistance against SN-38 was present in 2780AD cells, but not in BRO/mdr1.1 cells. The P-gp modulators BIBW22BS, verapamil and dexniguldipine partly reversed the resistance against CPT-11 in the P-gp-positive sublines. BIBW22BS was the most effective modulator in the reversal of the resistance against carboxylesterase-activated CPT-11 as well as against SN-38 in the 2780AD subline. In contrast to doxorubicin and vincristine, the BRO/mdr1.1 xenografts were at least as sensitive to CPT-11 as the BRO xenografts. The 2780AD xenografts were slightly less sensitive than the parent tumours, but there was no difference in topoisomerase I DNA unwinding activity. Therefore, the high retention of the multidrug-resistant phenotype of 2780AD cells in vivo may be the cause of the low cross-resistance against CPT-11. The MRP-positive subline GLC4/ADR was cross-resistant against carboxylesterase-activated CPT-11 and SN-38. GLC4/ADR cells, however, demonstrated a twofold lower topoisomerase I activity than GLC4 cells. Cross-resistance against the camptothecin derivatives was not apparent in the MRP-transfected subline of SW1573/S1. In conclusion, P-gp-positive cells show a low cross-resistance against CPT-11/SN38, which is only apparent with high P-gp expression in vivo. MRP does not seem to play a role in the sensitivity to CPT-11.

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Infective endocarditis due to viridans streptococci is associated with a mortality of 5-10%. Even today, it remains difficult to diagnose it at an early stage, to select a sufficient antibiotic therapy and to choose the right time for surgical intervention.

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To study the impact of adenosine and verapamil on people with AMI who are undergoing PPCI.

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Under general anesthesia, injection of IA verapamil into cerebral arteries reduces MAP but does not change HR in the average patient. Further research is required to determine the clinical significance of these results.

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Fetal tachycardia may lead to an increased pre- and postnatal morbidity and mortality rate particularly if it is complicated by cardial decompensation and hydrops fetalis.

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Ver reduced [Ca2+]i and increased beta adrenoceptor density, NE increased [Ca2+]i and reduced beta adrenoceptor density of cultured cardiomyocytes, these effects were time and concentration dependent. Ver inhibited the above effects of NE.

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Calcium appears to be involved in many of the cellular events which are thought to be important in atherogenesis. Calcium channel blockers have been shown to reduce arterial lipid accumulation in animals without altering serum cholesterol. Avian models of atherosclerosis offer economic and technical advantages over mammalian models. In this study, we examine the effects of nifedipine, verapamil and diltiazem at clinical and higher doses, on the extent of atherosclerosis of egg-fed chickens. In order to assess the extent of atherosclerosis quantitatively, the aortic lesions of the thoracic and abdominal aorta, aortic arch and supraaortic regions were measured by planimetry. Atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated histologically. Statistically significant reductions in the lipid deposition of the aorta were found in all the treated groups. The extent and distribution of atherosclerotic lesions were decreased in a significant way by verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem. The higher the dosage used, the higher the regression of the atherosclerotic lesions. At clinical dosage, nifedipine showed the highest decrease of the lesions. In addition, the chicken atherosclerosis model has proved itself useful and very suitable for in vivo drug intervention studies.

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The Treatment Guideline Subcommittee of the Taiwan Headache Society evaluated both the acute and the preventive treatments for cluster headache now being used in Taiwan, based on the principles of evidence- based medicine. We assessed the quality of clinical trials and levels of evidence, and referred to other treatment guidelines proposed by other countries. Throughout several panel discussions, we merged opinions from the subcommittee members and proposed a consensus on the major roles, recommended levels, clinical efficacy, adverse events and cautions of clinical practice regarding acute and preventive treatments of cluster headache. The majority of Taiwanese patients have episodic cluster headaches, because chronic clusters are very rare. Cluster headache is characterized by severe and excruciating pain which develops within a short time and is associated with ipsilateral autonomic symptoms. Therefore, emergency treatment for a cluster headache attack is extremely important. Within the group of acute medications currently available in Taiwan, the subcommittee determined that high-flow oxygen inhalation has the best evidence of effectiveness, followed by intranasal triptans. Both are recommended as first-line medical treatments for acute attacks. Oral triptans were determined to be second-line medications. For transitional prophylaxis, oral corticosteroids are recommended as the first-line medication, and ergotamine as the second-line choice. As for maintenance prophylaxis, verapamil has the best evidence and is recommended as the first-line medication. Lithium, melatonin, valproic acid, topiramate and gabapentin are suggested as the second-line preventive medications. Surgical interventions, including occipital nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation, radiofrequency block of the sphenopalatine ganglion, percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy and trigeminal nerve section, are invasive and their long-term efficacy and adverse events are still not clear in Taiwanese patients; therefore, they are not recommended currently by the subcommittee. The transitional and maintenance prophylactic medications can be used together to attain treatment efficacy. Once the maintenance prophylaxis achieves efficacy, the transitional prophylactic medications can be tapered gradually. We suggest the corticosteroids be used within two weeks, if possible. The duration of maintenance treatment depends on the individual patient's clinical condition, and the medications can be tapered off when the cluster period is over.

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Mentha longifolia has a reputation in traditional medicine in the indications of diarrhoea and gut spasm. This study was carried out to provide a possible pharmacological basis for its medicinal use in hyperactive gut disorders. In a castor oil induced diarrhoeal model, the crude extract of Mentha longifolia (Ml.Cr), at doses of 100-1000 mg/kg, provided 31-80% protection, similar to loperamide. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, Ml.Cr caused inhibition of spontaneous and high K(+)-induced contractions, with respective EC50 values of 1.80 (1.34-2.24; n = 6-8) and 0.60 mg/mL (0.37-0.85; n = 6-8), which suggests spasmolytic activity, mediated possibly through calcium channel blockade (CCB). The CCB activity was further confirmed when pretreatment of the tissue with Ml.Cr (0.3-1 mg/mL) caused a rightward shift in the Ca(++) concentration-response curves (CRCs), similar to verapamil. Loperamide also inhibited spontaneous and high K(+)-induced contractions and shifted the Ca(++) CRCs to the right. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the petroleum spirit fraction was more potent than the parent crude extract and aqueous fraction. These data indicate that the antidiarrhoeal and spasmolytic effects of the crude extract of Mentha longifolia are mediated through the presence of CCB-like constituent(s), concentrated in the petroleum spirit fraction and this study provides indirect evidence for its medicinal use in diarrhoea and spasm.

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Overall postoperative morbidity was higher in CC than in DD (32.4% vs 30.3%) but the difference was not statistically significant (P = .40). Two independent risk factors for morbidity in CC were antecedent heart failure (odds ratio [OR], 3.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-6.32) (P = .003) and bothersome intraluminal fecal matter (2.08; 1.42-3.06) (P = .001). Three independent risk factors for morbidity in DD were at least 10% weight loss (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.25-3.40) (P = .004), body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) exceeding 30 (2.05; 1.15-3.66) (P = .02), and left hemicolectomy (vs left segmental colectomy) (2.01; 1.19-3.40) (P = .009).

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A comparison was made between the efficacies and potencies of calcium channel antagonists on contractions induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine, norepinephrine, or high-potassium buffer in isolated human distal radial arteries. Also, the impact of removal of extracellular calcium ions on contractions induced by 5-hydroxytryptamine or norepinephrine was assessed. Isometric contractions were induced by agonists, and relaxant responses to calcium channel antagonists, nifedipine, diltiazem, verapamil, or mibefradil were examined. 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contractions when compared with norepinephrine or high-potassium induced contractions were significantly more sensitive to inhibition by nifedipine (pIC50 = 7.53 +/- 0.15; 6.78 +/- 0.12; 6.6 +/- 0.22, respectively, mean +/- SEM). Diltiazem was more effective in producing relaxations when contractions were elicited with 5-hydroxytryptamine (pIC50 = 6.48 +/- 0.84) or norepinephrine (pIC50 = 6.20 +/- 0.21) than with high potassium (pIC50 = 5.43 +/- 0.10). Verapamil was more effective at relaxing arteries contracted with 5-hydroxytryptamine (pIC50 = 6.09 +/- 0.19) or norepinephrine (pIC50 = 6.00 +/- 0.17) than with high potassium (pIC50 = 5.60 +/- 0.16). Mibefradil was not very effective in producing relaxations. The studies revealed that removal of extracellular calcium significantly attenuated contractions produced by 5-hydroxytryptamine (-67.7 +/- 6.3%) and norepinephrine (-89 +/- 1.5%). In conclusion, our data indicates that nifedipine was the most effective drug in producing relaxations; also, contractions produced by 5-hydroxytryptamine and norepinephrine were found to be critically dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium.

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A series of hydroxynaphthazarins has been synthesized. Some of them were found in in vivo experiments to be protectors of myocardium under ischemia-reperfusion and to reduce the infarction zone by 50% without any adverse effect. All compounds exhibit a moderate or small toxicity and are active in low doses.

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To evaluate the impact of extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ on contractions induced by ethanol in smooth muscle.

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Headaches are a common entity in the ambulatory population. Physicians involved in sports medicine must be able to accurately diagnose headaches in athletes and whether they are exacerbated by exertion. Many medications have proven or theoretical negative effects on athletic performance. Thus, we should consider all aspects of medical management and determine which therapy is least intrusive to the athlete's performance. We planned this review because of the small number of papers available on the effects of various medications on athletic performance.

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To investigate the contribution of multidrug-resistant gene MDR1 to development of imatinib-resistance in Ph(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line SUP-B15/RI.

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Expression of multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP), a drug efflux pump transporting a wide range of xenobiotics, including anti-cancer drugs and chemical carcinogens, and present at low levels in normal hepatocytes, was investigated in rat hepatoma cells. Northern-blot analysis allowed detection of high levels of MRP mRNA in rat diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinomas when compared with normal liver. Similarly, elevated expression of MRP transcripts were evidenced in 6 rat hepatoma cell lines of different origins, especially in HTC cells, that, in contrast, failed to express mRNA of the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), an efflux pump sharing numerous substrates with MRP. HTC cells were also found by Western blotting to display much higher amounts of MRP than those observed in normal hepatocytes. In contrast, the MRP gene copy number was similar both in hepatoma HTC cells and in hepatocytes, as assessed by Southern blotting. Analysis of MRP-related transport using 3 types of MRP substrates, namely, the fluorescent glutathione-bimane, the anionic dye calcein and the cationic anti-cancer drug vincristine, demonstrated that HTC cells displayed cellular efflux of these 3 compounds, an efflux strongly inhibited by MRP modulators such as indomethacin. These results indicate that MRP is over-expressed and functional in rat hepatoma cells and may therefore be included in the de-toxifying pathways that are altered during hepatocarcinogenesis and are thus thought to contribute to the known multidrug resistance of liver tumors.

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The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (anti-CEA) scintigraphy is a useful additional technique in the diagnosis recurrence of colorectal cancer. Forty patients with suspected recurrence of colorectal cancer, underwent immunoscintigraphy (IS) and helical computed tomography (CT) in the 2 weeks before surgery. Surgical findings were used to evaluate the performance of the imaging techniques. Suspected areas on IS and CT were systematically explored. Helical CT was found to be superior to IS for the liver, the sensitivity and specificity of CT being 100% and 90%, respectively, vs 53% and 100% for IS. However, IS was better than CT for the detection of extra-hepatic abdominal recurrence: sensitivity and specificity of IS were 100 and 82% respectively vs 33 and 82% for CT. Seven cases of peritoneal carcinomatosis were overlooked by helical CT. Our results indicate that IS improves detection of extra-hepatic abdominal recurrence of colorectal cancer. Immunoscintigraphy is valuable as a guide to the treatment strategy and operative procedures.

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of antihypertensive drugs on renal hemodynamics in hypertensive patients during an adrenergic activation by mental stress (MS), which induces renal vasoconstriction in healthy subjects. Renal hemodynamics was assessed twice in 30 middle-aged essential hypertensive patients (57±6 years)-after 15 days of pharmacological wash-out and after 15 days of treatment with Trandolapril (T, 4 mg, n=10), Verapamil (V, 240 mg, n=10), or both (T 2 mg+V 180 mg, n=10). Each experiment consisted of 4 30-min periods (baseline, MS, recovery I and II). Renal hemodynamics was evaluated with effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from plasminogen activator inhibitor and inulin clearance, respectively. MS increased blood pressure (BP) to a similar extent before and after each treatment. Before treatment, the increasing BP was not associated with any modification of ERPF in the 3 groups. Renal vascular resistances (RVR) markedly increased during MS (+23% in the T group, +21.6% in the V group, and +32.9% in the T+V group); GFR remained constant during the whole experiment. After treatment, ERPF decreased significantly during MS in the T group (-15%, P<0.05) and in the V group (-11.7%, p<0.01); in the T+V group, ERPF modifications were not statistically significant (P=0.07). In the T group, ERPF reverted to baseline values at the end of the stimulus, whereas in the V group, renal vasoconstriction was more prolonged. Only in hypertensive patients treated with 4 mg of T, RVR reverted to baseline during the recovery I, whereas in the V group, RVR remained elevated for the whole experiment. No modifications of GFR were observed in all groups. The kidney of hypertensive patients cannot react to a sympathetic stimulus with the physiological vasoconstriction. A short-term antihypertensive treatment with 4 mg of T restores the physiological renal response to adrenergic activation.

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The present experimental study reports the beneficial effects of newly synthetized substances IIIq and IIIb in vivo. These aryloxyaminopropanol drugs have been shown to antagonize the contraction caused by calcium comparable to verapamil and flunarizine in the model of the isolated guinea pig terminal ileum. Effects of substances on both the incidence of arrhythmias during ischemia and the reperfusion period and mortality were investigated in the rat model ischemia-reperfusion injury. We can conclude that compound IIIq in a dose of 10(-6) mol/kg is effective in reducing the incidence of reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. Substance IIIb (10(-6) mol/kg) administered before ischemia was not able to suppress arrhythmias in the rat model of myocardial infarction and reperfusion.

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Store-operated calcium (SOC) channels and capacitative Ca2+ entry play a key role in cellular functions, but their mechanism of activation remains unclear. Here, we show that thapsigargin induces [3H] arachidonic acid (AA) release, 45Ca2+ influx and a subsequent enhancement of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i. Thapsigargin-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i was inhibited by cytochrome P-450 inhibitors and by cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase inhibitor and was reverted by 11,12 EET addition. However, cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors have no effect. Moreover, we observed that four EETs were able to induce 45Ca2+ influx. Finally, we reported that the effect of 11,12 EET on 45Ca2+ influx was sensible to receptor-operated Ca2+ channel blockers (NiCl2, LaCl3) but not to voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blocker as verapamil. Thus, AA released by Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 and AA metabolism through cytochrome P-450 pathway may be crucial molecular determinant in thapsigargin activation of SOC channels and store-operated Ca2+ entry pathway in 3T6 fibroblasts. Moreover, EETs, the main cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase metabolites of AA, are involved in thapsigargin-stimulated Ca2+ influx. In summary, our results suggest that EETs are components of calcium influx factor(s).

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Ca(2+) plays a critical role as second messenger in the signal-response coupling of plant defence responses, and methyl-jasmonate and methyl-salicylate are important components of signal transduction cascades activating plant defences. When intact axenic non-induced seedling roots of sunflower were treated with different Ca(2+) concentrations up to 1 mM, there was no significant increase in O(2)(*-) generation or DMAB-MBTH peroxidase (extracellular, ECPOX) activities in the apoplast, probably because these roots had enough Ca(2+) in their exo- and endocellular reservoirs. Both activities were strongly inhibited by the RBOH-NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI and by the Ca(2+) surrogate antagonist La(3+), but the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil was only inhibitory at concentrations higher than those active on animal L-type Ca(2+) channels. Concentrations >5 mM EGTA (chelating Ca(2+) in the apoplast) and Li(+) (inhibiting PI cycle dependent endogenous Ca(2+) fluxes) also inhibited both activities. W7, inhibitor of binding of Ca-CaM to its target protein, enhanced both activities, but the inactive analogue W5 showed a similar effect. Our data suggest that Ca(2+) from exocellular and, to a lesser extent, from endocellular stores is involved in oxidative activities, and that RBOH-NADPH oxidase is the main system supporting them. Ca(2+) activation of the PM cytosolic side of RBOH-NADPH oxidase is probably the key to Ca(2+) involvement in these processes. Roots induced by MeJA or MeSA showed significant enhancement of both oxidative activities, as corresponding to the oxidative burst evoked by the two phytohormones in the root apoplast. But while ECPOX activity showed a response to the effectors similar to that described above for non-induced roots, O(2)(*-) generation activity in the apoplast of induced roots was insensitive to EGTA, verapamil and Li(+), the inhibitors of exogenous and endogenous Ca(2+) fluxes; only DPI and La(3+) were inhibitory. As exogenously added 0.1 mM Ca(2+) also increased O (2) (.-) generation, we propose that, in these roots, activation of RBOH-NADPH oxidase by Ca(2+) could be regulated by Ca(2+) sensors in the apoplast.

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calan 180 mg 2017-02-15

Increases in glucose concentration control the transcription of the preproinsulin (PPI) gene and several other genes in the pancreatic islet beta-cell. Although recent data have demonstrated that secreted insulin may regulate the PPI gene (Leibiger, I. B., Leibiger, B., Moede, T., and Berggren, P. O. (1998) Mol. Cell 1, 933-938), the role of insulin in the control of other beta-cell genes is unexplored. To study the importance of insulin secretion in the regulation of the PPI and liver-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) genes by buy calan glucose, we have used intranuclear microinjection of promoter-luciferase constructs into MIN6 beta-cells and photon-counting imaging. The activity of each promoter was increased either by 30 (versus 3) mm glucose or by 1-20 nm insulin. These effects of insulin were not due to enhanced glucose metabolism since culture with the hormone had no impact on the stimulation of increases in intracellular ATP concentration caused by 30 mm glucose. Furthermore, the islet-specific glucokinase promoter and cellular glucokinase immunoreactivity were unaffected by 30 mm glucose or 20 nm insulin. Inhibition of insulin secretion with the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil, the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener diazoxide, or the alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist clonidine blocked the effects of glucose on L-PK gene transcription. Similarly, 30 mm glucose failed to induce the promoter after inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity with LY294002 and the expression of dominant negative-acting phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (Deltap85) or the phosphoinositide 3'-phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue). LY294002 also diminished the activation of the L-PK gene caused by inhibition of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase with anti-5'-AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 antibodies. Conversely, stimulation of insulin secretion with 13 mm KCl or 10 microm tolbutamide strongly activated the PPI and L-PK promoters. These data indicate that, in MIN6 beta-cells, stimulation of insulin secretion is important for the activation by glucose of L-PK as well as the PPI promoter, but does not cause increases in glucokinase gene expression or glucose metabolism.

calan dosage 2017-04-06

The expression of p53, Fas and PCNA molecules is associated with buy calan long-term partial ureteral obstruction, whereas verapamil seems to be a protective agent against apoptotic changes.

calan 80 mg 2016-02-24

Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) transporters, buy calan which belong to ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family proteins, are present in living organisms as a first line of defense system against xenobiotics and environmental contaminants. The effects of six organic UV filters (4-methyl -benzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; benzophenone-3, BP-3; butyl methoxydibenzoyl-methane, BM-DBM; ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate, EHMC; octocrylene, OC and homosalate, HMS) on multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in Tetrahymena thermophila were investigated in this study. It was found that 4-MBC, BP-3 and BM-DBM could significantly inhibit activity of the MXR system, causing concentration dependent accumulation of rhodamine 123; while EHMC, OC and HMS had weak MXR inhibition. The IC50 (50 % inhibition concentration) values of 4-MBC, BP-3 and BM-DBM were 23.54, 40.59 and 26.37 μM, respectively, with inhibitory potentials of 23.1, 13.4 and 20.6 % relative to verapamil (VER, a model inhibitor of P-glycoprotein). Our results firstly provide the evidence for UV filters inhibition effect on MXR in aquatic organisms. In addition, it was revealed by molecular docking analysis that the selected six UV filters can occupy the same binding site on T. thermophila P-gp as VER does; and form H-bonds with residues Ser 328 and/or Asn 281. This study raises the awareness of aquatic ecological risk from the organic UV filters exposure, as they would be involved in potentiating toxic effects by chemosensitizing.

calan tab 2016-05-06

Calcium channel blockers (CCBs), which alter the intracellular calcium concentration by modifying calcium flux across cell membranes and affect various intracellular signaling processes, have been long and widely used to treat essential hypertension and certain types of cardiac diseases such as angina pectoris. Among five subtypes of calcium channels, only specific agents for L-type calcium channels have been used as therapeutics. Animal experiments have indicated that topical application of CCBs, especially verapamil, caused significant intraocular pressure (IOP) reductions, while ocular hypotensive effects in humans were not substantial. Although the results obtained for nifedipine and nimodipine were not always consistent, CCBs generally dilate isolated ocular vessels and increase ocular blood flow in experimental animals, normal humans, and patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Several single-centered, hospital-based, prospective studies have suggested that nimodipine, brovincamine, and nilvadipine had beneficial effects on visual function not only in normal humans but also in patients with OAG, while the results of population-based and case-controlled studies were not always consistent with those obtained in hospital-based studies. In vitro studies showed that CCBs exerted neuroprotective effects on neurons undergoing apoptosis and necrosis. Although the neuroprotective effects of CCBs have been well documented in experimental cerebral ischemia models, no controlled studies have shown the clinical efficacy of CCBs in stroke or cerebral ischemia. Neuroprotective effects also were documented in retinal ganglion cells and photoreceptors in experimental animals. Some ophthalmic beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, especially betaxolol, interact with L-type calcium channels and show calcium channel-blocking activity, which may be partly responsible for the buy calan neuroprotective effects of these drugs reported in experimental animals. Based on the reported findings of CCBs and that the results of clinical studies in acute cerebral ischemia may not be directly applicable to a chronic neurodegenerative ocular disorder, such as OAG, CCBs deserve future study to investigate strategies that are additive or synergetic to ocular hypotensive therapy for OAG, especially in patients with lower IOP.

calan 120 mg 2017-11-23

MDR1 gene encodes for a transmembranous glycoprotein, gp-170, which acts as a drug export pump and is also a cyclosporine(CsA)-binding protein. This study aimed at evaluating MDR1 expression in NS sensitive(S) and resistant(R) to therapy (steroids/S/, cyclophosphamide/C/, CsA) patients. Twenty six boys, 13 girls aged 3-8 years were included to the study. MDR1 was analysed using: 1) evaluation of gp-170 activity according to DiC2/3/ [3,3-Diethyloxa-carbocyanine Iodide] by means of flow cytometry and as 2) mRNA expression of MDR1 determined by RT-PCR. The analysis was performed in the lymphocyte subset CD4/CD45RA presenting suppressor-inducer activity. Negative control, Jurkat-T-cell line, not expressing the MDR1 phenotype, was transfected with viral expression vector containing a full-length cDNA for the human MDR1 gene. We found that: in SR-NS the high expression of MDR1 was associated mainly with the suppressor-inducer T-cells (CD45RA+CD4+) and was subsequently enhanced during an ineffective treatment with C and/or CsA. C-R-NS and CsA-R-NS were partially reversible by S- and R-Verapamil; this was in vitro confirmed by inhibition of export pump activity, gp-170. SS-NS, C-S-NS and CsA-S-NS presented the low expression and activity of MDR1 comparing to R-children (p < 0.001) and healthy controls (p < 0.00001). Resistance to therapy in NS patients seems to be resulted from the enhanced expression of MDR1 gene and subsequent high activity of export pump P-gp-170. Calcium channel blockers may reverse the MRD1-related resistance in the therapy of NS. Analysis of MDR1 may help buy calan to detect of suspected therapy resistance in NS.

calan 240 mg 2015-03-30

Conventional cardiac physiology experiments investigate in vitro beat frequency using cells isolated from adult or neonatal rat hearts. In this study, we show that various cantilever shapes and drug treatments alter cardiomyocyte contraction force in vitro. Four types of cantilevers were used to compare the contractile forces: flat, peg patterned, grooved, and peg and grooved. Contraction force was represented as bending deflection of the cantilever end. The deflections of the flat, peg patterned, grooved, and peg and grooved cantilevers were 24.2 nN, 41.6 nN, 121 nN, and 134.2 nN, respectively. We quantified the effect of drug treatments on cardiomyocyte contractile forces on the grooved cantilever using Digoxin, Isoproterenol, and BayK8644, all of which increase contractile force, and Verapamil, which decreases contractile force. The cardiomyocyte contractile force without drugs decreased 8 days after culture initiation. Thus, we applied Digoxin, Isoproterenol, and BayK8644 at day 8, and Verapamil at day 5. Digoxin, Isoproterenol, and BayK8644 increased the cardiomyocyte contractile forces by 19.31%, 9.75%, and 23.81%, respectively. Verapamil decreased the contraction force by 48.06%. In summary, contraction force changes in response to adhesion surface topology buy calan and various types of drug treatments. We observed these changes by monitoring cell alignment, adhesion, morphology, and bending displacement with cantilever sensors.

calan sr medication 2016-04-17

Idiopathic verapamil-responsive left ventricular tachycardia is an uncommon arrhythmia in childhood. Although this tachycardia is usually responsive to verapamil, non-pharmacologic therapy may be necessary in the long-term follow-up. We report a thirty-four buy calan month old child with incessant left ventricular tachycardia refractory to digoxin and amiodarone. The diagnosis was confirmed by electrophysiologic study. Intravenous verapamil successfully controlled the arrhythmia. On oral verapamil, the patient remains asymptomatic over a follow up period of 7 years and 10 months.

calan eeze review 2015-09-19

Seven children with drug-resistant structural-metabolic, unknown or genetic (e.g., Dravet syndrome [DS]) epilepsy received verapamil as an add-on buy calan drug to baseline antiepileptic therapy. Verapamil was slowly introduced at the dosage of 1mg/kg/day and titrated up to 1.5mg/kg/day. After completing the titration period, patients entered a 14-month maintenance period and were followed up at 3, 8, and 14 months. Heart monitoring was performed at baseline and at each follow-up. The primary outcome measure was the response of seizures to verapamil.

calan 5 mg 2017-05-14

Thyroid storm can develop in patients with longstanding untreated hyperthyroidism. It is more often precipitated buy calan by an acute event such as surgery, trauma, or infection. We experienced a case in whom thyroid storm occurred during surgery, while he had no preoperative diagnosis of thyroid disease. A 30-year-old man was scheduled for left tympanoplasty. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Heart rate and rectal temperature went up to 140 beats x min(-1) and 39 degrees C, respectively, in 3 hours during surgery. Cooling blanket, cold fluid infusion, flurbiprofen, diltiazem, and verapamil were used to decrease body temperature and heart rate. Surgery was completed and after emergence he was in agitation for 4 hours along with hyperpyrexia and tachycardia. He was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism by postoperative physical and laboratory examination. Thiamazole and propranorol were administered. In one week, symptom has declined with body temperature and heart rate of around 36 degrees C and 90 beats x min(-1), respectively. We should be more careful about evaluation of preoperative patients.

calan dosage forms 2016-05-19

The aim of this study was to investigate the buy calan effect of Eudragit RS 30D, talc, and verapamil hydrochloride on dissolution and mechanical properties of beads coated with "drug-layered matrices". This was accomplished with the aid of a three-factor multiple-level factorial design using percent drug release in 1 and 2 h, T(50), tensile strength, brittleness, stiffness and toughness as the responses. Beads were coated in a fluidized-bed coating unit. Surface morphology and mechanical properties were evaluated by surface profilometry and texture analysis, respectively. No cracks, flaws and fissures were observed on the surfaces. The mechanical properties were dependent on the talc/polymer ratio. The release of verapamil from the beads was influenced by matrix components. Increasing the level of both talc and Eudragit decreased the percent drug released from 67% to 4.8% and from 80.7% to 6.7% in 1 and 2 h, respectively, and increased T(50) from 0.8 to 25.7 h. It was concluded that beads could be efficiently coated with "drug-layered matrices". The release of drug, however, depends on a balance between the levels of drug, talc, and polymer, whereby desired dissolution and mechanical properties could be controlled by the talc/polymer ratio and the level of drug loading.

calan tablets 2015-07-10

The activity of the voltage-operated Ca2+ channels (VOC channels) and store-operated Ca buy calan (2+)-channels (SOC channels) was studied on rat pheochromatocytomic cells PC-12 by using the fluorescence calcium dye Fura-2. The VOC channels were transferred in their open state by depolarizing the plasma membranes of the cells through addition of high KCl concentrations (50 mM). The SOC channels were activated by treating the cells with tapsigargine, a special inhibitor of Ca2+ ATPase in the intracellular Ca2+ stores. Verapamil effectively inhibited the activity of the VOC channels (IC50 = 0.6 micron), but failed to affect the SOC channels. Arachidonic acid reduced the level of [Ca2+]-induced TG (200 nM) at a concentration of 3-10 microns). The movement of Ca2+ along the SOC channels was electrogenic. The depolarization of the plasma membrane of PC-12 cells caused no release of Ca(2+) from the intercellular Ca2+ stores. It is concluded that PC-12 cells are a suitable model to study the activity of different Ca2+ channels and search for chemical compounds that affect the potential-dependent and potential-independent Ca2+ channels.

calan medication 2015-09-08

Assessing feeding behavior is important in understanding the effects of nutrition and management on the well-being of dairy cows. Historically, collection of these data from cows fed with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH) required the labor-intensive practices of direct observation or video review. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agreement between the output of a HOBO change-of-state data logger (Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA), mounted to the door shell and buy calan latch plate, and video data summarized with continuous sampling. Data (number of feed bin visits per day and feeding time in minutes per day) were recorded with both methods from 26 lactating cows and 10 nonlactating cows for 3 d per cow (n=108). The agreement of the data logger and video methods was evaluated using the REG procedure of SAS to compare the mean response of the methods against the difference between the methods. The maximum allowable difference (MAD) was set at ±3 for bin visits and ±20 min for feeding time. Ranges for feed bin visits (2 to 140 per d) and feeding time (28 to 267 min/d) were established from video data. Using the complete data set, agreement was partially established between the data logger and video methods for feed bin visits, but not established for feeding time. The complete data set generated by the data logger was screened to remove visits of a duration ≤3 s, reflecting a cow unable to enter a feed bin (representing 7% of all data) and ≥5,400 s, reflecting a failure of the data logger to align properly with its corresponding magnetic field (representing <1% of all data). Using the resulting screened data set, agreement was established for feed bin visits and feeding time. For bin visits, 4% of the data was beyond the MAD. For feeding time, 3% of the data was beyond the MAD and 74% of the data was ±1 min. The insignificant P-value, low coefficient of determination, and concentration of the data within the MAD indicate the agreement of the change-of-state data logger and video data. This suggests the usage of a change-of-state data logger to assess the feeding behavior of cows feeding from a Calan Broadbent Feeding System is appropriate. Use of the screening criteria for data analysis is recommended.

calan drug 2015-05-04

Further clinical trails are warranted to evaluate the role of oral systemic therapies for early Peyronie's disease. Injection therapy, primarily with interferon, seems to be the most promising treatment for early stage Peyronie's disease. For men with established plaques, surgery using either plication or grafts forms the buy calan mainstay. There is an increasing trend to use autologous graft material that is commercially available and avoids donor site complications from autologous tissue.

calan sr dosage 2015-07-14

A rise in intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(2+)](i)) is a key trigger for the lethal effects buy calan of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in various central neurons, but a consensus has not been reached on the pathways that mediate glutamate-dependent increases of [Ca(2+)](i) in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Using Ca(2+) imaging techniques we demonstrated that, in the absence of external Mg(2+), the Ca(2+) signal evoked by glutamate was predominantly mediated by NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDA-Rs) in immunopanned RGCs isolated from neonatal or adult rats. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and AMPA/kainate-Rs contributed a smaller portion of the Ca(2+) response at saturating concentrations of glutamate. Consistent with NMDA-R involvement, extracellular Mg(2+) inhibited RGC glutamate responses, while glycine had a potentiating effect. With Mg(2+) present externally, the effect of AMPA/kainate-R antagonists was enhanced and both NMDA- and AMPA/kainate-R antagonists greatly reduced the glutamate-induced increases of RGC [Ca(2+)](i). This finding indicates that the primary contribution of AMPA/kainate-Rs to RGC glutamatergic Ca(2+) dynamics is through the depolarization-dependent relief of the Mg(2+) block of NMDA-R channels. The effect of glutamate receptor antagonists on glutamatergic Ca(2+) signals from RGCs in adult rat retinal wholemounts yielded results similar to those obtained using immunopanned RGCs. Additional experiments on isolated RGCs revealed that during a 1 h glutamate (10-1000 microm) exposure, 18-28% of RGCs exhibited delayed Ca(2+) deregulation (DCD) and the RGCs that underwent DCD were positive for the death marker annexin V. RGCs with larger glutamate-evoked Ca(2+) signals were more likely to undergo DCD, and NMDA-R blockade significantly reduced the occurrence of DCD. Identifying the mechanisms underlying RGC excitotoxicity aids in our understanding of the pathophysiology of retinal ischaemia, and this work establishes a major role for NMDA-R-mediated increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in glutamate-related RGC death.

calan pill 2015-03-18

Pim-1 is variably expressed in leukemia cell lines Zyrtec 25 Mg and associated with drug resistance. Targeting Pim-1 with monoclonal antibody could be explored for the treatment of leukemia and may represent a novel strategy to overcome drug resistance.

calan reviews 2015-10-22

To evaluate the anti-hypertensive effect of verapamil COER-24 180/240 mg in a single Cymbalta And Alcohol dose at bedtime as single therapy in mild to moderate hypertensives.

calan overdose 2015-12-16

Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to serve as an alternative source of hematopoietic precursors for transplantation Vasotec Generic Name and for the study of hematopoietic cell development. Using coculture of human ES (hES) cells with OP9 bone marrow stromal cells, we were able to obtain up to 20% of CD34+ cells and isolate up to 10(7) CD34+ cells with more than 95% purity from a similar number of initially plated hES cells after 8 to 9 days of culture. The hES cell-derived CD34+ cells were highly enriched in colony-forming cells, cells expressing hematopoiesis-associated genes GATA-1, GATA-2, SCL/TAL1, and Flk-1, and retained clonogenic potential after in vitro expansion. CD34+ cells displayed the phenotype of primitive hematopoietic progenitors as defined by co-expression of CD90, CD117, and CD164, along with a lack of CD38 expression and contained aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cells as well as cells with verapamil-sensitive ability to efflux rhodamine 123. When cultured on MS-5 stromal cells in the presence of stem cell factor, Flt3-L, interleukin 7 (IL-7), and IL-3, isolated CD34+ cells differentiated into lymphoid (B and natural killer cells) as well as myeloid (macrophages and granulocytes) lineages. These data indicate that CD34+ cells generated through hES/OP9 coculture display several features of definitive hematopoietic stem cells.

calan generic name 2015-10-29

During bladder filling, the trigone contracts help keep the ureteral orifices open and the bladder neck shut. The trigone generates spontaneous activity as well as responding to neuromuscular transmitters, but the relationship between these Diflucan Usual Dosage phenomena are unclear.

calan drug classification 2015-12-01

Circulating adipsin levels are significantly higher in women with Risperdal Medication Lawsuit PCOS, and the peptide is closely related to increased cardiovascular risk and metabolic disturbances.

calan 40 mg 2015-03-12

In human neuroblastoma IMR32 cells, the effect of the anti-depressant maprotiline on baseline intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) was explored by using the Ca2+-sensitive probe fura-2. Maprotiline at concentrations greater than 100 microM caused a rapid rise in [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 200 microM). Maprotiline-induced [Ca2+]i rise was reduced by 50% by removal of extracellular Ca2 Lipitor Coupons Online +. Maprotiline-induced [Ca2+]i rises were inhibited by half by nifedipine, but was unaffected by verapamil or diiltiazem. In Ca2+-free medium, thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, caused a monophasic [Ca2+]i rise, after which the increasing effect of maprotiline on [Ca2+]i was abolished. U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, did not affect maprotiline-induced [Ca2+]i rises. These findings suggest that in human neuroblastoma cells, maprotiline increases [Ca2+]i by stimulating extracellular Ca2+ influx and also by causing intracellular Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum via a phospholiase C-independent manner.

calan 180 mg 2015-12-30

172 KT pts. were examined; 137 used CsA, 25 Tac, 6 Sirolimus, 107 Aza and 56 MMF. Gingival overgrowth prevalence was 59.1% on CsA, 12.0% on Tac, and 16.7% on Sirolimus. CsA odds ratio (OR) 15.2, age <45 OR 5.6, and poor oral hygiene OR 3.2, increased, and Aza OR 0.05 and MMF OR 0.03, decreased GO Suprax Drug prevalence.

calan dosage 2016-03-16

The effects of racemic bupivacaine and its (-)-(S)- and (+)-(R)-isomers on guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle tension were studied in vitro. Racemic bupivacaine had a dual action with contraction at low concentrations (6.9-55 x 10(-6) M) and relaxation at high concentrations (1.1-18 x 10(-4) M), (-)-(S)-Bupivacaine had dual action comparable to that of racemic bupivacaine, while (+)-(R)-bupivacaine had only weak contractile effects with more marked relaxant effects. The contractile effects of bupivacaine were abolished in Ca(2+)-free medium and Motilium Tablets Indications by verapamil, while the relaxant effects were not influenced by verapamil or Ca(2+)-free medium. The (-)-(S)-isomer is responsible for the contractile effects of racemic bupivacaine, whereas both (-)-(S)- and (+)-(R)-isomers contribute to its relaxant effects. In preparations denuded of epithelium, the (maximal) responses were attenuated to 86% of maximum contraction and 48% of maximum relaxation, suggesting that the epithelium plays a larger role in relaxant than in contractile responses to bupivacaine. It is concluded that bupivacaine has a dual action on guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle with epithelium-independent. Ca(2+)-dependent contraction at low concentrations and epithelium-dependent, Ca(2+)-independent relaxation at higher concentrations.

calan 80 mg 2015-03-20

People of Hispanic origin are the fastest growing ethnic minority in the Zofran Medication Uses United States and often have hypertension and other comorbidities which increase the risk associated with coronary artery disease (CAD).

calan tab 2015-12-06

Of 74 Augmentin Iv Dose patients subjected to mammary artery and venous coronary bypass grafting with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass 19 received amlodipine and 21 - verapamil.

calan 120 mg 2017-01-24

Besides small molecules from medicinal chemistry, natural products are still major sources of innovative therapeutic agents for various conditions, including infectious diseases. Here we present the first attempt to design a combination treatment targeted against Chlamydia pneumoniae infection using coadministration of natural phenolics with calcium (Ca(2+)) modulators, and also the concomitant administration of these compounds with doxycycline. An in vitro acute C. pneumoniae model in human lung epithelial cells was used and Loewe additivity model was applied to evaluate the effects. In general, the phenolic compounds, quercetin, luteolin, rhamnetin and octyl gallate did not improve the antichlamydial effect of doxycycline, and, in some cases, resulted in antagonistic effects. The combination of doxycycline and Ca(2+) modulators (isradipine, verapamil and thapsigargin) was at most additive, and at subinhibitory concentrations of doxycycline, often even antagonistic. The Ca(2+) modulators showed no inhibitory effects on C. pneumoniae growth alone, whereas the coadminstration of Ca(2+) modulators with phenolic compounds resulted in potentiation of the antichlamydial effect of phenolic compounds. Verapamil (100 μM) was synergistic with low quercetin and luteolin concentrations (0.39 and 1.56 μM), whereas 10 μM isradipine was synergistic with high quercetin, rhamnetin and octyl gallate concentrations (12.5 μM and 100 μM). Use of thapsigargin with the phenolic compounds resulted in the most intense synergism. Interaction indices 0.12 and 0.14 were achieved with 0.39 μM luteolin and 10 and 100 nM thapsigargin, respectively. To conclude, the observed results indicate that the Ca(2+) modulators potentiate the antichlamydial effects of the phenolic compounds.

calan 240 mg 2016-07-03

Many endogenous compounds and xenobiotics are organic cations that rely on polyspecific organic cation transporters (OCTs) to traverse cell membranes. We recently cloned a novel human plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) that belongs to the equillibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. We have reported previously that, unlike other ENTs, PMAT (also known as ENT4) is a Na+-independent and membrane potential-sensitive transporter that transports monoamine neurotransmitters and the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). These compounds are the known substrates for OCTs, which raises the possibility that PMAT functions as a polyspecific transporter like the OCTs. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction of PMAT with a series of structurally diverse organic cations using MDCK cells stably expressing human PMAT. Our study showed that PMAT interacts with many organic cations that have heterogeneous chemical structures. PMAT transports classic OCT substrates, such as tetraethylammonium, guanidine, and histamine. Prototype OCT inhibitors, including cimetidine, and type II cations (e.g., quinidine, quinine, verapamil, and rhodamine123) are also PMAT inhibitors. An analysis of molecular structures and apparent binding affinities revealed that charge and hydrophobicity are the principal determinants for transporter-substrate/inhibitor interaction. A planar aromatic mass seems to be important for high affinity interaction. trans-Stimulation and efflux studies demonstrate that PMAT is able to mediate bidirectional transport. These functional properties of PMAT are strikingly similar to those of the OCTs. We therefore conclude that PMAT can function as a polyspecific organic cation transporter, which may play a role in organic cation transport in vivo.