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Buspar

Generic BuSpar is a special anti-anxiety medication, which has an influence upon your brain, where the feeling of anxiety arouses. Generic BuSpar contains those components which help to cure symptoms of anxiety such as fear, all kinds of stress, irritation, dizziness, rapid pulse and heartbeat and other physical symptoms connecting with anxiety. Generic BuSpar acts as an anti-anxiety remedy.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Strattera, sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine, Buspirone

 

Also known as:  Buspirone.

Description

Target of Generic BuSpar is to keep your brain in balance and thereby to avoid feeling of anxiety with all following symptoms: panic, stress, irritation, dizziness, rapid pulse and heartbeat. Generic BuSpar helps to control feeling of anxiety.

Generic BuSpar acts as an anti-anxiety remedy.

Buspar is also known as Buspirone, Buspin, Ansial, Ansiced, Anxiron, Axoren, Bespar, Buspimen, Buspinol, Buspisal, Narol, Spitomin, Sorbon.

Generic BuSpar operates by giving brains balance and mental stability.

Generic BuSpar is selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).

Generic name of Generic BuSpar is Buspirone.

Brand names of Generic BuSpar are BuSpar, BuSpar Dividose.

Dosage

Do not take this medication for a long time (not longer than 4 weeks).

The medication can be used with or without food.

Generic BuSpar can be taken by patients not younger than 18 years old.

If you need the tablet to be split, split it up strictly on special scored marks. Do not use the tablet if it split up wrong and the pieces are too small or too big.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic BuSpar suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic BuSpar and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic BuSpar overdosage: nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drowse, stomach pain, difficult vision.

Storage

Store at room temperature below 30 degrees C (86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Buspar are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic BuSpar if you are allergic to Generic BuSpar components.

Do not take Generic BuSpar if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.

Do not Generic BuSpar if you have used an MAO inhibitor such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), rasagiline (Azilect), selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam), or tranylcypromine (Parnate) within the past 14 days. Serious, life-threatening side effects can occur if you take Generic BuSpar before the MAO inhibitor has cleared from your body.

Do not use medication with grapefruit. Grapefruit and grapefruit juice may interact with Generic BuSpar and lead to dangerous effects.

Be careful with Generic BuSpar if you suffer from kidney disease or liver disease.

Try not to mix Generic BuSpar with other anti-anxiety medications.

Be careful with Generic BuSpar if you are taking medication such as medicines to treat psychiatric disorders, such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine), haloperidol (Haldol), mesoridazine (Serentil), pimozide (Orap), or thioridazine (Mellaril), dexamethasone (Decadron, Hexadrol), erythromycin (E-Mycin, E.E.S., Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), ritonavir (Norvir), rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater), antibiotics such as capreomycin (Capastat), rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane, Rifater), vancomycin (Vancocin, Vancoled), a calcium channel blocker such as diltiazem (Tiazac, Cartia, Cardizem) or verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan); seizure medication such as carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Tegretol), phenytoin (Dilantin), phenobarbital (Luminal, Solfoton).

Do not stop taking Generic BuSpar suddenly.

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A robotic liquid handler was successfully applied to the preparation of STD and QC samples in blood and to spot the blood samples onto DBS cards using buspirone as the model compound. This automated preparation was demonstrated to be accurate and consistent. However the accuracy and precision of automated preparation were similar to those from manual preparation. The effect of spotting volume on accuracy was evaluated and a trend of increasing concentrations of buspirone with increasing spotting volumes was observed.

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Administration of buspirone at low (1 mg/kg) and high (10 mg/kg) doses increased latency to move in open field and decreased number of squares crossed. The agent injected at a dose of 1 mg/kg decreased dopamine concentration and increased the concentration of homovanillic acid. Increases of homovanillic acid were smaller at a dose of 1 mg/kg than 10 mg/kg. Changes in the levels of dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid were not significant. Administration of buspirone decreased 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism at a dose of 1 mg/kg but not at a dose of 10 mg/kg.

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The benzodioxane, S15535, possesses low intrinsic activity and marked selectivity at 5-HT1A receptors, hippocampal populations of which are implicated in anxious states.

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Spinocerebellar ataxias are autosomal dominant diseases, associated in some types with a CAG repeat expansion, and characterised by a progressive loss of motor function. Currently, as there is no cure for most ataxias, treatment predominantly involves physical therapy. Various symptomatic drug treatments have been tried; however, published clinical studies have provided inconsistent results, likely due to small sample sizes, mixed patient populations and insensitive or subjective assessment scales. SCA1(154Q) transgenic mice display motor function impairments and ultimately a reduced number of cerebellar Purkinje neurons-characteristics comparable to most forms of sporadic and hereditary ataxias. We monitored motor function in SCA1(154Q) mice from 5 to 20 weeks of age and assessed the efficacy of four potential cerebellar modulatory drugs in attenuating deficits in rotor-rod performance. The drugs riluzole, amantadine, zolpidem and buspirone were selected based on their different mechanisms of action and their Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration approval for other indications. SCA1(154Q) and C57/Bl6 wild-type mice were administered with four ascending acute doses of each drug, over 2 days. Following each dose, mice were assesed for motor function on the accelerating rotor-rod. None of the four drugs attenuated motor deficts in SCA1(154Q) mice at any dose; at FDA equivalent and higher dose administration of zolpidem and buspirone led to sedation in both strains. Our results suggest that the aforementioned drugs are likely to be ineffective for symptomatic treatment of SCA1 and most other ataxic patients and emphasise the need for comphrehensive drug studies prior to clinical use.

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Elderly patients have a higher prevalence of clinically significant anxiety than younger patients. The anxiety is usually comorbid with depression, medical illness, dementia, or personality disorders, and all of these factors impact on treatment. Further complicating treatment are age-related changes in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anxiolytics in this patient population. Benzodiazepines, buspirone, beta-blockers, antidepressants, neuroleptics, and antihistamines are useful in treating anxiety in older patients, but individual patient physiologic and psychological characteristics need to be considered in choosing an appropriate agent.

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Two review authors independently screened and selected titles and abstracts for inclusion in the review. Randomised trials of any intervention in patients with stroke where the treatment of anxiety was an outcome were eligible.

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Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cardiac arrest and resuscitation, subsequently exhibiting posthypoxic myoclonus. The audiogenic posthypoxic myoclonus in these animals could be attenuated with the following drugs: 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, serotonin [5-HT] precursor), N-(3-trifluoro-methylphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (TFMPP, 5-HT1B/1C/2 agonist), (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrobromide (DOI, 5-HT2 agonist), and 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide hydrochloride (m-CPBG, 5-HT3 agonist). In contrast, the following drugs were ineffective: (+/-)-8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT, 5-HT1A agonist), buspirone hydrochloride (5-HT1A agonist), 7-trifluoromethyl-4(4-methyl-l-piperazinyl)-pyrrolo[1,2- a]quinoxaline maleate (CGS 12066B, 5-HT1B agonist), ketanserin tartrate (5-HT2 antagonist), methysergide maleate (5-HT2 antagonist), fluoxetine (5-HT uptake blocker), and saline (vehicle). The data suggest that enhancement of serotonergic activity, particularly through 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors, have therapeutic potential for the treatment of posthypoxic myoclonus.

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Significant progress has been made in the pharmacotherapy of alcoholism, specifically in the areas of withdrawal reaction, decreasing consumption, relapse prevention, and comorbid psychiatric illnesses. Psychosocial interventions are an important component of treatment strategies, and studies into the efficacy of medications often include psychotherapy or other nonpharmacological modalities. Increasingly, however, the evidence reveals the effectiveness of drug treatments for various components of the illness. Many different pharmacological agents and dosage regimens have been investigated for the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The effectiveness and simplicity of giving long-acting benzodiazepines, using a loading-dose technique, make this regimen first-line therapy. Both naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) and acamprosate (calcium acetylhomotaurinate) increase rates of abstinence and decrease relapse rates in alcohol-dependent individuals who are in abstinence-orientated programmes. If patients enter a comprehensive treatment programme, either naltrexone or acamprosate should be considered as an option in the treatment plan. The choice of medication is most likely to be determined by the availability of each, which differs considerably throughout the world. Selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) seem to have short term effects, and are more effective in depressed alcoholics-dependent and in men. For all medications there is wide variability in treatment response (i.e. effect size) and compliance seems to be essential for successful treatment. Preliminary evidence suggests the usefulness of pharmacotherapy in treating alcohol dependence in the presence of other comorbid psychiatric illnesses. Antidepressants have shown efficacy in the treatment of alcoholism with comorbid depression, as has buspirone for the treatment of comorbid chronic anxiety symptoms. Further understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of dependence in animals and humans as well as improved knowledge of predictors of treatment response will lead to improvements in the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence.

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In utero ethanol exposure results in a decreased concentration of serotonin (5-HT) in brain regions containing the cell bodies of 5-HT neurons and their cortical projections. The concentration of 5-HT reuptake sites is also reduced in several brain areas. The present study extended prior work by evaluating the effects of chronic maternal ethanol consumption and maternal buspirone treatment on 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in multiple brain areas of offspring. Receptors were quantitated early in postnatal development and at an age when the 5-HT networks are normally well-established. Because fetal 5-HT functions as an essential neurotrophic factor, these studies also determined whether treatment of pregnant rats with buspirone, a 5-HT1A agonist, could overcome the effects of the fetal 5-HT deficit and prevent ethanol-associated receptor abnormalities. The results demonstrated that in utero ethanol exposure significantly alters the binding of 0.1 nM [3H]-8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin to 5-HT1A receptors in developing animals. Ethanol impaired the development of 5-HT1A receptors in the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and lateral septum; these receptors did not undergo the normal developmental increase between postnatal days 19 and 35. The dentate gyrus was also sensitive to the effects of in utero ethanol exposure. 5-HT1A receptors were increased in this region at 19 days. Maternal buspirone treatment prevented the ethanol-associated abnormalities in 5-HT1A receptors in the dentate gyrus, frontal cortex, and lateral septum. Neither maternal ethanol consumption nor buspirone treatment altered the binding of 2 nM [3H]ketanserin to 5-HT2A receptors in the ventral dentate gyrus, dorsal raphe, parietal and frontal cortexes, striatum, substantia nigra, or nucleus accumbens.

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In experiments on rats in elevated plus-maze and in Opto Varimex apparatus, used for studying exploratory behavior, we observed that dotarizine (DOT), a drug with Ca2+ and 5-HT1/5-HT2-receptor antagonistic action, exerted effects suggesting anxiolytic action. The 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLU) produced mainly anxiogenic effects. The simultaneous administration of DOT and FLU weakened the anxiolytic effect of DOT. The effects of the 5-HT1B/5-HT1C receptor agonist with promigraine action, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), indicated anxiogenic action, which was increased to a certain extent when it was combined with FLU. Some of the other 5-HT-receptor agonists and antagonists tested showed anxiogenic action and others anxiolytic action. In most cases, these effects were changed when they were administered simultaneously with FLU. DOT increased general locomotor activity and when combined with FLU this effect tended to decrease. In contrast, m-CPP decreased general locomotor activity and this effect was potentiated by FLU. DOT at the two doses used did not significantly change the rate of development of habituation, while m-CPP, buspirone and ondansetron increased it. The behavioral effects of DOT observed in all cases opposite to the same effects of the promigraine drug m-CPP suggest an antimigraine action of DOT.

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In this trial, the possible efficacy of buspirone, a partial 5HT1A receptor agonist, and nefazodone, a combined SRI and 5HT2 receptor antagonist, was evaluated in women with PMD.

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There is not an approved pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine use disorder. This study sought to determine the effects of acute buspirone treatment on the subjective and cardiovascular effects of oral methamphetamine in order to provide an initial assessment of the utility, safety, and tolerability of buspirone for managing methamphetamine use disorder. We predicted that acute buspirone administration would reduce the subjective effects of methamphetamine. We also predicted that the combination of buspirone and methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated. Ten subjects completed the protocol, which tested three methamphetamine doses (0, 15, and 30mg) in combination with two buspirone doses (0 and 30mg) across 6 experimental sessions. Subjective effects and physiological measures were collected at regular intervals prior to and after dose administration. Methamphetamine produced prototypical subjective and cardiovascular effects. Acute buspirone administration increased some of the abuse-related subjective effects of methamphetamine and also attenuated some cardiovascular effects. The combination of oral methamphetamine and buspirone was safe and well tolerated. Acute buspirone administration may increase the abuse liability of oral methamphetamine. Chronic buspirone dosing studies remain to be conducted, but given preclinical findings and the outcomes of this work, the utility of buspirone for treating methamphetamine use disorder appears limited.

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A 44-year-old woman, who was suffering from widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and sleep disorder, was diagnosed as fibromyalgia. There was no apparent organic disease. Duloxetine therapy was introduced with a dose of 60 mg/day at bedtime. A few days later her husband noted severe teeth clenching and associated loud grinding noises during sleep. Then, duloxetine dosage was reduced to 30 mg/day. The bruxism continued with this dosage, thus the therapy was discontinued. The bruxism resolved after cessation. Three weeks later, duloxetine therapy was restarted at the dosage of 60 mg/day. On the third day of the therapy, bruxism started again and amitriptyline therapy at the dosage of 10 mg/day was added to duloxetine therapy. The dosage of amitriptyline was incrementally adjusted to 25 mg/ day. On the fourth day of the combined therapy, bruxism symptoms improved. Two months later, the bruxism symptoms were resolved and the complaints for fibromyalgia were under control. Although bruxism has been reported due to venlafaxine use, there is only one duloxetine-induced bruxism case in the literature which was treated with buspirone. However, we report duloxetine-induced bruxism treated successfully with amitriptyline in a patient with fibromyalgia. Tricyclic antidepressants have a suppression effect on the REM phase of the sleep cycle; this may help to cease the bruxism symptoms appearing in that phase of the sleep cycle. This is the first reported case of fibromyalgia with duloxetine-induced sleep bruxism successfully treated with amitriptyline.

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Eight patients did not complete the trial because of buspirone-associated dizziness (n = 2), or nausea (n = 2), or reluctancy to undergo final manometry. In the remaining 22 patients lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resting pressure increased from 7.7 ± 3.9 to 12.2 ± 4.6 mmHg (p = 0.00002) after buspirone administration; other manometric parameters did not change. Statistical analysis revealed negative correlation between individual increases in resting LES pressure and supra-aortic esophageal diameter (r = -0.589, p = 0.017), suggesting a more beneficial effect in patients with less severely affected esophageal function. Heartburn and regurgitation scores decreased at 4 weeks compared to baseline (p = 0.001, and p = 0.022, respectively).

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The study aimed to investigate the influence of conditioned fear, produced in the passive avoidance test, on neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) and the effect of anxiolytics on NPY-LI in frightened rats. Rats avoided the dark chamber, where they were previously subjected to electric footshock, and they exhibited increased numbers of defecations and gastric ulcers. Moreover, they showed increased NPY-LI in the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus, and decreased NPY-LI in the frontal cortex. Diazepam (1 or 3 mg/kg) and buspirone (1.5 or 5 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited passive avoidance and decreased the numbers of defecations, and they also decreased the number of gastric ulcers. Diazepam reversed while buspirone only attenuated the fear-induced changes in NPY-LI in all regions studied. In the amygdala, the effect of diazepam was dose-dependent. The effect of diazepam on both behaviour and NPY-LI was antagonized by flumazenil (15 mg/kg). Apart from supporting the role of the NPY system in fear and anxiety, the results of this study suggest that NPY is involved in the anxiolytic effects of diazepam and buspirone and that the effect of diazepam is mediated by benzodiazepine receptors.

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Extracellular single unit recording techniques was used to pharmacologically analyze the excitatory action of buspirone on locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons. Intravenously administered buspirone (0.5-8 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased LC firing rate. Furthermore, pretreatment with buspirone (8 mg/kg, i.p.) caused a parallel shift to the right of the dose-response curve for the inhibitory action of the alpha 2-receptor agonist clonidine on LC neurons. The inhibitory effect of microiontophoretically applied noradrenaline on LC neurons was not altered by the simultaneous application of buspirone, but almost totally blocked by its major metabolite 1-(2-pyrimidinyl-piperazine) (1-PP). The results indicate that buspirone causes activation of LC neurons via an alpha 2-receptor antagonistic action of its metabolite, 1-PP.

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We expand the hypothesis put forth in previous reports by proposing that buspirone is not only acting postsynaptically in the extrapyramidal system, but also presynaptically on serotonergic neurons that influence masticatory modulation in the mesocortical tract. Our 4 cases support the concept of buspirone acting as a full agonist at the presynaptic 5-HT1A somatodendritic receptors located on the cell bodies of raphe serotonergic neurons that project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain. These serotonergic neurons modulate the firing of the mesocortical tract, which itself projects from the VTA to the prefrontal cortex and acts on masticatory muscle activity through inhibiting spontaneous movements such as bruxism. While the literature is confusing and contradictory on definitions of bruxism and etiologies of incompletely understood movement disorders, we believe SSRI-induced bruxism is best conceptualized as a form of akathisia.

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Using intravital microscopy, we compared the responses to 5-HT1 receptor stimulation by the host-modified arterioles feeding a Meth-A tumor implanted in the flank of female Balb/c mice with the responses of tumor-independent arterioles (TIA) and those of control arterioles from mice without tumor. Topical administration of 5 x 10(-5) M serotonin in the presence of 10(-4) M ketanserin (5-HT2 receptors inhibitor) induced arteriolar vasodilation in TIA (+13%) and in the control arterioles (+19%), but induced constriction (-14%) in the tumor-feeding arterioles (TFA). Topical administration of the general 5-HT1 agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) or the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (2 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-4) M) induced vasoconstriction that was dramatically higher in TFA than in TIA or control arterioles (p < 0.0001 in both cases). In addition, topical administration of the 5-HT1B agonist M-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (2 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-4) M) produced opposite responses, i.e., dose-dependent vasodilation in TIA and control arterioles, and dose-dependent constriction in TFA. Since we observed the same degree of vasodilation in response to 10(-4) M acetylcholine in all three groups of arterioles, the differences between the responses to 5-HT1 receptor stimulation were not due to the absence of endothelial-dependent dilatory mechanisms in the tumor-feeding arterioles. We conclude that 5-HT1 agonists are interesting pharmacologic tools for the modulation of tumoral blood flow, since they more dramatically constrict the microvasculature feeding the tumors than that feeding normal tissue.

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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome that involves a combination of emotional and physical symptoms that result in significant functional impairment. Because of the debilitating nature of PMDD, multiple treatment options have been considered. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these therapeutic regimens to help health care professionals provide adequate treatment for PMDD and premenstrual syndrome. The treatments that are reviewed are organized into the following categories: psychiatric, anovulatory, supplements, herbal, nonpharmacological, and other. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been established as the first-line treatment for PMDD. Although luteal phase or continuous dosing can be used, additional research is needed to more thoroughly compare the efficacies and differential symptom response of continuous, semi-intermittent, luteal phase, and symptoms-onset dosing. The psychiatric medications venlafaxine, duloxetine, alprazolam, and buspirone have also been found to be useful treatments for PMDD. Various anovulatory-related treatments have demonstrated efficacy; however, the use of some of these treatments remains limited due to potential side effects and/or the availability of cheaper alternatives. Although a variety of supplement and herbal-related treatments have been proposed, with some warranting further research, at this time only calcium supplementation has demonstrated a consistent therapeutic benefit. In conclusion, serotoninergic antidepressants have been established as the first-line treatment option for PMDD; however, there are a variety of additional treatment options that should be considered if a patient fails to achieve an adequate therapeutic response with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

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To review the pharmacological treatment of depression and to evaluate current strategies for treatment to maximize the benefits of antidepressant medications.

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Forty healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to a single dose of buspirone (10 mg) or placebo. They filled in questionnaires of anxiety and depression at baseline and visual analogue scales of tension and anxiety before and at 60, 120 and 150 min after drug administration. Their skin conductance responses to auditory stimuli were measured on the conditioning model 2 h after drug intake.

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CLINICAL BACKGROUND: Autism is a developmental disorder that is usually diagnosed in early childhood. According to ICD-10 criteria, autism can be characterized by delays in language skills, by impaired social interaction, verbal or non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotyped or severely restricted activities and interests. The causes of autism are not yet elucidated, but both genetics and environment seem to play a role in 10 to 25% of autism cases. Several biochemical abnormalities, such as impairment of serotoninergic, catecholinergic, dopaminergic, and opioid systems have been reported. Autism therapies are designed to treat symptoms, and medication can be associated with psychoeducational and environmental interventions. Generally, the medications that are currently used are not intended for autism, and must be used with caution and selected according to the type and intensity of symptoms. The most common medication consists of psychotropic therapies by administration of dopaminergic and/or serotoninergic receptor antagonists (haloperidol, risperidone, clomipramine). Several drugs, such as anxiolytics (buspirone), mood stabilisers (lithium, sodium valproate), vitamins (vitamins B6, B12) or opioid antagonists (naltrexone) can be prescribed, in second intention, in cases of severe behavioural disorders. The prescription of opioid antagonists is based on the possible implication of an opioid system disorder observed in some cases. Nevertheless, several clinical studies reveal its variable effectiveness. Naltrexone is a competitive antagonist of opioid receptors OPRM1, OPRD1 and OPRK1. In France, this drug is prescribed for treating opioid and alcohol dependence. Moreover, several studies describe naltrexone as a possible treatment of autistic children in cases of developmental disorder and hyperactivity.

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Isolated from their mother, rat pups respond with changes in ultrasound vocalization (USV), a paradigm that can be used as a test for a large range of anxiolytics. Because the relation between corticosterone (CORT) and putative stress responses like USV is not clear, we examined the effects of the benzodiazepine drugs chlordiazepoxide and diazepam vs. the nonbenzodiazepine drugs buspirone and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on USV and plasma CORT concentrations. All drugs caused a dose-related decrease in USV, but only buspirone and 8-OH-DPAT induced a dose-related increase in CORT. We suggest that the seemingly paradoxical effects of buspirone and 8-OH-DPAT, that is, the decrease in USV and the concomitant increase in plasma CORT, are due to the fact that these two drugs act as full agonists at both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. Our results indicate that, when measured as an increase in the activity of the pituitary adrenocortical axis, the stress response can be interpreted in markedly different ways, depending on whether the increased activity is elicited by an environmental stressor or by pharmacological manipulation.

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Following 10 min cardiac arrest and resuscitation, male Sprague-Dawley rats developed posthypoxic myoclonus. This phenomenon peaked at 14 days and disappeared by 60 days after cardiac arrest. From previous results, the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system was implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in posthypoxic myoclonus in rats. Single injections of 5-HT1A agonists, buspirone (5 and 10 mg/kg body wt.) or 8-OH-DPAT (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg), had no effect on either the intensity or time course of the disease. In contrast, multiple injections (twice a day for 7 or more days) of buspirone (10 mg/kg) or 8-OH-DPAT (4 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the myoclonus scores of animals (p < 0.05). The results indicate that chronic stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors in the brain may accelerate endogenous compensatory mechanisms and shorten the time course of the disease.

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buspar 90 mg 2016-12-21

The distinct knowledge of available augmentation strategies may help to increase response - as well as remission rates in therapy resistant depression. buy buspar

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A total of 597 cases met criteria for analysis. Drugs involved were 286 risperidone, 133 clonidine, 114 quetiapine, 37 aripiprazole, 43 olanzapine, 29 ziprasidone, and 5 buspirone; two or more were involved in 250 cases. Reasons for exposure included excess dose given unintentionally (61%), wrong medication unintentionally (12%), adverse effects with correct dose (11%), excess dose intentionally ( buy buspar 0.6%), therapeutic error by health-care provider (0.5%), and unclear circumstances (15%). Moderate effects (such as dystonic reaction) occurred in 34 patients at their usual dose (53% of 64) and in 15 at unintentionally excessive doses (4% of 361). Emergency department evaluation of 22% of the children resulted in 5% of the total being admitted to a non-intensive care unit (ICU) bed and 2% of all admitted to an ICU bed.

buspar dosage increase 2016-10-06

The aim of this study was to develop an in-vitro-in-vivo correlation (IVIVC) for two buspirone hydrochloride extended release formulations and to compare their plasma concentrations over time with buy buspar the commercially available immediate release (IR) tablets. In vitro release rate data were obtained for each formulation using the USP Apparatus 2, paddle stirrer at 50 and 100 rpm in 0.1 M HCl and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. A three-way crossover study in 18 healthy subjects studied a 30 mg "Fast" (12 h) and 30 mg "Slow" (24 h) formulation of buspirone hydrochloride given once a day, and 2x15 mg immediate release tablets dosed at a 12 h interval. The similarity factor (f(2)) was used to analyze the dissolution data. A linear correlation model was developed using percent absorbed data and percent dissolved data from the two formulations. Predicted buspirone hydrochloride concentrations were obtained by use of a curve fitting equation for the immediate release data to determine the volume of distribution and fraction absorbed constants. Prediction errors were estimated for C(max) and area under the curve (AUC) to determine the validity of the correlation. pH 6.8 at 50 rpm was found to be the most discriminating dissolution method. Linear regression analyses of the mean percentage of dose absorbed versus the mean in vitro release resulted in a significant correlation (r(2)>0.95) for the two formulations. An average percent prediction error for C(max) was -0.16%, but was 16.1%, for the AUCs of the two formulations.

buspar drug interactions 2016-11-15

It has been possible to prepare from 8-( buy buspar 2-phenylethyl)-1,3,8-triaza [4, 5] spirodecane-2,4-dione a new series of derivatives substituted on the nitrogen atom in the 3-position of the hydantoïn ring. Several compounds exhibited sedative, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activities. The aryl or heteroaryl-piperazinomethyl substituted compounds were the most active derivatives. "Buspirone-like" anxiolytic effects were found in some compounds from 5 mg/kg dose per os.

buspar tablets 2015-05-20

Zebrafish are becoming more widely used to study neurobehavioral pharmacology. We have developed a method to assess novel environment diving behavior of zebrafish as a model of stress response and anxiolytic drug effects. In a novel tank, zebrafish dwell in the bottom of the tank initially and then increase their swimming exploration to higher levels over time. We previously found that nicotine, which has anxiolytic effects in rodents and humans, significantly lessens the novel tank diving response in zebrafish. The specificity of the diving effect was validated with a novel vs. non-novel test tank. The novel tank diving response of zebrafish was tested when given three anxiolytic drugs from two different chemical buy buspar and pharmacological classes: buspirone, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam. When the test tank was novel the diving response was clearly seen whereas it was significantly reduced when the test tank was not novel. Buspirone, a serotonergic (5HT(1A) receptor agonist) anxiolytic drug with some D(2) dopaminergic effect, had a pronounced anxiolytic-like effect in the zebrafish diving model at doses that did not have sedative effects. In contrast, chlordiazepoxide, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug, which is an effective agonist at GABA-A receptors, did not produce signs of anxiolysis in zebrafish over a broad dose range up to those that caused sedation. Diazepam another benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug did produce an anxiolytic effect at doses that did not cause sedation. The zebrafish novel tank diving task can be useful in discriminating anxiolytic drugs of several classes (serotonergic, benzodiazepines and nicotinic).

buspar 15mg tablets 2016-12-28

To characterize their in vivo 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A antagonist properties, the ability of the putative mixed 5-HT1A agonists/5-HT(2A,2C) antagonists (N-(29(4-(2-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)tricyclo(3.3.1.1(3,7) ) decane-1-carboxamide (WY-50,324), (2-(4-(4,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)butyl)-1-piperazinyl)-3-pyridinecarboxy lic acid hydrochloride (FG5974), 9,10-didehydro-N-(2-propynyl)-6-methylergoline-8b-carboxamid e (LEK-8804) and trans-1,3,4,a5,10b-hexahydro10-methoxy-4-propyl-2H-(1)benzopyra nol[3,4-b]pyridine (CGS 18102A) to antagonize both head twitches and discriminative stimulus (DS) effects produced by (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) in rats were compared with those of the 5-HT2 antagonists ketanserin and ritanserin, and the 5-HT1A agonists 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) and buspirone. All of these compounds produced dose-related decreases in DOI-induced head twitches; however pretreatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohe xanecarboxamide (WAY-100635) failed to alter the ability of ritanserin, ketanserin or CGS 18102A buy buspar to attenuate DOI-induced head twitches. In contrast, WAY-100635 completely blocked the effects of 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone and WY-50,324, and partially blocked the effects of LEK-8804, demonstrating that 5-HT1A agonist properties are involved in the effects of all of the mixed compounds except CGS 18102A. In rats trained to discriminate DOI (0.63 mg/kg) from saline in a two-lever, FR10 drug discrimination paradigm, ketanserin, ritanserin and CGS 18102A blocked the DS effects of the training dose by more than 50%. In contrast, WY-50,324, FG5974, LEK-8804, buspirone and 8-OH-DPAT, up to doses that completely suppressed responding, failed to produce more than a 33% blockade of the DS effects of DOI. In vivo 5-HT1A agonist effects were demonstrated by the finding that relatively selective- and mixed-5-HT1A agonists produced one or more elements of the "serotonin syndrome," i.e., flat-body posture, forepaw treading, or lower-lip retraction, and produced high levels of drug-lever selection in rats trained to discriminate 8-OH-DPAT (0.16 mg/kg) from saline. Because DOI-induced head twitches and DS effects are thought to be mediated by 5-HT2A receptors, the results demonstrate that the putative mixed compound, CGS 18102A has prominent 5-HT2A antagonist properties in vivo, whereas 5-HT2A antagonist effects of WY-50,324, FG5974 and LEK-8804 could not be clearly identified.

buspar generic 2017-12-27

Seventeen of 25 patients had a marked or complete buy buspar antidepressant response.

buspar 4 mg 2016-09-05

Central serotonin 1A receptors may have a role buy buspar in the pathophysiology of non-ulcer dyspepsia of the dysmotility subtype.

buspar drug 2017-01-21

We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug treatments for panic disorder? What are the effects of drug treatments for panic disorder? What are the effects of combined drug and psychological treatments for panic disorder? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug buy buspar Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

buspar increase dosage 2017-07-14

Rats were trained to discriminate the stimulus properties of the selective 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 0.4mg/kg i.p.) versus saline, using a discriminated taste aversion procedure. Tests of stimulus generalization and drug substitution were conducted using two-bottle choice tests between saccharin and water. Rats that received pairings of 8-OH-DPAT with LiCl demonstrated significant reductions of saccharin preference when administered 8-OH-DPAT at doses of 0.1mg/kg or higher. 8-OH-DPAT did not alter saccharin preference significantly in controls that did not receive LiCl injections. Other drugs with high affinity for 5-HT(1A) receptors, such as the azapirones gepirone, ipsapirone and buspirone, produced selective reductions of saccharin preference in rats trained to discriminate 8-OH-DPAT from saline but not in controls. Three drugs with low affinity for 5-HT(1A) receptors, the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam, d-amphetamine, and a common metabolite of the azapirones 1-(2-pyrimidinyl) piperazine (1-PP) altered fluid intake buy buspar significantly but failed to produce significant changes in saccharin preference in either the discrimination or control groups. This study indicates that two-bottle preference tests can be used to measure the stimulus properties of 8-OH-DPAT trained using a discriminated taste aversion procedure, because the stimulus effects of drugs, measured using saccharin preference, can be separated from the nonspecific effects of drugs on fluid consumption.

buspar overdose death 2017-04-12

Co-medication, gene polymorphisms and co-morbidity are main causes for high variability in expression and function of the CYP3A isoenzymes. Pharmacokinetic variability is buy buspar a major source of interindividual variability of drug effect and response of CYP3A substrates. While CYP3A genotyping is of limited use, direct testing of enzyme function ('phenotyping') may be more promising to achieve individualized dosing of CYP3A substrates.

buspar patient reviews 2015-11-24

Immunohistochemical stains for 5-HT(1a) receptor could confirm the expression of 5-HT(1a) receptor in guinea pig stomach. There was a significant dose-dependent inhibition of the EFS-induced relaxation of fundic muscle strips following the treatment with WAY-100635 (5-HT(1a) antagonist), but this was significantly improved following the treatment with buspirone. An in vivo measurement of the gastric fundic tone showed that there was a significant decrease in the intragastric pressure at same volume by pretreatment with buy buspar buspirone as compared with the vehicle control, but this could be prevented with the treatment with WAY-100635.

buspar xl dosage 2015-09-12

Although translation of these findings needs further experimentation, similar pharmacological activation of the CPG offers a novel therapeutic target to provide some health benefits in motor-complete SCI patients. buy buspar

buspar drug classification 2016-09-07

The ability of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone to potentiate the effects of subeffective doses of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and buspirone was evaluated in Swiss mice tested in an elevated plus maze. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg), chlordiazepoxide (2.5 mg/kg) and buspirone (2 mg/kg) were ineffective per se but, when buy buspar combined with naloxone (10 mg/kg), they increased the proportion of open arm entries as did higher doses of the anxiolytic agents (diazepam 1.5 mg/kg, chlordiazepoxide 5 mg/kg and buspirone 4 mg/kg). Naloxone alone (10 mg/kg) had no intrinsic effect. These data suggest that naloxone is able to potentiate the effects of anti-anxiety agents.

buspar dosage times 2015-04-16

The interactions of tandospirone (formerly called SM-3997) with 5-HT and other neurotransmitter receptor binding sites were determined in brain homogenates. Tandospirone is most potent at the 5-HT1A receptor, displaying a Ki value of 27 +/- 5 nM. The agent is approximately two to three orders of magnitude less potent at 5-HT2, 5-HT1C, alpha 1-adrenergic, alpha 2-adrenergic, and dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (Ki values ranging from 1300 to 41000 nM). Tandospirone is essentially inactive at 5-HT1B receptors; 5-HT uptake sites; beta-adrenergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and benzodiazepine receptors. This pharmacological profile differs slightly from that of other novel Combivir Online anxiolytics such as buspirone, ipsapirone, and gepirone. Saturation and competition studies using 3H-tandospirone also suggest that the drug interacts with 5-HT1A receptor binding sites in rat cortical membranes (KD = 4.5 +/- 0.8 nM; Bmax = 2.2 +/- 0.6 pmol/g tissue). Based on adenylate cyclase studies which measure 5-HT1A receptor-mediated effects, tandospirone displays approximately 60% of the agonist effect of 8-OH-DPAT, a selective 5-HT1A agonist. Thus, the primary pharmacological effect of tandospirone appears to be partial agonism at the 5-HT1A receptor, an activity similar to other pyrimidinyl-piperazines which are being developed as novel anxiolytic agents.

buspar user reviews 2015-05-24

The effects of the anxiolytic drugs diazepam (5 mg) or buspirone (5 or 10 mg) were studied in comparison with placebo on memory function in 39 subjects diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. Neither drug altered the immediate recall of a list of 16 nouns or impaired digit span, a second test of immediate memory. Diazepam selectively impaired the recall of nouns after a 20 min delay when compared with placebo. In contrast, neither dose of buspirone altered the delayed recall of the word list. The implications of such different effects Zoloft Generic Name of anxiolytic drugs on memory function for the clinical treatment of anxiety are discussed.

buspar dosage 2016-05-03

Based on these analyses, it is concluded that allometrically scaled mechanism based PK-PD models are promising as a means of predicting the pharmacodynamic responses in man. This approach provides for a novel way of interpreting Levitra Generic Brands and scaling pre-clinical pharmacological responses and ultimately facilitates the understanding and prediction of pharmacological responses in man.

buspar maximum dosage 2017-07-21

In the current study, we performed an immunohistochemistry for 5-HT(1a) receptors in the tissue samples collected from the stomach of guinea pig, an ex vivo experiment to examine the electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced relaxation of the circular Clomid Alcohol muscle in the gastric fundus in guinea pigs and an in vivo experiment to measure the intragastric pressure through the insertion of the balloon catheter in the fundus.

buspar normal dosage 2017-10-07

Buspirone, an anxiolytic drug with selective affinity for the 5-HT-1A subtype of serotonin receptors, caused a dose-related decrease in 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentration in rat hypothalamus after doses of 1 to 10 mg/kg s.c. The decrease in 5-HIAA concentration after a 3 mg/kg s.c. dose of buspirone persisted at 4 hr but not at 7 hr. The decrease was due apparently to a reduced turnover of serotonin; the accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan after decarboxylase inhibition was also suppressed by buspirone, not only in hypothalamus but also in brain stem, hippocampus and striatum. 1-(2-Pyrimidinyl)-piperazine (1-PP), a major metabolite of buspirone, did not affect hypothalamic 5-HIAA concentration at doses up to 10 mg/kg s.c. Both buspirone and 1-PP increased hypothalamic concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG) sulfate, the norepinephrine metabolite, the effect being more pronounced with 1-PP but occurring after doses as low as 0.3 mg/kg s.c. with each compound. The increase in MHPG sulfate concentration persisted for at least 4 hr after a 3 mg/kg s.c. dose of each compound. The increase in MHPG sulfate produced by buspirone may have been due partly to 5-HT-1A receptor activation, inasmuch as other serotonin agonists have been found to cause a similar increase. 1-PP is reported to lack affinity for 5-HT-1A receptors so its elevation of MHPG sulfate concentration may have resulted from alpha-2 receptor blockade. The increase in MHPG sulfate concentration Zantac 150 Dosage after buspirone injection may have been due at least partly to formation of the metabolite, 1-PP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

buspar brand name 2017-07-16

The affinity for functional alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes of buspirone in comparison with its close structural analogs and selective alpha1D-adrenoceptor antagonists, BMY 7378 (8-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-8-azaspiro[4.5]dec ane-7,9-dione) and MDL 73005EF (8-[2-(1,4-benzodioxan-2-ylmethylamino)ethyl]-8-azaspiro+ ++[4.5]decane-7,9-dione), was determined, namely at subtype A in rat vas deferens and perfused kidney, at subtype B in guinea-pig and mouse spleen, at subtype L in rabbit spleen, and at subtype D in rat aorta and pulmonary artery against noradrenaline-evoked contractions. BMY 7378 and MDL 73005EF were confirmed as 30- and 20-fold selective antagonists, respectively, for alpha1D- over both alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenoceptors. Buspirone was a weak antagonist without intrinsic activity at alpha1A-adrenoceptors in rat vas deferens (pA2 = 6.12), at alpha1B-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig and mouse spleen (pA2 = 5.54 and 5.59) and at alpha1L-adrenoceptors in rabbit spleen (pA2 = 4.99), but caused partial vasoconstriction in rat kidney that was attenuable by the subtype D-selective adrenoceptor antagonist BMY 7378, but hardly by the subtype A-selective adrenoceptor antagonist B8805-033 ((+/-)-1,3,5-trimethyl-6-[[3-[4-((2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxymethyl)-1,4-be nzodioxin-5-yl)-1-piperazinyl]propyl]amino]-2,4(1H,3H)-pyrimidinedion e), confirming the additional presence of alpha1D-adrenoceptors mediating rat renal vasoconstriction. Buspirone behaved as a partial agonist at alpha1D-adrenoceptors in rat aorta (pD2 = 6.77, intrinsic activity (i.a.)= 0.40) and pulmonary artery (pD2 = 7.16, i.a. = 0.59). With buspirone as agonist in these tissues, the pA2 values of subtype-discriminating antagonists were consistent with their alpha1D-adrenoceptor affinity determined in rat aorta against noradrenaline and with published binding data on cloned alpha1d-adrenoceptors. The results provide Cialis Online Prescription pharmacological evidence that (1) in functional preparations for the A subtype, like rat vas deferens and perfused kidney, for the B subtype, like guinea-pig and mouse spleen, and for the L subtype, like rabbit spleen, buspirone is a weak antagonist without intrinsic activity, but (2) behaves as a partial agonist in rat aorta and pulmonary artery as models for the D subtype and (3) detects an additional vasoconstrictor alpha1D-adrenoceptor in rat kidney. Buspirone, like its close analogs BMY 7378 and MDL 73005EF, thus might also be a useful tool for functionally discriminating alpha1D- from alpha1A-, alpha1B- and alpha1L-adrenoceptors in various tissues.

buspar zoloft alcohol 2015-02-01

An early assessment of metabolite exposure in preclinical species can provide quantitative estimation on possible active or toxic metabolites. Frequently, synthetic metabolite standards are not available at the preclinical stage, precluding the quantitation of metabolites by means of calibration curves and quality control (QC) samples. We present here an approach to determine the extent of circulating metabolites using 'metabolite standards' generated by in vitro incubations in combination with the correction for mass spectrometry response based on UV response. The study was done by coupling ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to LTQ-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry, and the quantitation was based on full scan high-resolution accurate mass analysis in combination with retention time. First, we investigated the Seroquel 500 Mg separation capacity of a 10.5 min UHPLC method and the quantitative capability of an LTQ-Orbitrap for full scan accurate mass quantitation by spiking chemical standards of buspirone and its six metabolites in blank plasma. Then we demonstrated the use of a UV correction approach to quantitatively estimate buspirone and its metabolites in plasma samples from a rat pharmacokinetics study. We compared the concentration versus time profiles of buspirone and its six metabolites in rat plasma samples obtained using three different approaches, including using UV correction, using individual standard curves for each metabolite prepared from the synthetic standard, and using a calibration curve of the parent compound buspirone. We demonstrated the estimated metabolite exposure of buspirone using this UV correction approach resulted in rank ordering of metabolite exposure within three-fold of the value obtained with metabolite standards, in contrast to eight-fold without UV correction. The approach presented in this paper provides a practical solution to an unmet bioanalytical need for quantitative information on metabolites without standards in preclinical in vivo studies.

buspar cost 2015-05-15

Cocaine abuse and dependence is a major public health problem that continues to challenge medication-based treatment. Buspirone (Buspar) is a clinically available, non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic medication that acts on both serotonin and dopamine systems. In recent preclinical studies, acute buspirone treatment reduced cocaine self-administration at doses that did not also decrease food-reinforced behavior in rhesus monkeys (Bergman et al, 2012). The present study evaluated the effectiveness of chronic buspirone treatment on self-administration of cocaine and food Naprosyn Brand Name . Five adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to self-administer cocaine and food during four 1-h daily sessions under a second-order schedule of reinforcement (FR2 [VR 16:S]). Buspirone (0.32 and 0.56 mg/kg/h) was administered intravenously through one lumen of a double-lumen catheter every 20 min for 23 h each day for 7-10 consecutive days. Each buspirone treatment period was followed by saline control treatment until drug- and food-maintained responding returned to baseline levels. Buspirone significantly reduced responding maintained by cocaine, and shifted the dose-effect curve downwards. Buspirone had minimal effects on food-maintained responding. In cocaine discrimination studies, buspirone (0.1-0.32 mg/kg, IM) did not antagonize the discriminative stimulus and rate-altering effects of cocaine in four of six monkeys. These findings indicate that buspirone selectively attenuates the reinforcing effects of cocaine in a nonhuman primate model of cocaine self-administration, and has variable effects on cocaine discrimination.

buspar dosage information 2016-04-16

To develop a method of inducing therapeutic hypothermia in a rapid, precise, and tolerable fashion in awake, nonintubated patients.

buspar a drug 2016-09-17

Many of the agents that psychiatrists use for augmentation of depression treatment, such as psychostimulants and alerting agents, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizers, and buspirone and benzodiazepines, have specific symptomatic effects, which raises the question of whether we are augmenting the core antidepressant effect or providing symptomatic relief. Fatigue, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, and sleep disturbances are all symptoms that are commonly leftover after treatment of depression. Some data indicate that treatment of these residual symptoms is efficacious and may affect the long-term outcome of depression.