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It is difficult to determine what effect, if any, follow-up visits or contacts have on contraceptive method continuation or correct use. Few studies were identified, and those that were identified were mostly of poor quality, were not method specific and had either poor patient compliance with follow-up visits or poor phone contact completion rates.
Patients from all the groups showed significant reduction in clinical parameters evaluated. However, improvement in ESS was observed only in Group II. The treatment outcome was comparable between the three groups.
We report the epidemiological, clinical, toxicological and therapeutic aspects of acute voluntary intoxication with carbamazepine.
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We have previously reported that cytotoxic lymphocytes, when exposed to sensitive target cells, temporarily lose their lytic potential. The mechanism leading to this loss of lytic activity is still unknown but it is reversible and the lytic potency can be recovered when the effector cells are incubated with interleukin-2 (IL-2) for 12-14 hr. In this study, we have investigated the regulation of RNA coding for perforin and for two serine proteases, HSP1 and HSP2, in cytotoxic lymphocytes exposed to sensitive targets. Perforin and the two serine proteases are contained in granules of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted and non-MHC-restricted cytotoxic lymphocytes, but their exact role in the lytic mechanism is still debated. Here we used four different human cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) as effector cells: an MHC-restricted CTL (SG-CTL), a non-MHC-restricted CTL (IE6), a natural killer (NK)-like cell line (3.3) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. In all effector cells we observed a rapid loss of perforin and of serine protease RNAs within 5 min following the addition of sensitive targets. The effector cells recovered the RNA messages as early as 30 min, although the kinetics of recovery was faster with CTL than with NK-like or LAK effector cells. When we exposed the effector cells to resistant targets we did not detect any loss of perforin or serine protease RNAs. Incubation of the effector cells with cycloheximide, prior to the addition of sensitive targets, did not block message loss, indicating that de novo protein synthesis was not required in this process. Cycloheximide treatment, however, inhibited the recovery of perforin and serine protease RNAs. Taken together, our results indicate that the target-mediated loss of lytic activity in cytotoxic lymphocytes may be a consequence of the down-regulation of perforin or of serine protease transcripts, or both.
The presence of small numbers of cells of donor origin in the circulation of recipients of organ transplants (microchimerism) may correlate with immunologic tolerance. As part of our ongoing studies on microchimerism, we evaluated the utility of seven PCR-based assays for the detection of the less abundant DNA in paired mixtures (100 ng total DNA).
Contraception is an essential element of high-quality abortion care. However, women seeking abortion often leave health facilities without receiving contraceptive counselling or methods, increasing their risk of unintended pregnancy. This paper describes contraceptive uptake in 319,385 women seeking abortion in 2326 public-sector health facilities in eight African and Asian countries from 2011 to 2013. Ministries of Health integrated contraceptive and abortion services, with technical assistance from Ipas, an international non-governmental organisation. Interventions included updating national guidelines, upgrading facilities, supplying contraceptive methods, and training providers. We conducted unadjusted and adjusted associations between facility level, client age, and gestational age and receipt of contraception at the time of abortion. Overall, postabortion contraceptive uptake was 73%. Factors contributing to uptake included care at a primary-level facility, having an induced abortion, first-trimester gestation, age ≥25, and use of vacuum aspiration for uterine evacuation. Uptake of long-acting, reversible contraception was low in most countries. These findings demonstrate high contraceptive uptake when it is delivered at the time of the abortion, a wide range of contraceptive commodities is available, and ongoing monitoring of services occurs. Improving availability of long-acting contraception, strengthening services in hospitals, and increasing access for young women are areas for improvement.
Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity, as measured by the lysis of the human erythroleukemic cell line K562, is inhibited by the glucocorticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX). Kinetic analysis revealed that DEX inhibits an early event(s) in the lytic mechanism and that the inhibition is both transient and readily reversible if DEX is removed. The inhibition is not due to the production of a DEX-induced inhibitory protein or decreased target-cell binding. Attempts to counter the effects of DEX through the addition of inducers of NK activity were unsuccessful. Neither the calcium ionophore A23187 nor exogenous cyclic GMP was able to reverse the inhibition by DEX. The addition of arachidonic acid (AA), a pharmacologically active metabolite of phospholipase A-2 activation, was also unsuccessful in reversing the effects of DEX. In fact, AA itself inhibited NK activity in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition was not due to reduced target binding and was observed even in the presence of indomethacin. It is concluded that DEX blocks an early membrane-signaling event necessary to activate the lytic mechanism and that inhibition was not through some alternative mechanism. Inhibition of NK activity by arachidonic acid is not yet understood but most likely is not a result of enhanced prostaglandin synthesis. Hence, the study of DEX and AA inhibition provides a new approach to unravel some of the intricacies surrounding NK-mediated tumor target destruction.
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El shirodhara con aceite de Brahmi podría ser beneﬁcioso para el insomnio moderado a grave. Es factible reclutar y conservar a participantes para dichas terapias en Estados Unidos. Es importante validar estos hallazgos e investigar el mecanismo de acción usando una muestra más grande y un diseño de investigación riguroso.
Extracts of Bacopa monniera have been reported to exert cognitive enhancing effects in animals. However, the effects on human cognition are inconclusive.
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Aging is characterized by development of diseases and cancer due to loss of central and peripheral neuroendocrine-immune responses. Free radicals exert deleterious effects on neural-immune functions in the brain, heart, and lymphoid organs and thus, affecting the health. Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), an Ayurvedic herb, and L-deprenyl, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, have been widely used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brahmi (10 and 40 mg/kg BW) and deprenyl (1 and 2.5 mg/kg BW) treatment of 3-month old female Wistar rats for 10 days can modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] in the brain and spleen. In addition, the effects of these compounds on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), nerve growth factor (NGF), the intracellular signaling markers, p-ERK1/2, p-CREB, and p-NF-kB, and nitric oxide (NO) production were measured in the spleen by Western blot analysis. Both brahmi and deprenyl enhanced CAT activity, and p-TH, NGF, and p-NF-kB expression in the spleen. However, deprenyl alone was found to enhance the p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB expression in the spleen. The activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in the thymus, mesenteric lymph nodes, heart, and brain areas (frontal cortex, medial basal hypothalamus, striatum, and hippocampus) were differentially altered by brahmi and deprenyl. Brahmi alone enhanced NO production in the spleen. Taken together, these results suggest that both brahmi and deprenyl can protect the central and peripheral neuronal systems through their unique effects on the antioxidant enzyme activities and intracellular signaling pathways.
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背景： 失眠是继痛症之后，基础护理执业医生所面临的最常见抱怨之一 针对失眠进行非侵入式的非药理性治疗，越来越受到失眠患者的青睐。目的： 确定招募和挽留参与者参加在美国进行的一项额头滴油疗法（阿育吠陀滴油疗法）治疗失眠临床试验的可行性，并采用标准化结果衡量指标研究额头滴油疗法在治疗失眠方面的治疗效果。设计： 案例系列。研究干预和数据收集： 连续 5天，每天用 Brahmi 油对每名患者施行 45 分钟的额头滴油疗法。 采用失眠严重程度指数 (ISI) 评价失眠的严重程度，并确定对额头滴油疗法的应答情况。 在基线、治疗结束（第 5 天）和治疗结束后 1 周（跟进）时收集数据。结果： 共有两名男性和八名女性参与该研究，其平均年龄为 40 岁（年龄介于 23 岁至 72 岁之间），SD± 14.2。 一名受试者退出研究，但所有剩余的 9 名受试者在治疗结束时均出现改善。 改善百分数范围介于 3.85% 至 69.57% 之间。跟进时，大多数参与者持续出现改善现象。 对基线与第 5 天时的平均数进行比较发现，整体出现显著改善 (P < 0.005)，但在对基线与治疗后 1 周时的平均数进行比较发现，改善并不显著 (P < 0.089)。研究期间未报告任何不良事件。结论： 采用 Brahmi 油进行的额头滴油疗法可能对中度至重度失眠有益。 招募并挽留参与者参加在美国进行的该等治疗是可行的。 验证该等发现结果并采用更大的样本和严谨的研究设计对其作用机制进行研究，至关重要。
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Ayurvedic formulations are preferred over other formulations as well as commercialized on broad level to treat various ailments. The World Health Organization has established certain guidelines for quality control of heavy metals and pesticide residues. Bacopa monnieri, a popular herb with immunomodulator and memory-enhancing properties is the chief constituent of several Ayurvedic formulations, which include Brahmi Vati (BV), Brahmi Ghrita (BG) and Saraswat Churna (SC), etc. In view of the World Health Organization guidelines, two products of each formulation from six different manufacturers were purchased from Ayurvedic Pharmacy, Bulanala-Varanasi, India for testing heavy metal and pesticide residue.
Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) has been increasingly integrated into medical education curricula. Using an observational research design, we evaluated the feasibility of introducing a 1-month problem-based EBM course for 139 first-year medical students at a large university center. We assessed program performance through the use of a web-based curricular component and practice exam, final examination scores, student satisfaction surveys, and a faculty questionnaire. Students demonstrated active involvement in learning EBM and ability to use EBM principles. Facilitators felt that students performed well and compared favorably with residents whom they had supervised in the past year. Both faculty and students were satisfied with the EBM course. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that early introduction of EBM principles as a short course to preclinical medical students is feasible and practical.
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Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12/group): C receiving standard-chow; Experimental groups that were fed high-fat diet included 20% fresh soybean oil diet (FSO), 20% oxidized soybean oil diet (OSO) and 20% margarine diet (MG). Each group was kept on the treatment for 4 weeks.
This study highlights commonly used Ayurvedic medicines that can be explored for safely enhancing memory and vitality performance. Hence, detailed and scientifically designed research on these drugs would help to identify safe and effective drugs for enhancing the same.
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A community survey was carried out in Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia, of an electoral roll sample of 2551 adults aged 60-64 years. Data collected included self-reports of using medications to enhance memory, tests of memory and other cognitive functions, anxiety, depression, physical health and use of other medications.
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Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in premenopausal women and its treatment may affect their fertility. Indeed, chemotherapy used in breast cancer may cause transient or permanent amenorrhea in premenopausal women.
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The case of a 64 year old female patient is presented who has treated herself for 9 months with various Indian Ayurvedic herbal products for her vitiligo and experienced a causally related severe hepatotoxicity (ALT, 601 U/L; AST, 663 U/L; Bilirubin, 5.0 mg/dL). After discontinuation, a rapid improvement was observed. Causality assessment with the updated CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale showed a probable causality (+8 points) for Bakuchi tablets containing extracts from Psoralea corylifolia leaves with psoralens as ingredients, as the primary candidate causing the hepatotoxic reaction. The degree of probability was lower with +6 points for other used herbs: Khadin tablets containing extracts from Acacia catechu leaves; Brahmi tablets containing Eclipta alba or Bacopa monnieri; and Usheer tea prepared from Vetivexia zizaniodis. The case is the first report of Indian Ayurvedic herbal products being potentially hepatotoxic in analogy to some other herbs.
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Unintended pregnancy among adolescents (10-19years) and young women (20-24years) is a global public health problem. Adolescents face challenges in accessing safe abortion care.
In the present study, all the formulations--BV, BG and SC--were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) by a plasma emission spectrophotometer. Organochlorine pesticidal residues were estimated for dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and α-endosulfan, etc. in total 12 samples of test formulations containing Bacopa monnieri L. using gas chromatography technique.
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Infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a rhabdovirus and economically significant animal pathogen, was previously demonstrated to induce apoptosis. The mechanism of induction and the role of apoptosis in the VSV-host response have not been completely elucidated. Previous data from our laboratory have suggested that caspase-3 is required for the induction of apoptosis but not viral replication in VSV-infected cells. However, these studies used inhibitors that are selective but not specific for caspase-3. To circumvent this difficulty, we infected both MCF-7 cells which do not express caspases-3 (null), and stable transfectants which express caspase-3 (C3+). When caspase-3 null cells were infected, significant PARP cleavage did not occur, but when C3+ cells were infected, PARP cleavage did occur efficiently. Studies in null and C3+ also suggest that: (1) caspases-3 and -7 are activated sequentially after VSV infection; (2) cell shrinkage and detachment are caspase-3 dependent, but cell rounding is not; and (3) the viral titers were similar between caspase-3 null and C3+ cells suggesting that activation of caspases-3 and -7 are not required for viral replication. Taken together, these results strongly support that the activation of caspase-3 by VSV infection is required for efficient apoptosis induction but not viral replication in vitro. Apoptosis mediated by caspase-3, then, is likely either a host cell response to viral replication or perhaps may be required for in vivo viral replication and spread.
Scopolamine, an anticholinergic, is an attractive amnesic agent for discerning the action of candidate antiamnesic drugs. Bacopa monniera Linn (Syn. Brahmi) is one such antiamnesic agent that is frequently used in the ancient Indian medical system. We have earlier reported the reversal of diazepam-induced amnesia with B. monniera. In this study we wanted to test if scopolamine-induced impairment of spatial memory can also be ameliorated by B. monniera using water maze mouse model. The objective of study was to study the effect of B. monniera on scopolamine-induced amnesia. We employed Morris water maze scale to test the amnesic effect of scopolamine and its reversal by B. monniera. Rotarod test was conducted to screen muscle coordination activity of mice. Scopolamine significantly impaired the acquisition and retrieval of memory producing both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Bacopa monniera extract was able to reverse both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. We propose that B. monniera's effects on cholinergic system may be helpful for developing alternative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Rationale. Bacopa monnieri, popularly known as Brahmi, has been traditionally used in Ayurveda since ages for its memory enhancing properties. However, data on placebo-controlled trial of Bacopa monnieri on intellectual sample is scarce. Hence this study was planned to evaluate the effect of Bacopa monnieri on memory of medical students for six weeks. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of Bacopa monnieri on memory of medical students with six weeks' administration. Method and Material. This was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled noncrossover, parallel trial. Sixty medical students of either gender from second year of medical school, third term, regular batch, were enrolled from Government Medical College, Nagpur, India. Baseline biochemical and memory tests were done. The participants were randomly divided in two groups to receive either 150 mg of standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri (Bacognize) or matching placebo twice daily for six weeks. All baseline investigations were repeated at the end of the trial. Students were followed up for 15 days after the intervention. Results. Statistically significant improvement was seen in the tests relating to the cognitive functions with use of Bacopa monnieri. Blood biochemistry also showed a significant increase in serum calcium levels (still within normal range).
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Split low dose total-body irradiation (TBI) with 150 cGy was assessed for its efficacy in modifying the disease induced in DBA/2 mice by the polycythemia-inducing strain of the Friend virus complex (FVC-P, composed of a Friend murine leukemia helper virus and a spleen focus-forming virus). All FVC-P injected mice were dead within 40 days; however, infected mice receiving TBI on days 5 and 12 exhibited long-term survival. FVC-P-injected mice receiving TBI treatment on days 5 and 12 had normal leukocyte counts, normal spleen weights, and no detectable spleen focus-forming virus. Although the FVC-P-infected mice had decreased proportions of L3T4+ cells and increased proportions of Lyt-2+ cells, these were returned to normal following TBI treatment. Apparently the time sequence of TBI treatments is important since one treatment with TBI on day 5, or two treatments with TBI on days 12 and 18, was not as efficacious. The inability of in vitro irradiation doses of up to 1000 cGy to inactivate FVC-P which was subsequently injected into murine hosts suggests that the effectiveness of the TBI treatment in vivo is not due to a direct radiation effect on the virus. These results indicate a possible relationship between L3T4+ and Lyt-2+ numbers or their ratio in the curative efficacy of TBI in FVC-P-infected mice.
Our results do not support a predictive effect of KITL541 on the efficacy of imatinib for patients with AF.