Bactroban is used to treat certain skin infections such as impetigo and furuncle. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Mupirocin.
Bactroban is an antibiotic ointment that is effective in treating impetigo, and other skin infections that bacteria causes. It is important to note that this ointment will not work on fungal infections or infections caused by viruses.
Bactroban consists of 2 medications: sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. The first inhibits synthesis of dihydrofolic acid (the substance important for human and bacterial metabolism) while the last blocks next stage of its biochemical cycle: formation of tetrahydrofolic acid which occurs only in microorganisms.
This medication is effective against streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, bacillus dysentery, typhoid fever, E. coli, Proteus, and ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, spirochetes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bactrim is applied in treatment of pneumonia and other diseases of respiratory, gastrointestinal systems, urogenital systems caused by bacterial infections which develop after surgery and others.
Bactroban is an antibacterial. It works by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.
Bactroban is also known as Mupirocin, Centany.
Generic name of Bactroban is Mupirocin.
Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Bactroban exactly as directed.
Bactroban should be applied directly to the skin.
This ointment is normally applied to the skin 3 times per day, normally for 1 to 2 weeks.
Before you apply the ointment, ensure that the affected area is clean and dry.
Apply a thin film of the ointment to the affected area. After applying the ointment, you may use a gauze to cover the affected area.
Wash your hands immediately after using Bactroban.
If you overdose Bactroban and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of overdose: dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, stomach pain, headache, yellowing of your skin or eyes, blood in your urine, fainting.
Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Bactroban are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Bactroban if you are allergic to Bactroban components.
It is not known whether Bactroban will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.
Do not take Bactroban if you suffer from asthma or have severe kidney or liver disorders.
Do not take Bactroban if you have anemia caused by folic acid deficiency.
Bactroban should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.
Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Bactroban; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.
Do not use Bactroban on large areas of broken or damaged skin, especially if you suffer from reduced kidney function.
Avoid exposure to sunlight or getting tanned.
Do not stop taking Bactroban suddenly.
We administered an expert-validated survey to 64 pediatrics house staff and faculty at three Johns Hopkins Medicine facilities. The survey requested demographic information, diagnoses for five "unknown" cases, and preferred treatments for localized and widespread BI.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) occurred sporadically in Norwegian hospitals in the 1960s and 1970s, but disappeared in the late 1970s for unknown reasons. Only 1 outbreak has subsequently been reported. We describe herein a second outbreak in a different hospital, this time featuring a more resistant strain. Staff and patients were screened immediately after detection of the first MRSA isolate. Colonized and infected patients were nursed using contact precautions, and the staff were not allowed to work until 3 nose samples were MRSA-negative. We treated colonized persons with topical administration of mupirocin to the nostrils and a chlorhexidine body wash. The outbreak affected 7 patients and 5 healthcare workers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis proved all isolates to be of the same type, and the MRSA phage type was M3. There was no sign of transmission of MRSA after contact precautions were implemented. MRSA was eradicated in 4 of the patients and all 5 healthcare workers. One patient died and 1 was still colonized 3 y after onset of the outbreak. Contact precautions proved to be sufficient to prevent transmission of MRSA.
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The widespread emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a common cause of nosocomial infections, is becoming a serious concern in global public health. The objective of the present study was to investigate antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, frequency of virulence genes and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients with bacteremia. A total of 128 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were collected during February 2015 to January 2016. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was assessed using the disk diffusion method. Conventional PCR was performed for the detection of adhesion (can, bbp, ebp, fnbB, fnbA, clfB, clfA) and toxin (etb, eta, pvl, tst) encoding genes, determining the agr type, SCCmec, MLST and spa typing of the isolates. All the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were found to be sensitive to linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin. Resistance to the tested antibiotics varied from 97.7% for penicillin to 24.2% for mupirocin. The rate of multi drug resistance (MDR) in the present study was 97.7%. The most commonly detected toxin and adhesion genes were tst (58.6%), and clfB (100%), respectively. The majority of SCCmec III isolates were found in agr group I while SCCmec IV and II isolates were distributed among agr group III. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of the MRSA isolates showed five different sequence types: ST239 (43%), ST22 (39.8%), ST585 (10.9%), ST45 (3.9%) and ST240 (2.3%). All of the pvl positive strains belonged to ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone and were MDR. Among different 7 spa types, the most common were t790 (27.3%), t037 (21.9%), and t030 (14.1%). spa types t016, t924 and spa type t383 were reported for the first time from Asia and Iran, respectively. It was shown that spa types circulating in the studied hospitals varied which support the need to perform future surveillance studies in order to understand methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus distribution and thus more effective infection control.
After a 6-month baseline period, hospitals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 strategies, with all participating adult ICUs in a given hospital assigned to the same strategy. Arm 1 implemented methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nares screening and isolation, arm 2 targeted decolonization (screening, isolation, and decolonization of MRSA carriers), and arm 3 conducted no screening but universal decolonization of all patients with mupirocin and chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing. Blood culture contamination rates in the intervention period were compared to the baseline period across all 3 arms.
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Between March and June 1993, MRSA was isolated from 10 patients in our burn unit. All isolates had identical antibiograms and chromosomal DNA patterns.
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Stable incident and prevalent patients of our unit were randomized to apply mupirocin or chlorhexidine at exit site. The study started on July 1, 2010, and continued till December 2014. End point was the first episode of exit-site infection or peritonitis.
Routine use of mupirocin to prevent staphylococcal infections is controversial. We assessed attitudes and practices of healthcare professionals attending the Fourth Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections regarding mupirocin prophylaxis. Eighty percent of participants did not use mupirocin routinely. At the end of the session, 58% indicated they would consider increased use of mupirocin.
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The mupirocin:polymyxin B combination was effective in treating experimental, and keratitis.
The widely used biocide triclosan selectively targets FabI, the NADH-dependent trans-2-enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase, which is also an important target for the development of narrow spectrum antibiotics. The analysis of triclosan resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates had previously shown that in about half of the strains, the mechanism of triclosan resistance consists on the heterologous duplication of the triclosan target gene due to the acquisition of an additional fabI allele derived from Staphylococcus haemolyticus (sh-fabI). In the current work, the genomic sequencing of 10 of these strains allowed the characterization of two novel composite transposons TnSha1 and TnSha2 involved in the spread of sh-fabI. TnSha1 harbors one copy of IS1272, whereas TnSha2 is a 11.7 kb plasmid carrying TnSha1 present either as plasmid or in an integrated form generally flanked by two IS1272 elements. The target and mechanism of integration for IS1272 and TnSha1 are novel and include targeting of DNA secondary structures, generation of blunt-end deletions of the stem-loop and absence of target duplication. Database analyses showed widespread occurrence of these two elements in chromosomes and plasmids, with TnSha1 mainly in S. aureus and with TnSha2 mainly in S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis. The acquisition of resistance by means of an insertion sequence-based mobilization and consequent duplication of drug-target metabolic genes, as observed here for sh-fabI, is highly reminiscent of the situation with the ileS2 gene conferring mupirocin resistance, and the dfrA and dfrG genes conferring trimethoprim resistance both of which are mobilized by IS257. These three examples, which show similar mechanisms and levels of spread of metabolic genes linked to IS elements, highlight the importance of this genetic strategy for recruitment and rapid distribution of novel resistance mechanisms in staphylococci.
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We evaluated the usefulness of topical decolonization therapy for reducing the risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection among MRSA-colonized inpatients.
An 850-bed university hospital with a 12-bed inpatient dermatology ward. Most patients have severe, exfoliating dermatologic disorders.
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MALDI-TOF analysis showed that mupirocin was not absorbed by the main fraction of pooled nasal secretions and should remain active. In bioassay, mupirocin retained 100% of its antistaphylococcal activity in nasal secretions, whereas chlorhexidine was significantly reduced from 100 mg/litre to 1.5 mg/litre and from 1000 mg/litre to 38.5 mg/litre, irrespective of incubation time.
Silver sulfadiazine 1%, mupirocin 2%, and fusidic acid 2% were compared to assess the antibacterial effect of a once-daily application on experimental rat 15% full-skin thickness burn wounds seeded 24 hours earlier with a 10 standard strain of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The quantitative counts of seeded organism in burn eschar and subjacent muscle were determined at postburn day 7, beside the cultures of blood and lung biopsies. All tested topical agents were equally effective against methicillin-resistant in reducing local burn wound bacterial count and preventing systemic infection.
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We describe a patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonizing the pharynx. The MIC of mupirocin was 0.25 microg/ml before treatment and increased after treatment to 8 microg/ml. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we confirmed that the genotypes of MRSA that colonized the pharynx before and after the use of mupirocin were identical. We measured the delivery of mupirocin to the pharynx in three normal volunteers and two patients. Low concentrations of mupirocin were present in the pharynx in all cases 10 min to 3 days after intranasal application. Our data suggested that low concentrations of the drug in the pharynx after intranasal application of mupirocin ointment might explain the selection of mupirocin resistance in MRSA.
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The most common complication of tympanostomy tube (T-tube) insertion is the development of postoperative otorrhea. Post-tympanostomy tube otorrhea (PTTO) is defined as active drainage through an existing T-tube. Many surgeons routinely use topical antibiotics as prophylaxis against early PTTO. Mupirocin calcium ointment is a topical antimicrobial agent with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against many Gram-positive organisms. This study evaluated the clinical effectiveness of topical mupirocin ointment in reducing early PTTO.
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To evaluate the efficacy of a standardized regimen for decolonization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers and to identify factors influencing decolonization treatment failure.
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To determine the frequency of MRSA misidentification in hospitals in Tripoli, Libya using current testing methods.
Mupirocin sinonasal rinses are an effective short-term anti-S aureus treatment in surgically recalcitrant CRS as assessed by microbiological and selected rhinological outcomes, although the latter improvements may not be durable with time.
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20% of the normal population are nasal carriers of Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), and the carrier rate is even higher in insulin dependent diabetics, intravenous drug addicts, patients on haemo- and peritoneal dialysis, and HIV infected patients. Nasal Sa carriers have an increased risk of Sa infections following invasive therapy. Mupirocin, a novel topical antibiotic, is highly effective against nasal Sa. A number of studies indicate that it may reduce the incidence of Sa infections in dialysis patients, however experience with other categories of patients is sparse. Surgical wound infection with Sa is a particularly serious complication after implantation of foreign body material, e.g. artificial joints. There is a need for controlled clinical trials to test the efficacy of mupirocin in eradicating Sa in these types of patients. Uncritical use of mupirocin for topical treatment of wounds should be avoided in order to prevent development of resistance.
Retrospective cohort study (2005-2012) SETTING: A large tertiary-care center
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We included 23, 7, and 5 reports describing effectiveness by access type, buttonhole cannulation, and closed connector device, respectively. No study directly compared CVC with AV access. On average, bacteremia and local infection rates were higher with CVC compared with AV access. Access intervention rates were higher with more frequent hemodialysis, but access survival did not differ. Buttonhole cannulation was associated with bacteremia rates similar to those seen with CVCs in some series. Topical mupirocin seemed to attenuate this effect. No direct comparisons of closed connector devices versus standard luer-locking devices were found. Low rates of actual or averted (near misses) air embolism and bleeding were reported with closed connector devices.
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Surgical site infection has been identified as one of the most important preventable sources of morbidity and mortality associated with medical treatment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of an institutional prescreening program for the preoperative detection and eradication of both methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgery.
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We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (May 2008), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 2 2008), MEDLINE (1950 to May 2008), EMBASE (1980 to May 2008) and CINAHL (1982 to May 2008). To identify unpublished trials, abstract books from major scientific meetings (ICAAC, ESCMID and SHEA) were handsearched, researchers and manufacturers of mupirocin were contacted and other electronic databases were searched (SIGLE, ASLIB Index, mRCT, USA Clinical Trials).
Plasmid pTML1 provides a paradigm for combining independent antibiotic biosynthetic pathways or using mutasynthesis to develop a new family of hybrid derivatives that may extend the effective use of mupirocin against MRSA.
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