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Brahmi (Bacopa Monnieri)

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Brahmi is a 100% natural, pefficacious and safe nervine tonic that enhances learning, academic performance and improves mental ability. It acts as an anti-anxiety agent and is used in several mental disorders. Brahmi also calms restlessness in children.

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Also known as:  Bacopa Monnieri.


Brahmi is a 100% natural product which is a nervine tonic that enhances learning, academic performance and improves mental ability. It acts as an anti-anxiety agent and is used in several mental disorders.

Brahmi is a perfect medication in case of poor memory, disturbed concentration, stress and anxieties, fatigue and weakness, attention deficit disorder (ADD), Alzheimer's disease, arthritis and joint pains, cold and bronchitis.

Brahmi also calms restlessness in children.

Brahmi consists of such ingredients as: Brahmi Herbs.


Brahmi is available in capsules which are taken by mouth.

It is recommended to take 1 Brahmi capsule twice a day before meals.


If you overdose Brahmi and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Brahmi are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Brahmi if you are allergic to Brahmi components.

Be careful with Brahmi if you take levothyroxine, propylthiouracil or methimizole.

Always give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.

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It is difficult to determine what effect, if any, follow-up visits or contacts have on contraceptive method continuation or correct use. Few studies were identified, and those that were identified were mostly of poor quality, were not method specific and had either poor patient compliance with follow-up visits or poor phone contact completion rates.

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Patients from all the groups showed significant reduction in clinical parameters evaluated. However, improvement in ESS was observed only in Group II. The treatment outcome was comparable between the three groups.

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We report the epidemiological, clinical, toxicological and therapeutic aspects of acute voluntary intoxication with carbamazepine.

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We have previously reported that cytotoxic lymphocytes, when exposed to sensitive target cells, temporarily lose their lytic potential. The mechanism leading to this loss of lytic activity is still unknown but it is reversible and the lytic potency can be recovered when the effector cells are incubated with interleukin-2 (IL-2) for 12-14 hr. In this study, we have investigated the regulation of RNA coding for perforin and for two serine proteases, HSP1 and HSP2, in cytotoxic lymphocytes exposed to sensitive targets. Perforin and the two serine proteases are contained in granules of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted and non-MHC-restricted cytotoxic lymphocytes, but their exact role in the lytic mechanism is still debated. Here we used four different human cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) as effector cells: an MHC-restricted CTL (SG-CTL), a non-MHC-restricted CTL (IE6), a natural killer (NK)-like cell line (3.3) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. In all effector cells we observed a rapid loss of perforin and of serine protease RNAs within 5 min following the addition of sensitive targets. The effector cells recovered the RNA messages as early as 30 min, although the kinetics of recovery was faster with CTL than with NK-like or LAK effector cells. When we exposed the effector cells to resistant targets we did not detect any loss of perforin or serine protease RNAs. Incubation of the effector cells with cycloheximide, prior to the addition of sensitive targets, did not block message loss, indicating that de novo protein synthesis was not required in this process. Cycloheximide treatment, however, inhibited the recovery of perforin and serine protease RNAs. Taken together, our results indicate that the target-mediated loss of lytic activity in cytotoxic lymphocytes may be a consequence of the down-regulation of perforin or of serine protease transcripts, or both.

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The presence of small numbers of cells of donor origin in the circulation of recipients of organ transplants (microchimerism) may correlate with immunologic tolerance. As part of our ongoing studies on microchimerism, we evaluated the utility of seven PCR-based assays for the detection of the less abundant DNA in paired mixtures (100 ng total DNA).

brahmi medicine

Contraception is an essential element of high-quality abortion care. However, women seeking abortion often leave health facilities without receiving contraceptive counselling or methods, increasing their risk of unintended pregnancy. This paper describes contraceptive uptake in 319,385 women seeking abortion in 2326 public-sector health facilities in eight African and Asian countries from 2011 to 2013. Ministries of Health integrated contraceptive and abortion services, with technical assistance from Ipas, an international non-governmental organisation. Interventions included updating national guidelines, upgrading facilities, supplying contraceptive methods, and training providers. We conducted unadjusted and adjusted associations between facility level, client age, and gestational age and receipt of contraception at the time of abortion. Overall, postabortion contraceptive uptake was 73%. Factors contributing to uptake included care at a primary-level facility, having an induced abortion, first-trimester gestation, age ≥25, and use of vacuum aspiration for uterine evacuation. Uptake of long-acting, reversible contraception was low in most countries. These findings demonstrate high contraceptive uptake when it is delivered at the time of the abortion, a wide range of contraceptive commodities is available, and ongoing monitoring of services occurs. Improving availability of long-acting contraception, strengthening services in hospitals, and increasing access for young women are areas for improvement.

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Natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity, as measured by the lysis of the human erythroleukemic cell line K562, is inhibited by the glucocorticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX). Kinetic analysis revealed that DEX inhibits an early event(s) in the lytic mechanism and that the inhibition is both transient and readily reversible if DEX is removed. The inhibition is not due to the production of a DEX-induced inhibitory protein or decreased target-cell binding. Attempts to counter the effects of DEX through the addition of inducers of NK activity were unsuccessful. Neither the calcium ionophore A23187 nor exogenous cyclic GMP was able to reverse the inhibition by DEX. The addition of arachidonic acid (AA), a pharmacologically active metabolite of phospholipase A-2 activation, was also unsuccessful in reversing the effects of DEX. In fact, AA itself inhibited NK activity in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition was not due to reduced target binding and was observed even in the presence of indomethacin. It is concluded that DEX blocks an early membrane-signaling event necessary to activate the lytic mechanism and that inhibition was not through some alternative mechanism. Inhibition of NK activity by arachidonic acid is not yet understood but most likely is not a result of enhanced prostaglandin synthesis. Hence, the study of DEX and AA inhibition provides a new approach to unravel some of the intricacies surrounding NK-mediated tumor target destruction.

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El shirodhara con aceite de Brahmi podría ser beneficioso para el insomnio moderado a grave. Es factible reclutar y conservar a participantes para dichas terapias en Estados Unidos. Es importante validar estos hallazgos e investigar el mecanismo de acción usando una muestra más grande y un diseño de investigación riguroso.

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Extracts of Bacopa monniera have been reported to exert cognitive enhancing effects in animals. However, the effects on human cognition are inconclusive.

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Aging is characterized by development of diseases and cancer due to loss of central and peripheral neuroendocrine-immune responses. Free radicals exert deleterious effects on neural-immune functions in the brain, heart, and lymphoid organs and thus, affecting the health. Bacopa monnieri (brahmi), an Ayurvedic herb, and L-deprenyl, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, have been widely used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brahmi (10 and 40 mg/kg BW) and deprenyl (1 and 2.5 mg/kg BW) treatment of 3-month old female Wistar rats for 10 days can modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] in the brain and spleen. In addition, the effects of these compounds on the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), nerve growth factor (NGF), the intracellular signaling markers, p-ERK1/2, p-CREB, and p-NF-kB, and nitric oxide (NO) production were measured in the spleen by Western blot analysis. Both brahmi and deprenyl enhanced CAT activity, and p-TH, NGF, and p-NF-kB expression in the spleen. However, deprenyl alone was found to enhance the p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB expression in the spleen. The activities of SOD, CAT, and GPx in the thymus, mesenteric lymph nodes, heart, and brain areas (frontal cortex, medial basal hypothalamus, striatum, and hippocampus) were differentially altered by brahmi and deprenyl. Brahmi alone enhanced NO production in the spleen. Taken together, these results suggest that both brahmi and deprenyl can protect the central and peripheral neuronal systems through their unique effects on the antioxidant enzyme activities and intracellular signaling pathways.

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背景: 失眠是继痛症之后,基础护理执业医生所面临的最常见抱怨之一 针对失眠进行非侵入式的非药理性治疗,越来越受到失眠患者的青睐。目的: 确定招募和挽留参与者参加在美国进行的一项额头滴油疗法(阿育吠陀滴油疗法)治疗失眠临床试验的可行性,并采用标准化结果衡量指标研究额头滴油疗法在治疗失眠方面的治疗效果。设计: 案例系列。研究干预和数据收集: 连续 5天,每天用 Brahmi 油对每名患者施行 45 分钟的额头滴油疗法。 采用失眠严重程度指数 (ISI) 评价失眠的严重程度,并确定对额头滴油疗法的应答情况。 在基线、治疗结束(第 5 天)和治疗结束后 1 周(跟进)时收集数据。结果: 共有两名男性和八名女性参与该研究,其平均年龄为 40 岁(年龄介于 23 岁至 72 岁之间),SD± 14.2。 一名受试者退出研究,但所有剩余的 9 名受试者在治疗结束时均出现改善。 改善百分数范围介于 3.85% 至 69.57% 之间。跟进时,大多数参与者持续出现改善现象。 对基线与第 5 天时的平均数进行比较发现,整体出现显著改善 (P < 0.005),但在对基线与治疗后 1 周时的平均数进行比较发现,改善并不显著 (P < 0.089)。研究期间未报告任何不良事件。结论: 采用 Brahmi 油进行的额头滴油疗法可能对中度至重度失眠有益。 招募并挽留参与者参加在美国进行的该等治疗是可行的。 验证该等发现结果并采用更大的样本和严谨的研究设计对其作用机制进行研究,至关重要。

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Ayurvedic formulations are preferred over other formulations as well as commercialized on broad level to treat various ailments. The World Health Organization has established certain guidelines for quality control of heavy metals and pesticide residues. Bacopa monnieri, a popular herb with immunomodulator and memory-enhancing properties is the chief constituent of several Ayurvedic formulations, which include Brahmi Vati (BV), Brahmi Ghrita (BG) and Saraswat Churna (SC), etc. In view of the World Health Organization guidelines, two products of each formulation from six different manufacturers were purchased from Ayurvedic Pharmacy, Bulanala-Varanasi, India for testing heavy metal and pesticide residue.

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Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) has been increasingly integrated into medical education curricula. Using an observational research design, we evaluated the feasibility of introducing a 1-month problem-based EBM course for 139 first-year medical students at a large university center. We assessed program performance through the use of a web-based curricular component and practice exam, final examination scores, student satisfaction surveys, and a faculty questionnaire. Students demonstrated active involvement in learning EBM and ability to use EBM principles. Facilitators felt that students performed well and compared favorably with residents whom they had supervised in the past year. Both faculty and students were satisfied with the EBM course. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that early introduction of EBM principles as a short course to preclinical medical students is feasible and practical.

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Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups (n = 12/group): C receiving standard-chow; Experimental groups that were fed high-fat diet included 20% fresh soybean oil diet (FSO), 20% oxidized soybean oil diet (OSO) and 20% margarine diet (MG). Each group was kept on the treatment for 4 weeks.

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This study highlights commonly used Ayurvedic medicines that can be explored for safely enhancing memory and vitality performance. Hence, detailed and scientifically designed research on these drugs would help to identify safe and effective drugs for enhancing the same.

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A community survey was carried out in Canberra and Queanbeyan, Australia, of an electoral roll sample of 2551 adults aged 60-64 years. Data collected included self-reports of using medications to enhance memory, tests of memory and other cognitive functions, anxiety, depression, physical health and use of other medications.

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Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in premenopausal women and its treatment may affect their fertility. Indeed, chemotherapy used in breast cancer may cause transient or permanent amenorrhea in premenopausal women.

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The case of a 64 year old female patient is presented who has treated herself for 9 months with various Indian Ayurvedic herbal products for her vitiligo and experienced a causally related severe hepatotoxicity (ALT, 601 U/L; AST, 663 U/L; Bilirubin, 5.0 mg/dL). After discontinuation, a rapid improvement was observed. Causality assessment with the updated CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale showed a probable causality (+8 points) for Bakuchi tablets containing extracts from Psoralea corylifolia leaves with psoralens as ingredients, as the primary candidate causing the hepatotoxic reaction. The degree of probability was lower with +6 points for other used herbs: Khadin tablets containing extracts from Acacia catechu leaves; Brahmi tablets containing Eclipta alba or Bacopa monnieri; and Usheer tea prepared from Vetivexia zizaniodis. The case is the first report of Indian Ayurvedic herbal products being potentially hepatotoxic in analogy to some other herbs.

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Unintended pregnancy among adolescents (10-19years) and young women (20-24years) is a global public health problem. Adolescents face challenges in accessing safe abortion care.

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In the present study, all the formulations--BV, BG and SC--were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) by a plasma emission spectrophotometer. Organochlorine pesticidal residues were estimated for dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and α-endosulfan, etc. in total 12 samples of test formulations containing Bacopa monnieri L. using gas chromatography technique.

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Infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a rhabdovirus and economically significant animal pathogen, was previously demonstrated to induce apoptosis. The mechanism of induction and the role of apoptosis in the VSV-host response have not been completely elucidated. Previous data from our laboratory have suggested that caspase-3 is required for the induction of apoptosis but not viral replication in VSV-infected cells. However, these studies used inhibitors that are selective but not specific for caspase-3. To circumvent this difficulty, we infected both MCF-7 cells which do not express caspases-3 (null), and stable transfectants which express caspase-3 (C3+). When caspase-3 null cells were infected, significant PARP cleavage did not occur, but when C3+ cells were infected, PARP cleavage did occur efficiently. Studies in null and C3+ also suggest that: (1) caspases-3 and -7 are activated sequentially after VSV infection; (2) cell shrinkage and detachment are caspase-3 dependent, but cell rounding is not; and (3) the viral titers were similar between caspase-3 null and C3+ cells suggesting that activation of caspases-3 and -7 are not required for viral replication. Taken together, these results strongly support that the activation of caspase-3 by VSV infection is required for efficient apoptosis induction but not viral replication in vitro. Apoptosis mediated by caspase-3, then, is likely either a host cell response to viral replication or perhaps may be required for in vivo viral replication and spread.

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Scopolamine, an anticholinergic, is an attractive amnesic agent for discerning the action of candidate antiamnesic drugs. Bacopa monniera Linn (Syn. Brahmi) is one such antiamnesic agent that is frequently used in the ancient Indian medical system. We have earlier reported the reversal of diazepam-induced amnesia with B. monniera. In this study we wanted to test if scopolamine-induced impairment of spatial memory can also be ameliorated by B. monniera using water maze mouse model. The objective of study was to study the effect of B. monniera on scopolamine-induced amnesia. We employed Morris water maze scale to test the amnesic effect of scopolamine and its reversal by B. monniera. Rotarod test was conducted to screen muscle coordination activity of mice. Scopolamine significantly impaired the acquisition and retrieval of memory producing both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Bacopa monniera extract was able to reverse both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. We propose that B. monniera's effects on cholinergic system may be helpful for developing alternative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

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Rationale. Bacopa monnieri, popularly known as Brahmi, has been traditionally used in Ayurveda since ages for its memory enhancing properties. However, data on placebo-controlled trial of Bacopa monnieri on intellectual sample is scarce. Hence this study was planned to evaluate the effect of Bacopa monnieri on memory of medical students for six weeks. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of Bacopa monnieri on memory of medical students with six weeks' administration. Method and Material. This was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled noncrossover, parallel trial. Sixty medical students of either gender from second year of medical school, third term, regular batch, were enrolled from Government Medical College, Nagpur, India. Baseline biochemical and memory tests were done. The participants were randomly divided in two groups to receive either 150 mg of standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri (Bacognize) or matching placebo twice daily for six weeks. All baseline investigations were repeated at the end of the trial. Students were followed up for 15 days after the intervention. Results. Statistically significant improvement was seen in the tests relating to the cognitive functions with use of Bacopa monnieri. Blood biochemistry also showed a significant increase in serum calcium levels (still within normal range).

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Split low dose total-body irradiation (TBI) with 150 cGy was assessed for its efficacy in modifying the disease induced in DBA/2 mice by the polycythemia-inducing strain of the Friend virus complex (FVC-P, composed of a Friend murine leukemia helper virus and a spleen focus-forming virus). All FVC-P injected mice were dead within 40 days; however, infected mice receiving TBI on days 5 and 12 exhibited long-term survival. FVC-P-injected mice receiving TBI treatment on days 5 and 12 had normal leukocyte counts, normal spleen weights, and no detectable spleen focus-forming virus. Although the FVC-P-infected mice had decreased proportions of L3T4+ cells and increased proportions of Lyt-2+ cells, these were returned to normal following TBI treatment. Apparently the time sequence of TBI treatments is important since one treatment with TBI on day 5, or two treatments with TBI on days 12 and 18, was not as efficacious. The inability of in vitro irradiation doses of up to 1000 cGy to inactivate FVC-P which was subsequently injected into murine hosts suggests that the effectiveness of the TBI treatment in vivo is not due to a direct radiation effect on the virus. These results indicate a possible relationship between L3T4+ and Lyt-2+ numbers or their ratio in the curative efficacy of TBI in FVC-P-infected mice.

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Our results do not support a predictive effect of KITL541 on the efficacy of imatinib for patients with AF.

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brahmi oil review 2015-07-22

This meta-analysis suggests that Bacopa monnieri has the potential to improve cognition, particularly speed of attention but only a large well designed 'head-to-head' trial against an existing medication will provide definitive data on its efficacy on healthy or dementia patients using a buy brahmi standardized preparation.

300 mg brahmi 2016-05-28

Cognitive impairment is a common characteristic in schizophrenia that cannot be attenuated by antipsychotics. Brahmi, popularly known as a cognitive enhancer might be a new frontier of cognitive deficit buy brahmi treatment in schizophrenia.

daily dose brahmi 2016-01-19

The RB group of tumors showed the highest mean nuclear area (NA), convex area (CA), CP, diameter (D), perimeter (P) and roundness (R). RMS had the highest mean CA, and URCT had the highest mean roundness. ANOVA was performed on the tumors and showed significant differences for all the variables in all the groups (P < .000). All the morphometric data (except roundness) were significantly different in RMS versus all other MRCTs except RB. Similarly, morphometric data on WT were also significantly different from that on NHL. Most of the morphometric data (except CA and R) showed significant differences between buy brahmi RB and all other MRCTs except RMS. PNET, EW and NB could not be differentiated with those variables.

brahmi ayurvedic medicine 2015-05-25

In Ewing's sarcoma, with the help of FCI, positive results were obtained in an additional 4 samples in CK, 2 samples in actin and 3 samples in desmin. Similarly, one each sample was additional positive regarding Mic-2 and vimentin by IC. In cases of neuroblastoma with the help of FCI, additional positive results were obtained in one each sample of CK, LCA and NB and two in actin. Combined use of FCI and IC helped to show chromogranin positivity in buy brahmi an additional two cases. Divergent differentiation was noted in four cases of Ewing's sarcoma, one neuroblastoma and two peripheral neuroectodermal tumors.

brahmi tablets 2015-09-14

A prospective study of patients presenting with lower gastrointestinal buy brahmi symptoms at the Bahrain Specialist Hospital from July 2004 to April 2005 was carried out. Endoscopic colonic biopsy specimens were taken from every patient and subjected to (a) routine haematoxylin and eosin staining examination by light microscopy, (b) immunohistochemistry for examination of RANTES protein expression by light microscopy and (c) in situ hybridisation for examination of RANTES mRNA expression by light microscopy. RANTES expression was assessed and quantified.

brahmi vati tablet 2017-01-08

Adequate surgical resection remains the treatment of choice for tenosyovial giant cell tumor (TGCT). However, diffuse type TGCT (D-TGCT) is more difficult to resect and has a higher rate of recurrence (up to 50 %), which is often multiple. D-TGCT is rarely lethal and only rare cases of metastases have been described. Nevertheless, patients might have a significant decline in their quality of life due to multiple operations, which may sometimes result in a partial loss of function of the affected joint and may also be associated with perioperative morbidity and secondary arthrosis. As of today, no systemic treatment is approved for this rare disease. The aims of systemic therapy in the context of a non-lethal tumor are to reduce surgical morbidity and to preserve function and patient quality of life. Because TGCT is associated with characteristic cytogenetic abnormalities resulting in the overexpression of CSF1, systemic therapies targeting the CSF1/CSF1R axis (imatinib, nilotinib, emactuzumab, and PLX3397) have been tested in patients with locally advanced or relapsed D-TGCT. The more recent and more specific CSF1R inhibitors have shown a very interesting clinical activity with acceptable toxicity in early phase trials. These results will need to be confirmed in larger, ideally randomized, trials. But the high rate of clinical and functional improvement seen in some patients with advanced D-TGCT, often after multiple operations, suggests that these inhibitors will likely have a role in the management of patients with an inoperable disease; the definition of "inoperable TGCT" still requires refinement to reach a consensus. Another point that will need to be addressed is that of "the optimal duration of therapy" for these patients. Indeed, we and others have observed often prolonged clinical benefit and symptomatic relief even after treatment was stopped, with both monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Responses were buy brahmi observed very early on with emactuzumab and PLX3397, and patients experienced significant symptom improvement within a few weeks of starting therapy (2-4 weeks). Another possible application of CSF1R inhibitors could be used either as a preoperative or postoperative therapy for patients with operable TGCT. However, we currently lack sufficient follow-up to adequately address these questions which will each require specific trial designs. Overall, the striking clinical activity of CSF1R specific inhibitors in TGCT has created great enthusiasm among clinicians, and further development of these agents is clearly medically needed. Nevertheless, further investigations are necessary to validate those treatments and assess how to best incorporate them among other treatment modalities into the overall therapeutic strategy for a given patient.

brahmi capsule 2015-07-20

Brahmi has shown antidepressant activity in FST and SID buy brahmi .

brahmi capsules 2015-03-11

The specific role of sulfhydryl groups in cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) is still unknown. Here we demonstrate that natural killer cells and lymphokine-activated killer cells, when incubated with phenylarsine oxide (PAO), an organoarsenic compound showed a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of CMC and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). PAO interacted directly with the effector cells (EC) without affecting the target cells (TC) or EC:TC conjugate formation. The loss of cytotoxicity was not due to lack of degranulation or to inhibition of serine esterases in PAO-treated cells. However, PAO inhibited the target-induced down regulation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) level in NK cells indicating that PAO blocked the cytolytic cascade at an early stage, upstream of PI. In addition, PAO also did not affect the disulfide link of the zeta-chain dimers, implicated in signal transduction in cytotoxic lymphocytes but did cause buy brahmi the rapid phosphorylation of the zeta chain. Finally, the effect of PAO on CMC was competitively blocked by dithiothreitol, a dithiol, but not by beta-mercaptoethanol, a mono-thiol. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time how sulfyhydryl groups may regulate CMC and ADCC.

brahmi dosage 2017-07-18

All neurotransmitters buy brahmi under study were eluted within 7 min with GABA eluting at 3.82 min, 5-HT at 4.48 min and DA at 5.47 min, respectively. Linearity was excellent with a correlation coefficient (R(2) ) of 0.999; repeatability and accuracy were also within acceptable range. All herbal drugs evaluated increased the neurotransmitter levels and Brahmi vati increased the neurotransmitter levels to a larger extent.

brahmi syrup patanjali 2015-10-17

We investigated the biological and clinical significance of the presence of KIT exon 10 variant (c.1621 A > C), KIT (L541), buy brahmi in a transfected cell line (3 T3 L541) and in two retrospectively collected series of 109 GIST patients in total. The control group consisted of 60 healthy donors collected at the French department of blood transfusion.

brahmi medicine 2015-12-11

A number of recent studies have shown that mouse target cells (TC) of hematopoietic origin, when exposed to cytotoxic lymphocytes, undergo double-stranded DNA fragmentation. The cause and relevance of the fragmentation remain controversial. In this study we generated a number of mouse (M-LAK) and human LAK (H-LAK) cells and exposed them to a variety of mouse and human TC. YAC and SP/2, 2 mouse TC underwent rapid and extensive fragmentation when lysed by either human or mouse LAK whereas K562 and Daudi, 2 human TC, under the same conditions did not. All 4 TC, however, were killed quite efficiently. Next we labeled TC with 125I-deoxyuridine, exposed them to LAK cells for up to 18 h and loaded the LAK:TC mixtures over an alkaline linear sucrose gradient. After lysing the cells with a lysis buffer containing Triton X-100 we showed that K562 that had been in contact with LAK cells for more than 1 h exhibited single-strand nicks. However, whereas double-strand fragmentation preceded chromium release buy brahmi (lytic activity), the appearance of single-strand nicks did not. Finally, protein synthesis was not required for either type of fragmentation. In summary, we have demonstrated that: (1) the ability to undergo DNA fragmentation is a property of the TC rather than the effector cells that mediated their death, and (2) K562 and Daudi, 2 human TC, undergo single-strand nicks when lysed by LAK cells whereas SP/2 and YAC, 2 mouse TC undergo double-strand fragmentation when exposed to the same syngeneic or xenogeneic effector cells.

brahmi syrup 2016-07-20

Primary squamous cell carcinoma is a well known malignancy of the skin and other organs composed of squamous cells, which are normally not found inside the breast. Therefore, a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceedingly uncommon phenomen and the management of this type of disease is still unclear. We report the case of a 43-year-old Moroccan woman, without significant medical history, presented an infected mass of 9 cm in the left breast associated with ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. The mass's surgical biopsy revealed a triple negative primary squamous buy brahmi cell carcinoma of the breast. She underwent a neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 5 Fluoro-Uracil and platinum. After three courses, she presented a contralateral breast progression and apparition of metastasis at D10. She received one course of a palliative chemotherapy based on weekly paclitaxel stopped because of her peformans status deterioration. She died 7 months after her admission.

brahmi oil reviews 2017-09-16

In most of the cases, the characteristics of these diseases are concomitant from the start at the time of diagnosis. Those are forty-years-old women's diseases. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biologic, immunologic and histological arguments. Histologically, the characteristic lesions of each of the diseases are usually combined. TREATMENT MODALITIES: The optimal treatment buy brahmi is not yet well codified. Ursodesoxycholic acid and immunosuppressor treatment, prescribed individually, are less effective than in the isolated PBC or AIH forms. The combination of these two drugs merits assessment.

brahmi 500 mg 2015-08-26

The Ayurvedic medicine buy brahmi Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) has been shown to exert cognitive enhancing effects in animals. The current study examined the acute effects of an extract of Bacopa monniera on cognitive function in normal healthy human subjects. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled independent group design in which subjects were randomly allocated to one of two treatment conditions, Bacopa monniera (300 mg) (n = 18) or placebo (n = 20). Neuropsychological testing was conducted before and 2 h after drug administration. No significant changes were found on any of the tests. The findings suggest that Bacopa monniera, at least for the dose administered, has no acute effects on cognitive functioning in normal healthy subjects. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

brahmi drug interactions 2017-08-23

The pathological examination of our patient documented a complete pathological response after imatinib therapy. Recently, it has been confirmed that the kinase genotype of KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α can accurately predict a good response to imatinib mesylate Crestor Dosage Amounts therapy. We propose that this patient had a mutation conferring high sensitivity to imatinib mesylate.

brahmi reviews 2017-04-14

Numerous studies have focused on trans fatty acids (TFA) technologically produced by partial hydrogenation of oils. However, TFA can also be present in fresh oils. For this reason, cis fatty acid (CFA), TFA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) of fresh and heated Aleppo pine seed oil (APSO) at frying temperature (180 °C) were evaluated and correlated with the antioxidant characteristics. Results showed that fresh APSO had a low oleic/linoleic ratio O/L (0.4). Total TFA in fresh APSO reached 1%. The predominant TFA was 18:2 n-6 (t9, t12) in both fresh and heated APSO. Individual TFA increased with significant differences (p < 0.05) with heating time. CLA occurred after 4 h and significantly increased (p < 0.05) accounting 10% of total TFA after Levaquin Antibiotic Dosage 10 h. Total TFA are negatively correlated with α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol (p < 0.05) and carotenoïds (p < 0.01) and positively correlated with remaining DPPH. Oil stability index (OSI) showed significant negative correlation with TFA (r = -0.925; p = 0.008). A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between fresh and heated oils. Temperature, heating time, unsaturation degree and antioxidants are combined factors which significantly affect the isomerization rate and nutritional quality of APSO.

brahmi pills 2016-11-17

PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and CINAHL were searched up to May 26th, 2011 for randomised, controlled clinical trials using CAM products as interventions to treat ADHD. A quality analysis Nizoral Pills Medication using a purpose-designed scale, and an estimation of effect sizes (Cohen's d) where data were available, were also calculated.

brahmi 6000 review 2016-04-24

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are one of the most frequent causes of death in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Early detection is crucial because complete surgical resection is the only curative treatment. It Nolvadex Medication has been previously reported that an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) image with a T/L (Tumor/Liver) SUV max ratio > 1.5 provides a high negative predictive value; however, it is not specific enough to make a NF1-related MPNST diagnosis. A formal proof of malignant transformation from a histological analysis is necessary before surgical excision because the procedure can cause mutilation. The objective of the present work was to investigate the effectiveness of and complications associated with PET/CT-guided percutaneous biopsies for an NF1-related MPNST diagnosis.

brahmi powder dosage 2016-01-14

A widely accepted theory of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) proposes that upon effector cell (EC) and target cell (TC) interaction, release of perforin, serine proteases and other lytic moieties Suprax Max Dose contained within cytoplasmic granules results in TC lysis. Complement activation and the activation of the various enzymatic activities associated with cytotoxic granules have strikingly similar modes of action and both lead to pore formation in their respective targets. We report here that by using antisera to early and late complement components we were able to inhibit CTL, NK and ADCC cytotoxicity up to 100%, even though binding of EC to TC was unaffected. Furthermore, we showed that addition of C1q or C1s (two serine proteases) antisera to C9 antisera, at titers too low to inhibit separately, resulted in synergistic inhibition of CMC. Anti-C1s together with anti-C1q (or anti-C8 with anti-C9) did not result in synergy. This finding supports a cascade model of activation for lytic molecules released from EC. In addition, we demonstrated that anti-C1q and anti-C1s bind to proteins in the 30-kD region and anti-C9 binds to proteins in the 70-kD region, coinciding with published molecular weights of granzymes and perforin, respectively. Finally, lytic ability of purified granules was also inhibited by complement antisera, further suggesting that activation occurs outside of TC. Taken as a whole, these data indicate that TC lysis may be the result of a cascade of events involving granzymes and perforin, analogous to that seen with the complement system.

brahmi buy 2016-09-12

Brahmi reduces blood pressure partly via releasing nitric oxide from the Prevacid Dosage Newborn endothelium, with additional actions on vascular smooth muscle Ca(2+) homeostasis. Some Brahmi ingredients could be efficacious antihypertensives and the vasodilation could account for some medicinal actions.

brahmi oil review 2017-03-01

Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), an integral component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine system, is facing a threat of extinction owing to the depletion of its natural populations. The present study investigates the prospective of exploitation of halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in utilising the salt stressed soils for cultivation of B. monnieri. The effects of two salt tolerant PGPR, Bacillus pumilus (STR2) and Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans (STR36) on the growth and content of bacoside-A, an important pharmaceutical compound in B. monnieri, were investigated under primary and secondary salinity conditions. The herb yields of un-inoculated plants decreased by 48 % under secondary salinization and 60 % under primary salinization than the non salinised plants. Among the rhizobacteria treated plants, E. oxidotolerans recorded 109 Imdur Storage and 138 %, higher herb yield than non-inoculated plants subjected to primary and secondary salinity respectively. E. oxidotolerans inoculated plants recorded 36 and 76 % higher bacoside-A content under primary and secondary salinity respectively. Higher levels of proline content and considerably lower levels of lipid peroxidation were noticed when the plants were inoculated with PGPR under all salinity regimes. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that, the treatments with salt tolerant PGPR can be a useful strategy in the enhancement of biomass yield and saponin contents in B. monnieri, as besides being an eco-friendly approach; it can also be instrumental in cultivation of B. monnieri in salt stressed environments.

300 mg brahmi 2016-04-02

To identify barriers to control of a Victorian primary school-based measles outbreak.

daily dose brahmi 2017-05-26

Radioimmunoassays for IgM and IgG histoplasmal antibodies were developed and proved to be specific for their respective immunoglobulin classes, sensitive, and reproducible. Elevated IgM antibodies were detected in 59.8% of patients with histoplasmosis and 7.9% of control subjects. Elevated IgG antibodies occurred in 80.4% of patients with histoplasmosis but in only 12.9% of control subjects. Radioimmunoassay was nearly twice as sensitive as complement fixation for identifying patients with mild, presumably asymptomatic, infection. Of 13 patients with serologic follow-up at least 1 yr later, elevated IgM antibodies cleared, whereas IgG antibodies persisted in 7. In an epidemiologic investigation of a recurrent histoplasmosis outbreak, only the radioimmunoassay was able to prove the hypothesis that construction for a swimming complex was the source of exposure. These assays promise to be useful for clinical and epidemiologic investigations.

brahmi ayurvedic medicine 2017-04-12

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens are expressed on human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) following exposure to interferon gamma. The expression of MHC class II proteins on the cell surface may allow keratinocytes to function as antigen-presenting cells and induce a subsequent immune response to virus infection. Invariant chain (Ii) is a chaperone protein which plays an important role in the maturation of MHC class II molecules. The sequential degradation of Ii within acidic endocytic compartments is a key process required for the successful loading of antigenic peptide onto MHC class II molecules. Since human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E5 can inhibit the acidification of late endosomes in HFKs, the E5 protein may be able to affect proper peptide loading onto the MHC class II molecule. To test this hypothesis, HFKs were infected with either control virus or a recombinant virus expressing HPV16 E5 and the infected cells were subsequently treated with interferon-gamma. ELISAs revealed a decrease of MHC class II expression on the surface of E5-expressing cells compared with control virus-infected cells after interferon treatment. Western blot analysis showed that, in cells treated with interferon gamma, E5 could prevent the breakdown of Ii and block the formation of peptide-loaded, SDS-stable mature MHC class II dimers, correlating with diminished surface MHC class II expression. These data suggest that HPV16 E5 may be able to decrease immune recognition of infected keratinocytes via disruption of MHC class II protein function.

brahmi tablets 2016-04-07

Bacopa monnieri, Linn. (Brahmi, BM), traditionally used to improve mental health in Indian ayurvedic system of medicine is known to possess various neuropharmacolgical properties. In the recent past, Drosophila has been widely used as a model to study various neurodegenerative diseases. Environmental toxins like rotenone, a specific inhibitor of complex I is employed to increase oxidative stress mediated neuropathology and sporadic Parkinson's disease. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective properties of BM against rotenone induced oxidative damage and neurotoxicity. Flies (Oregon K strain, adult males) exposed to a standardized BM powder for 7 days in the diet exhibited significant diminution in the levels of endogenous oxidative markers viz., malondialdehyde, hydroperoxide and protein carbonyl content. Further, BM offered complete protection against rotenone (500 microM) induced oxidative stress and markedly inhibited dopamine depletion (head region, 33%; body region, 44%) in flies. Flies exposed to rotenone+BM exhibited a lower incidence of mortality (40-66% protection) and performed better in a negative geotaxis assay (45-65%) both suggesting the neuroprotective potential of BM. Interestingly, BM also conferred significant resistance (43-54% protection) in a paraquat oxidative stress bioassay. The neuroprotective effects of BM were highly comparable to those of a commercially available Brahmi preparation. Although the precise mechanism/s underlying the neuroprotective efficacy of BM are not clear, it is hypothesized that it is wholly or in part related to its ability to mitigate rotenone induced oxidative stress. Further, our approach confirms the utility of the Drosophila model in screening putative neuroprotective phytomedicines prior to their use in mammalian models.