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A robotic liquid handler was successfully applied to the preparation of STD and QC samples in blood and to spot the blood samples onto DBS cards using buspirone as the model compound. This automated preparation was demonstrated to be accurate and consistent. However the accuracy and precision of automated preparation were similar to those from manual preparation. The effect of spotting volume on accuracy was evaluated and a trend of increasing concentrations of buspirone with increasing spotting volumes was observed.
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Administration of buspirone at low (1 mg/kg) and high (10 mg/kg) doses increased latency to move in open field and decreased number of squares crossed. The agent injected at a dose of 1 mg/kg decreased dopamine concentration and increased the concentration of homovanillic acid. Increases of homovanillic acid were smaller at a dose of 1 mg/kg than 10 mg/kg. Changes in the levels of dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid were not significant. Administration of buspirone decreased 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism at a dose of 1 mg/kg but not at a dose of 10 mg/kg.
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The benzodioxane, S15535, possesses low intrinsic activity and marked selectivity at 5-HT1A receptors, hippocampal populations of which are implicated in anxious states.
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Spinocerebellar ataxias are autosomal dominant diseases, associated in some types with a CAG repeat expansion, and characterised by a progressive loss of motor function. Currently, as there is no cure for most ataxias, treatment predominantly involves physical therapy. Various symptomatic drug treatments have been tried; however, published clinical studies have provided inconsistent results, likely due to small sample sizes, mixed patient populations and insensitive or subjective assessment scales. SCA1(154Q) transgenic mice display motor function impairments and ultimately a reduced number of cerebellar Purkinje neurons-characteristics comparable to most forms of sporadic and hereditary ataxias. We monitored motor function in SCA1(154Q) mice from 5 to 20 weeks of age and assessed the efficacy of four potential cerebellar modulatory drugs in attenuating deficits in rotor-rod performance. The drugs riluzole, amantadine, zolpidem and buspirone were selected based on their different mechanisms of action and their Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration approval for other indications. SCA1(154Q) and C57/Bl6 wild-type mice were administered with four ascending acute doses of each drug, over 2 days. Following each dose, mice were assesed for motor function on the accelerating rotor-rod. None of the four drugs attenuated motor deficts in SCA1(154Q) mice at any dose; at FDA equivalent and higher dose administration of zolpidem and buspirone led to sedation in both strains. Our results suggest that the aforementioned drugs are likely to be ineffective for symptomatic treatment of SCA1 and most other ataxic patients and emphasise the need for comphrehensive drug studies prior to clinical use.
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Elderly patients have a higher prevalence of clinically significant anxiety than younger patients. The anxiety is usually comorbid with depression, medical illness, dementia, or personality disorders, and all of these factors impact on treatment. Further complicating treatment are age-related changes in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anxiolytics in this patient population. Benzodiazepines, buspirone, beta-blockers, antidepressants, neuroleptics, and antihistamines are useful in treating anxiety in older patients, but individual patient physiologic and psychological characteristics need to be considered in choosing an appropriate agent.
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Two review authors independently screened and selected titles and abstracts for inclusion in the review. Randomised trials of any intervention in patients with stroke where the treatment of anxiety was an outcome were eligible.
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Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent cardiac arrest and resuscitation, subsequently exhibiting posthypoxic myoclonus. The audiogenic posthypoxic myoclonus in these animals could be attenuated with the following drugs: 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, serotonin [5-HT] precursor), N-(3-trifluoro-methylphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride (TFMPP, 5-HT1B/1C/2 agonist), (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrobromide (DOI, 5-HT2 agonist), and 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide hydrochloride (m-CPBG, 5-HT3 agonist). In contrast, the following drugs were ineffective: (+/-)-8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT, 5-HT1A agonist), buspirone hydrochloride (5-HT1A agonist), 7-trifluoromethyl-4(4-methyl-l-piperazinyl)-pyrrolo[1,2- a]quinoxaline maleate (CGS 12066B, 5-HT1B agonist), ketanserin tartrate (5-HT2 antagonist), methysergide maleate (5-HT2 antagonist), fluoxetine (5-HT uptake blocker), and saline (vehicle). The data suggest that enhancement of serotonergic activity, particularly through 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors, have therapeutic potential for the treatment of posthypoxic myoclonus.
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Significant progress has been made in the pharmacotherapy of alcoholism, specifically in the areas of withdrawal reaction, decreasing consumption, relapse prevention, and comorbid psychiatric illnesses. Psychosocial interventions are an important component of treatment strategies, and studies into the efficacy of medications often include psychotherapy or other nonpharmacological modalities. Increasingly, however, the evidence reveals the effectiveness of drug treatments for various components of the illness. Many different pharmacological agents and dosage regimens have been investigated for the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. The effectiveness and simplicity of giving long-acting benzodiazepines, using a loading-dose technique, make this regimen first-line therapy. Both naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) and acamprosate (calcium acetylhomotaurinate) increase rates of abstinence and decrease relapse rates in alcohol-dependent individuals who are in abstinence-orientated programmes. If patients enter a comprehensive treatment programme, either naltrexone or acamprosate should be considered as an option in the treatment plan. The choice of medication is most likely to be determined by the availability of each, which differs considerably throughout the world. Selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) seem to have short term effects, and are more effective in depressed alcoholics-dependent and in men. For all medications there is wide variability in treatment response (i.e. effect size) and compliance seems to be essential for successful treatment. Preliminary evidence suggests the usefulness of pharmacotherapy in treating alcohol dependence in the presence of other comorbid psychiatric illnesses. Antidepressants have shown efficacy in the treatment of alcoholism with comorbid depression, as has buspirone for the treatment of comorbid chronic anxiety symptoms. Further understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of dependence in animals and humans as well as improved knowledge of predictors of treatment response will lead to improvements in the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence.
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In utero ethanol exposure results in a decreased concentration of serotonin (5-HT) in brain regions containing the cell bodies of 5-HT neurons and their cortical projections. The concentration of 5-HT reuptake sites is also reduced in several brain areas. The present study extended prior work by evaluating the effects of chronic maternal ethanol consumption and maternal buspirone treatment on 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in multiple brain areas of offspring. Receptors were quantitated early in postnatal development and at an age when the 5-HT networks are normally well-established. Because fetal 5-HT functions as an essential neurotrophic factor, these studies also determined whether treatment of pregnant rats with buspirone, a 5-HT1A agonist, could overcome the effects of the fetal 5-HT deficit and prevent ethanol-associated receptor abnormalities. The results demonstrated that in utero ethanol exposure significantly alters the binding of 0.1 nM [3H]-8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin to 5-HT1A receptors in developing animals. Ethanol impaired the development of 5-HT1A receptors in the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and lateral septum; these receptors did not undergo the normal developmental increase between postnatal days 19 and 35. The dentate gyrus was also sensitive to the effects of in utero ethanol exposure. 5-HT1A receptors were increased in this region at 19 days. Maternal buspirone treatment prevented the ethanol-associated abnormalities in 5-HT1A receptors in the dentate gyrus, frontal cortex, and lateral septum. Neither maternal ethanol consumption nor buspirone treatment altered the binding of 2 nM [3H]ketanserin to 5-HT2A receptors in the ventral dentate gyrus, dorsal raphe, parietal and frontal cortexes, striatum, substantia nigra, or nucleus accumbens.
In experiments on rats in elevated plus-maze and in Opto Varimex apparatus, used for studying exploratory behavior, we observed that dotarizine (DOT), a drug with Ca2+ and 5-HT1/5-HT2-receptor antagonistic action, exerted effects suggesting anxiolytic action. The 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLU) produced mainly anxiogenic effects. The simultaneous administration of DOT and FLU weakened the anxiolytic effect of DOT. The effects of the 5-HT1B/5-HT1C receptor agonist with promigraine action, m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), indicated anxiogenic action, which was increased to a certain extent when it was combined with FLU. Some of the other 5-HT-receptor agonists and antagonists tested showed anxiogenic action and others anxiolytic action. In most cases, these effects were changed when they were administered simultaneously with FLU. DOT increased general locomotor activity and when combined with FLU this effect tended to decrease. In contrast, m-CPP decreased general locomotor activity and this effect was potentiated by FLU. DOT at the two doses used did not significantly change the rate of development of habituation, while m-CPP, buspirone and ondansetron increased it. The behavioral effects of DOT observed in all cases opposite to the same effects of the promigraine drug m-CPP suggest an antimigraine action of DOT.
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In this trial, the possible efficacy of buspirone, a partial 5HT1A receptor agonist, and nefazodone, a combined SRI and 5HT2 receptor antagonist, was evaluated in women with PMD.
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There is not an approved pharmacotherapy for treating methamphetamine use disorder. This study sought to determine the effects of acute buspirone treatment on the subjective and cardiovascular effects of oral methamphetamine in order to provide an initial assessment of the utility, safety, and tolerability of buspirone for managing methamphetamine use disorder. We predicted that acute buspirone administration would reduce the subjective effects of methamphetamine. We also predicted that the combination of buspirone and methamphetamine would be safe and well tolerated. Ten subjects completed the protocol, which tested three methamphetamine doses (0, 15, and 30mg) in combination with two buspirone doses (0 and 30mg) across 6 experimental sessions. Subjective effects and physiological measures were collected at regular intervals prior to and after dose administration. Methamphetamine produced prototypical subjective and cardiovascular effects. Acute buspirone administration increased some of the abuse-related subjective effects of methamphetamine and also attenuated some cardiovascular effects. The combination of oral methamphetamine and buspirone was safe and well tolerated. Acute buspirone administration may increase the abuse liability of oral methamphetamine. Chronic buspirone dosing studies remain to be conducted, but given preclinical findings and the outcomes of this work, the utility of buspirone for treating methamphetamine use disorder appears limited.
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A 44-year-old woman, who was suffering from widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, and sleep disorder, was diagnosed as fibromyalgia. There was no apparent organic disease. Duloxetine therapy was introduced with a dose of 60 mg/day at bedtime. A few days later her husband noted severe teeth clenching and associated loud grinding noises during sleep. Then, duloxetine dosage was reduced to 30 mg/day. The bruxism continued with this dosage, thus the therapy was discontinued. The bruxism resolved after cessation. Three weeks later, duloxetine therapy was restarted at the dosage of 60 mg/day. On the third day of the therapy, bruxism started again and amitriptyline therapy at the dosage of 10 mg/day was added to duloxetine therapy. The dosage of amitriptyline was incrementally adjusted to 25 mg/ day. On the fourth day of the combined therapy, bruxism symptoms improved. Two months later, the bruxism symptoms were resolved and the complaints for fibromyalgia were under control. Although bruxism has been reported due to venlafaxine use, there is only one duloxetine-induced bruxism case in the literature which was treated with buspirone. However, we report duloxetine-induced bruxism treated successfully with amitriptyline in a patient with fibromyalgia. Tricyclic antidepressants have a suppression effect on the REM phase of the sleep cycle; this may help to cease the bruxism symptoms appearing in that phase of the sleep cycle. This is the first reported case of fibromyalgia with duloxetine-induced sleep bruxism successfully treated with amitriptyline.
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Eight patients did not complete the trial because of buspirone-associated dizziness (n = 2), or nausea (n = 2), or reluctancy to undergo final manometry. In the remaining 22 patients lower esophageal sphincter (LES) resting pressure increased from 7.7 ± 3.9 to 12.2 ± 4.6 mmHg (p = 0.00002) after buspirone administration; other manometric parameters did not change. Statistical analysis revealed negative correlation between individual increases in resting LES pressure and supra-aortic esophageal diameter (r = -0.589, p = 0.017), suggesting a more beneficial effect in patients with less severely affected esophageal function. Heartburn and regurgitation scores decreased at 4 weeks compared to baseline (p = 0.001, and p = 0.022, respectively).
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The study aimed to investigate the influence of conditioned fear, produced in the passive avoidance test, on neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity (NPY-LI) and the effect of anxiolytics on NPY-LI in frightened rats. Rats avoided the dark chamber, where they were previously subjected to electric footshock, and they exhibited increased numbers of defecations and gastric ulcers. Moreover, they showed increased NPY-LI in the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and hypothalamus, and decreased NPY-LI in the frontal cortex. Diazepam (1 or 3 mg/kg) and buspirone (1.5 or 5 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited passive avoidance and decreased the numbers of defecations, and they also decreased the number of gastric ulcers. Diazepam reversed while buspirone only attenuated the fear-induced changes in NPY-LI in all regions studied. In the amygdala, the effect of diazepam was dose-dependent. The effect of diazepam on both behaviour and NPY-LI was antagonized by flumazenil (15 mg/kg). Apart from supporting the role of the NPY system in fear and anxiety, the results of this study suggest that NPY is involved in the anxiolytic effects of diazepam and buspirone and that the effect of diazepam is mediated by benzodiazepine receptors.
Extracellular single unit recording techniques was used to pharmacologically analyze the excitatory action of buspirone on locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons. Intravenously administered buspirone (0.5-8 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased LC firing rate. Furthermore, pretreatment with buspirone (8 mg/kg, i.p.) caused a parallel shift to the right of the dose-response curve for the inhibitory action of the alpha 2-receptor agonist clonidine on LC neurons. The inhibitory effect of microiontophoretically applied noradrenaline on LC neurons was not altered by the simultaneous application of buspirone, but almost totally blocked by its major metabolite 1-(2-pyrimidinyl-piperazine) (1-PP). The results indicate that buspirone causes activation of LC neurons via an alpha 2-receptor antagonistic action of its metabolite, 1-PP.
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We expand the hypothesis put forth in previous reports by proposing that buspirone is not only acting postsynaptically in the extrapyramidal system, but also presynaptically on serotonergic neurons that influence masticatory modulation in the mesocortical tract. Our 4 cases support the concept of buspirone acting as a full agonist at the presynaptic 5-HT1A somatodendritic receptors located on the cell bodies of raphe serotonergic neurons that project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain. These serotonergic neurons modulate the firing of the mesocortical tract, which itself projects from the VTA to the prefrontal cortex and acts on masticatory muscle activity through inhibiting spontaneous movements such as bruxism. While the literature is confusing and contradictory on definitions of bruxism and etiologies of incompletely understood movement disorders, we believe SSRI-induced bruxism is best conceptualized as a form of akathisia.
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Using intravital microscopy, we compared the responses to 5-HT1 receptor stimulation by the host-modified arterioles feeding a Meth-A tumor implanted in the flank of female Balb/c mice with the responses of tumor-independent arterioles (TIA) and those of control arterioles from mice without tumor. Topical administration of 5 x 10(-5) M serotonin in the presence of 10(-4) M ketanserin (5-HT2 receptors inhibitor) induced arteriolar vasodilation in TIA (+13%) and in the control arterioles (+19%), but induced constriction (-14%) in the tumor-feeding arterioles (TFA). Topical administration of the general 5-HT1 agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine maleate (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) or the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (2 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-4) M) induced vasoconstriction that was dramatically higher in TFA than in TIA or control arterioles (p < 0.0001 in both cases). In addition, topical administration of the 5-HT1B agonist M-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (2 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-4) M) produced opposite responses, i.e., dose-dependent vasodilation in TIA and control arterioles, and dose-dependent constriction in TFA. Since we observed the same degree of vasodilation in response to 10(-4) M acetylcholine in all three groups of arterioles, the differences between the responses to 5-HT1 receptor stimulation were not due to the absence of endothelial-dependent dilatory mechanisms in the tumor-feeding arterioles. We conclude that 5-HT1 agonists are interesting pharmacologic tools for the modulation of tumoral blood flow, since they more dramatically constrict the microvasculature feeding the tumors than that feeding normal tissue.
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Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome that involves a combination of emotional and physical symptoms that result in significant functional impairment. Because of the debilitating nature of PMDD, multiple treatment options have been considered. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these therapeutic regimens to help health care professionals provide adequate treatment for PMDD and premenstrual syndrome. The treatments that are reviewed are organized into the following categories: psychiatric, anovulatory, supplements, herbal, nonpharmacological, and other. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been established as the first-line treatment for PMDD. Although luteal phase or continuous dosing can be used, additional research is needed to more thoroughly compare the efficacies and differential symptom response of continuous, semi-intermittent, luteal phase, and symptoms-onset dosing. The psychiatric medications venlafaxine, duloxetine, alprazolam, and buspirone have also been found to be useful treatments for PMDD. Various anovulatory-related treatments have demonstrated efficacy; however, the use of some of these treatments remains limited due to potential side effects and/or the availability of cheaper alternatives. Although a variety of supplement and herbal-related treatments have been proposed, with some warranting further research, at this time only calcium supplementation has demonstrated a consistent therapeutic benefit. In conclusion, serotoninergic antidepressants have been established as the first-line treatment option for PMDD; however, there are a variety of additional treatment options that should be considered if a patient fails to achieve an adequate therapeutic response with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
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To review the pharmacological treatment of depression and to evaluate current strategies for treatment to maximize the benefits of antidepressant medications.
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Forty healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to a single dose of buspirone (10 mg) or placebo. They filled in questionnaires of anxiety and depression at baseline and visual analogue scales of tension and anxiety before and at 60, 120 and 150 min after drug administration. Their skin conductance responses to auditory stimuli were measured on the conditioning model 2 h after drug intake.
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CLINICAL BACKGROUND: Autism is a developmental disorder that is usually diagnosed in early childhood. According to ICD-10 criteria, autism can be characterized by delays in language skills, by impaired social interaction, verbal or non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotyped or severely restricted activities and interests. The causes of autism are not yet elucidated, but both genetics and environment seem to play a role in 10 to 25% of autism cases. Several biochemical abnormalities, such as impairment of serotoninergic, catecholinergic, dopaminergic, and opioid systems have been reported. Autism therapies are designed to treat symptoms, and medication can be associated with psychoeducational and environmental interventions. Generally, the medications that are currently used are not intended for autism, and must be used with caution and selected according to the type and intensity of symptoms. The most common medication consists of psychotropic therapies by administration of dopaminergic and/or serotoninergic receptor antagonists (haloperidol, risperidone, clomipramine). Several drugs, such as anxiolytics (buspirone), mood stabilisers (lithium, sodium valproate), vitamins (vitamins B6, B12) or opioid antagonists (naltrexone) can be prescribed, in second intention, in cases of severe behavioural disorders. The prescription of opioid antagonists is based on the possible implication of an opioid system disorder observed in some cases. Nevertheless, several clinical studies reveal its variable effectiveness. Naltrexone is a competitive antagonist of opioid receptors OPRM1, OPRD1 and OPRK1. In France, this drug is prescribed for treating opioid and alcohol dependence. Moreover, several studies describe naltrexone as a possible treatment of autistic children in cases of developmental disorder and hyperactivity.
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Isolated from their mother, rat pups respond with changes in ultrasound vocalization (USV), a paradigm that can be used as a test for a large range of anxiolytics. Because the relation between corticosterone (CORT) and putative stress responses like USV is not clear, we examined the effects of the benzodiazepine drugs chlordiazepoxide and diazepam vs. the nonbenzodiazepine drugs buspirone and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) on USV and plasma CORT concentrations. All drugs caused a dose-related decrease in USV, but only buspirone and 8-OH-DPAT induced a dose-related increase in CORT. We suggest that the seemingly paradoxical effects of buspirone and 8-OH-DPAT, that is, the decrease in USV and the concomitant increase in plasma CORT, are due to the fact that these two drugs act as full agonists at both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors. Our results indicate that, when measured as an increase in the activity of the pituitary adrenocortical axis, the stress response can be interpreted in markedly different ways, depending on whether the increased activity is elicited by an environmental stressor or by pharmacological manipulation.
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Following 10 min cardiac arrest and resuscitation, male Sprague-Dawley rats developed posthypoxic myoclonus. This phenomenon peaked at 14 days and disappeared by 60 days after cardiac arrest. From previous results, the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) system was implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in posthypoxic myoclonus in rats. Single injections of 5-HT1A agonists, buspirone (5 and 10 mg/kg body wt.) or 8-OH-DPAT (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg), had no effect on either the intensity or time course of the disease. In contrast, multiple injections (twice a day for 7 or more days) of buspirone (10 mg/kg) or 8-OH-DPAT (4 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the myoclonus scores of animals (p < 0.05). The results indicate that chronic stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors in the brain may accelerate endogenous compensatory mechanisms and shorten the time course of the disease.