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Astelin (Azelastine)

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Astelin is a nasal spray which is used for treating allergy symptoms and symptoms of nasal passage inflammation. Astelin contains azelastine, an antihistamine. It blocks the effects of the chemical histamine in your body. Astelin prevents sneezing, itching, runny nose, and other nasal symptoms of allergies.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Astepro, Patanase


Also known as:  Azelastine.


Astelin belongs to a group of medicines called antihistamines.

Astelin provides relief from bothersome nasal symptoms such as congestion, itchy/runny nose, sneezing and postnasal drip due to seasonal allergens or environmental irritants.

Astelin is steroid-free, does not contain pseudoephedrine, and relieves your symptoms by blocking the effects of histamine - the primary cause of allergy symptoms.

What makes Astelin unique is that it is a steroid-free antihistamine nasal spray that provides symptom relief whether the trigger is an allergen (grass, trees, pollen, mold, etc.), an irritant (cigarette smoke, perfume, cleaning agents, car exhaust, cold air, etc.), or both.

Astelin is also know as Azelastine, Arzep, Rhinolast, Alerdual, Allergodil, Rinalin.

Generic name of Astelin is Azelastine.


Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Astelin exactly as directed.

Astelin can be used by patients as young as 5 years of age, depending on what type of rhinitis they have been diagnosed with.

For those with seasonal allergic rhinitis, patients from 5 to 11 years of age should administer 1 spray in each nostril twice daily.

Patients 12 years of age and older with seasonal allergic rhinitis should administer 2 sprays of Astelin in each nostril twice daily.

For those with nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis, patients 12 years of age and older should administer 2 sprays of Astelin in each nostril twice daily.

Before using Astelin for the first time, remove the child-resistant screw cap and replace with the pump unit. Prime the delivery system (pump unit) with four sprays or until a fine mist appears. If 3 days or more have elapsed since your last use of the nasal spray, reprime the pump with two sprays or until a fine mist appears.


If you overdose Astelin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and sunlight. Keep in a tightly closed container. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Astelin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Astelin if you are allergic to Astelin components.

It is not known whether Astelin will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

The medicine has a antihistamine in it. Before you start any new medicine, check the label to see if it has an antihistamine (e.g., diphenhydramine) in it too. If it does or if you are not sure, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

Astelin may cause harm if it is swallowed. If you may have taken it by mouth, contact your poison control center or emergency room right away.

Astelin should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Astelin; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.

Astelin may cause drowsiness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Astelin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Do not stop taking Astelin suddenly.

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To assess the effects of azelastine in patients with cough-variant asthma, we measured the cough threshold for capsaicin (the concentration required to elicit more than five coughs) in 16 patients with cough-variant asthma before and after 4 weeks of treatment with azelastine (2 mg; b.i.d.) or placebo. After treatment, coughing decreased in all patients and the cough threshold for capsaicin increased significantly, from 0.67 +/- 0.30 microM to 4.76 +/- 1.55 microM (P < 0.01) in the azelastine group. However, the cough threshold for capsaicin did not increase significantly, from 0.86 +/- 0.33 microM to 1.11 +/- 0.35 microM (P > 0.10) in the placebo group. These results suggest that azelastine inhibits coughing in patients with cough-variant asthma.

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To understand the role of intestinal microflora in the pharmacological effect of ginsenoside Re, which is a main constituent of ginseng, we investigated its anti-scratching behavioral effect in the mice treated with or without antibiotics.

astelin patient reviews

This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis of > or = 1 year's duration. A total of 151 patients received 0.025% or 0.05% azelastine eye-drops or placebo b.i.d. for 14 days according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-dosing design; 129 patients completed the study as planned. The three target symptoms, scored on 4-point scales, were itching, lacrimation, and redness of the eyes; responders were patients whose symptom sum score decreased by > or = 3 from a baseline score of > or = 6 by day 3. Mean scores of these and five other symptoms were recorded also on days 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main symptoms and swollen eyelids. Responder rates were 73% for 0.025% (P=0.115 vs placebo) and 82% for 0.05% azelastine eye-drops (P=0.011 vs placebo) and 56% for placebo. The time courses of the mean (investigators' and patients') scores for the three main symptoms reflected the dose-dependent effect of azelastine eye-drops. One patient each from the two azelastine groups and three from the placebo group withdrew because of inefficacy. Adverse drug reactions were reported by 14 and 24 patients receiving 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops, respectively, and by eight placebo patients. These reactions were mainly slight application site reactions and taste perversion (bitter or unpleasant taste). Azelastine eye-drops are effective and well tolerated at a dose of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

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Azelastine, similar to capsaicin, exhibits direct activity on TRPV1 ion channels that may represent a novel mechanistic pathway explaining its clinical efficacy in NAR.

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Anti-allergic drugs, tranilast and azelastine, were examined for their effects on lysophosphatidylserine (lysoPS)-dependent histamine release from rat mast cells. Although both compounds suppressed the histamine release in a dose-dependent manner, the inhibition was affected by lysoPS concentration differently. In the presence of an increasing concentration of lysoPS, the suppressive effect of tranilast decreased. The inhibition by azelastine, however, was independent of the concentration of lysoPS. The findings suggest that these two drugs inhibit lysoPS-depedent histamine release through essentially different routes.

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Histamine and cysteinyl leukotrienes play an important role in early (EAR) and late (LAR) allergen reactions. Although protection by anti-histamines and anti-leukotrienes has been studied extensively, little is known about the effect of their combination. We, therefore, assessed the effect of clinically recommended doses of azelastine and montelukast alone and in combination on EAR and LAR.

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The ability of azelastine to influence allergic bronchial eosinophil infiltration in guinea pigs was studied. Aeroallergen challenge of actively sensitized guinea pigs produces eosinophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected 20-24 h after aeroallergen exposure. Azelastine and methylprednisolone, administered orally 2 h before challenge, inhibited eosinophilic infiltration yielding the ED50s of 1.55 and 4.48 mg/kg, respectively. WEB-2086, a platelet-activating factor antagonist (3 mg/kg), and theophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (30 mg/kg), also suppressed allergic bronchial infiltration of eosinophils by 44%. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that azelastine exerts direct bronchial anti-inflammatory activity in guinea pigs.

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It is generally accepted that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a multifunctional cytokine which is involved in the regulation of inflammation as well as immunity. In the present study, we investigated whether azelastine, a potent antiallergic agent, affects release of TNF-alpha from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and U937 cell line in vitro. When human PBMC and U937 cells were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), respectively, the cells released significant amounts of TNF-alpha as determined by TNF-alpha-specific enzyme immunoassay. TNF-alpha levels in the culture supernatant of PHA-stimulated human PBMC and TPA-activated U937 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner when these cells were cultured in the presence of azelastine. This inhibitory effect of azelastine was obtained at concentrations where the drug produced no toxicity. Moreover, azelastine also inhibited release of TNF-alpha from U937 cells which were already activated by TPA. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of azelastine on TNF-alpha release plays an important role in its antiallergic action in addition to inhibition and/or antagonism of histamine and leukotrienes, which has been previously reported.

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One of the dose-limiting adverse effects of chemoradiotherapy is mucositis, especially oral mucositis. Prophylaxis of severe mucosal reaction would allow application of aggressive chemoradiotherapy to malignancies.

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The group included 30 patients at the age of 17 to 40 years at the mean age of 33.2 years, where chemosis and hyperemia of bulbar conjunctiva originated suddenly as well as edema of eyelids. The reported subjective symptoms were itching, burning sensation in the eyes, lacrimation, and the feeling of pressure under the eyelid. Local treatment with azelastin (Allergodil gtt. oph., Pliva), was applied in 15 patients, the other 15 patients were treated locally with emedastin (Emadine gtt. oph., Alcon) at the dose of one drop twice daily into the conjunctival sac of both eyes. The time of onset of the therapeutic effect and the disappearance of subjective symptoms and objective signs were observed.

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The most recent addition to intranasal sprays for the maintenance therapy of AR is MP-AzeFlu, a single formulation nasal spray of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate in an advanced delivery system. Analysis of clinical data showed this to be the first new intranasal medication that provides greater clinical benefit than an INCS in treating AR.

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Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro.

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The postnasal drip (PND) syndrome is often linked as a cause of chronic cough although this is disputed.

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Subjects with asthma demonstrate hyperresponsive airways to histamine and require only small quantities of this mediator to demonstrate changes in their pulmonary functions. The discovery of drugs that could compete with and antagonize the target-tissue effects of histamine has provided a method of testing whether histamine contributes as a mediator of asthma. Now, there are potent and selective anti-H, drugs which are relatively non sedating. Some of them inhibit the bronchoconstrictions induced either by allergen or exercise (e.g. terfenadine, astemizole, azelastine); some others, moreover, inhibit mast cell degranulation (e.g. azelastine). Finally, some others (e.g. cetirizine, ketotifen) display some inhibitory actions on eosinophil functions, an important cell in allergic cellular recruitment and inflammation. Some studies with H1 antihistamines in asthma have demonstrated some therapeutic benefits. However, additional carefully controlled studies are required to confirm their efficacy in asthma.

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Seventeen patients (mean age 31 years, 14 m/3 f) with asthma and proven EAR and LAR received an oral dose of 4 mg azelastine twice daily, or 10mg montelukast once daily, or both for 1 week, in a double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over fashion. FEV(1) was measured after single-dose allergen challenges during EAR (0-2h) and LAR (2-9h).

astelin pediatric dosage

Subjects with a history of SAR and symptomatic while exposed to ragweed pollen in an environmental exposure chamber (EEC) were randomized to azelastine nasal spray (n=150), mometasone nasal spray (n=150), or placebo (n=150) and recorded total nasal symptom scores (TNSS), consisting of sneezing, nasal pruritus, rhinorrhea, and congestion, during an 8-hour study period.

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1. The effect of 4.4 mg azelastine administered orally on airway responsiveness, skin prick testing, daily peak expiratory flow rates and symptoms of asthma was compared with placebo in a 7 week double-blind, parallel group study of 24 patients with extrinsic asthma. The study was in two parts: a 2 week assessment period, during which all patients received placebo tablets but recorded daily peak flow rates (PEFRs) and symptoms, preceding the 7 week double-blind comparison. 2. Azelastine, 4.4 mg, significantly decreased airway responsiveness to histamine compared with placebo both after a single dose (P less than 0.001), and following 7 weeks continuous treatment (P less than 0.02). Airway responsiveness to methacholine was not altered by administration of azelastine compared with placebo. 3. Skin prick test weal diameters to both allergen and histamine were significantly reduced after both a single dose and following 7 weeks continuous therapy treatment with azelastine. 4. There was a significant improvement in both the mean of the morning and the evening peak flow rates recorded during the last week compared with the first week of the study in the group receiving 4.4 mg of azelastine twice daily compared with placebo. Scores for wheeze were significantly reduced during the final 3 weeks of the study in patients receiving azelastine compared both with those receiving placebo and with the first week of the study (P less than 0.05, P less than 0.01). Consumption of inhaled bronchodilators fell significantly during the study in the group receiving azelastine therapy (P less than 0.05); no such fall occurred in the placebo treated patients. 5. A bitter metallic taste was reported by 58% of patients who received azelastine therapy.

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Data describing change from baseline of the reflective Total Nasal Symptom Score (rTNSS) for four intranasal SAR treatments were obtained from United States Food and Drug Administration-approved prescribing information. Treatment effects were then compared with anchor-based MCID thresholds derived by Barnes et al. and thresholds obtained from an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) panel.

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When antiallergic agents are used to treat allergic conjunctivitis other than olopatadine, a particularly toxic effect on conjunctival cells associated with azelastine and ketotifen, rather than olopatadine, should be considered clinically.

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The effects of intravenous and intracerebroventricular administrations of certain H1-blockers on the active avoidance response in rats were studied. Among the classic H1-blockers used in this study: pyrilamine, diphenydramine, promethazine and chlorpheniramine, promethazine was the most effective and chlorpheniramine the least in inhibiting the active avoidance response; namely, a variation of prolongation in the response latency of the avoidance response. Meanwhile, ketotifen most potently inhibited the active avoidance response when the drugs were administered intracerebroventricularly. Mequitazine, astemizole and oxatomide were weak depressants when administered by either route. Azelastine was less effective than the classic H1-blockers by intravenous injection, while by intracerebroventricular injection, the inhibition was almost identical to those induced by the classic H1-blockers. Intracerebroventricular injection of histamine was antagonized the prolonged latency in the avoidance response induced by pyrilamine or diphenhydramine. A similar effect was also produced by 2-methylhistamine, but 4-methylhistamine had no effect. Intracerebroventricular injection of acetylcholine was restored the retarded avoidance response induced by pyrilamine, but a dose 20 times greater than that of histamine was required. From these findings, it can be concluded that inhibition of the active avoidance response induced by H1-blockers may be exerted through interaction with H1-receptors in the brain.

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The use of various medications in chronic rhinitis in children is discussed. Evastin has been shown to eliminate histamine papules in 93% of cases and those caused by D. pteronyssinus in 68% of cases. After 10 days of treatment, conjunctival response decreased or disappeared in 80% of cases and nasal response decreased in 69%. Clinically, evastin was effective in 14 of 22 children and produced moderate effects in 2 and no effect in 6. There were no dropouts because of problems of tolerance. In a preliminary study of intranasal azelastin in 21 children with chronic allergic rhinitis, clinical improvement was significant. Various multicenter trials are reported, focusing on those using fluid budesonide. Both medications were effective in reducing symptoms and the antihistamine effect usually was earlier. There were no differences between medications as evaluated by nasal challenge or tolerance. Finally, budesonide was used in 13 patients for 4 months. Nasal obstruction and secretion improved, and rhinomanometry results improved significantly.

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Treatment for allergic conjunctivitis has markedly expanded in recent years, providing opportunities for more focused therapy, but often leaving both physicians and patients confused over the variety of options. As monotherapy, oral antihistamines are an excellent choice when attempting to control multiple early-phase, and some late-phase, allergic symptoms in the eyes, nose and pharynx. Unfortunately, despite their efficacy in relief of allergic symptoms, systemic antihistamines may result in unwanted adverse effects, such as drowsiness and dry mouth. Newer second-generation antihistamines (cetirizine, fexofenadine, loratadine and desloratadine) are preferred over older first-generation antihistamines in order to avoid the sedative and anticholinergic effects that are associated with first-generation agents. When the allergic symptom or complaint, such as ocular pruritus, is isolated, focused therapy with topical (ophthalmic) antihistamines is often efficacious and clearly superior to systemic antihistamines, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with an oral or intranasal agent. Topical antihistaminic agents not only provide faster and superior relief than systemic antihistamines, but they may also possess a longer duration of action than other classes including vasoconstrictors, pure mast cell stabilisers, NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Many antihistamines have anti-inflammatory properties as well. Some of this anti-inflammatory effect seen with 'pure' antihistamines (levocabastine and emedastine) may be directly attributed to the blocking of the histamine receptor that has been shown to downregulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and, in turn, limit chemotaxis of inflammatory cells. Some topical multiple-action histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists (olopatadine, ketotifen, azelastine and epinastine) have been shown to prevent activation of neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages, or inhibit release of leukotrienes, platelet-activating factors and other inflammatory mediators. Topical vasoconstrictor agents provide rapid relief, especially for redness; however, the relief is often short-lived, and overuse of vasoconstrictors may lead to rebound hyperaemia and irritation. Another class of topical agents, mast cell stabilisers (sodium cromoglicate [cromolyn sodium], nedocromil and lodoxamide), may be considered; however, they generally have a much slower onset of action. The efficacy of mast cell stabilisers may be attributed to anti-inflammatory properties in addition to mast cell stabilisation. In the class of topical NSAIDs, ketorolac has been promoted for ocular itching but has been found to be inferior for relief of allergic conjunctivitis when compared with olopatadine and emedastine. Lastly, topical corticosteroids may be considered for severe seasonal ocular allergy symptoms, although long-term use should be avoided because of risks of ocular adverse effects, including glaucoma and cataract formation.

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It is generally known that the substrates and/or inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overlap with each other. In intestinal epithelial cells, it is surmised that the metabolites coexist with their parent drug. However, most studies on P-gp did not take the effects of those metabolites into consideration. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of five substrates of CYP3A4 (nifedipine, testosterone, midazolam, amiodarone, and azelastine) and their metabolites on the P-gp-mediated transcellular transport. The transcellular transports of [(3)H]daunorubicin or [(3)H]digoxin by monolayers of LLC-GA5-COL150 cells in which P-gp was overexpressed were measured in the presence or absence of the CYP3A4 substrates and their metabolites. Nifedipine, testosterone, midazolam, and their metabolites exhibited no effects on the P-gp-mediated transport of [(3)H]daunorubicin and [(3)H]digoxin. On the other hand, the transport of [(3)H]daunorubicin was strongly inhibited by amiodarone, desethylamiodarone, azelastine, and desmethylazelastine, with IC(50) values of 22.5, 15.4, 16.0 and 11.8 microM, respectively. The transport of [(3)H]digoxin was also strongly inhibited by these compounds, with IC(50) values of 45.6, 25.2, 30.0 and 41.8 microM, respectively. Another metabolite of azelastine, 6-hydroxyazelastine, exhibited no effects on these transports. It was suggested that the CYP3A4 metabolites of which their parent drug exhibited inhibition on the P-gp-mediated transport are possibly also inhibitors. It would be possible more complicated drug-drug interactions would be caused by the metabolites as well as their parent drugs in the liver and the intestine via the inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp.

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astelin generic brand 2017-09-30

Histamine challenge-induced mucosal exudation of plasma appears to be a useful method for studies of the duration of action of antihistamines. We conclude that topical azelastine is suited for b.i.d. therapy and that neither the exudative process nor watery secretion may buy astelin impede the efficacy or the duration of action of this nasal drug.

astelin drug 2017-08-21

Selective platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonists and autodesensitization to this lipid were used to investigate the role of PAF in antigen-induced pleurisy in the rat. Pleural inflammation was triggered by the intrathoracic (i.t.) injection of ovalbumin (12 micrograms/cavity) into animals actively sensitized 14 days before. Successive daily i.t. injections of PAF (1 microgram/cavity) led to selective autodesensitization, which was apparent after the third injection and maximal after the fifth. The PAF antagonists BN 52021 and WEB buy astelin 2086 inhibited the late pleural eosinophil accumulation caused by antigen but, as also noted with WEB 2170, failed to modify the early antigen-induced plasma exudation and leukocyte infiltration. In contrast to the antagonists, desensitization to PAF was clearly effective against these early alterations. To further investigate this discrepancy, the antigenic challenge was performed 24 h after a single prestimulation with PAF, when sensitivity to the lipid was still intact. Under this condition, plasma exudation and cellular influx triggered by the antigen were also abrogated, indicating that this protective effect was accounted for by a mechanism other than refractoriness to PAF. Because 24 h after PAF injection only eosinophil counts remained elevated, an alternative eosinophilotactic substance was used to further study the mechanism of PAF versus antigen-induced pleural inflammation. Prior treatment with the peptide Ala-Gly-Ser-Glu (ECF-A, 20 micrograms/cavity) also inhibited the allergic pleurisy, whereas the noneosinophilotactic substances histamine (200 micrograms/cavity) and serotonin (100 micrograms/cavity) were inactive. Furthermore, drugs that share the ability to impair PAF-induced eosinophilia, including azelastine and cetirizine, prevented the inhibitory effect of PAF on the antigen-induced pleurisy. These findings suggest that PAF may account for the late eosinophilia, but not for the acute phase of the rat allergic pleurisy, which is clearly attenuated by PAF or ECF-A pretreatment.

astelin patient reviews 2016-01-31

Statistically significant changes from baseline in TNSS were seen in both the LNS group and the ANS group. No significant differences were seen between the two groups in terms of evaluation of therapeutic buy astelin effect, total effective rate, and onset of action, except for a higher symptom relief rate in the LNS group than in the ANS group within 30 min of administering the first dose. Adverse reactions were mild to moderate, with an incidence of 0.9% for LNS and 2.5% for ANS.

astelin drug class 2016-09-27

This is buy astelin the first demonstration of the efficacy of an antihistamine in the therapy of VMR in two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

astelin buy 2017-07-18

In a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial, 244 patients with moderate-to- buy astelin severe allergic rhinitis were randomized to receive either azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray (ANS) 0.1% or levocabastine hydrochloride nasal spray (LNS) 0.05% for 14 consecutive days. A visual analog scale was used to record total nasal symptom score (TNSS) changes. Indexes for further assessment included onset of action, total effective rate, and evaluation of therapeutic effect.

astelin generic otc 2016-08-22

The objective of the present study was to compare the buy astelin efficacy and tolerability of azelastine nasal spray administered at the recommended dosage of 2 sprays per nostril twice daily with those of cetirizine in the treatment of moderate to severe SAR.

astelin user reviews 2017-12-16

A randomised, multicentre parallel group study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of 0.05% azelastine eye drops (101 patients) in an open manner with 0.05% levocabastine eye drops (103 patients buy astelin ) and in a double-blind manner with placebo (103 patients) during a 14-day treatment period involving patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. The three main eye symptoms, scored on a four-point scale, were itching, lacrimation and conjunctival redness; the primary efficacy variable was the responder rate on day 3. Responders were patients whose sum score of the three main eye symptoms decreased by at least three points from a baseline score of at least six points. In addition to these main symptoms, five other symptoms were recorded on days 0, 3, 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main eye symptoms and swollen eyelids. The responder rate after 3 days of treatment was 69% in patients treated with azelastine, 59% in patients treated with levocabastine and 51% in the placebo group. Only the difference in responder rates between azelastine and placebo eye drops was statistically significant (p = 0.02). The improvements in other ocular symptoms and entries in the patients' diaries closely reflected the changes reported by the investigators. No serious adverse events occurred throughout the study. Nine patients (three in the azelastine, five in the levocabastine and one in the placebo group) terminated the study prematurely due to poor tolerability. Adverse drug reactions, mainly a mild, transient irritation and a bitter or unpleasant taste, were reported in 37% of patients receiving azelastine eye drops, 31% of patients receiving levocabastine and 9% of placebo patients. Overall tolerability was assessed as very good or good in 86% of azelastine- and levocabastine-treated patients, and in 95% of the patients receiving placebo. The results of this study indicate that azelastine possesses a tolerability profile at least comparable to that of levocabastine eye drops, but additionally appears to have a slightly quicker onset of effect, and confirm the therapeutic potential of azelastine eye drops in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.

astelin dosage information 2016-11-19

Azelastine hydrochloride [4-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-2-(hexahydro-1-methyl-1H-azepin-4yl )-1-(2 H)-phthalazinone monohydrochloride], is a long-acting antiallergic and antiasthmatic drug. The human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoform responsible for azelastine N-demethylation, the major metabolic pathway for azelastine, has been examined. Eadie-Hofstee plots of azelastine N-demethylation in human liver microsomes were biphasic. In microsomes from baculovirus-infected insect cells, buy astelin recombinant CYP3A4, 2D6, 1A2, and 2C19 exhibited high azelastine N-demethylase activity. The K(m) values of the recombinant CYP2D6 (3.75 microM) and CYP3A4 (43.7 microM) were relatively close to that of high-affinity (14.1 microM) and low-affinity (54.7 microM) components in human liver microsomes, respectively. Azelastine N-demethylase activity was inhibited only by the anti-CYP3A antibody, in contrast to antibodies for CYP1A, 2D6, and 2C. In addition, desmethylazelastine formation was significantly inhibited by ketoconazole and troleandomycin but only weakly by omeprazole, sulfaphenazole, and furafylline. These observations suggested that the N-demethylation of azelastine is most extensively catalyzed by the CYP2D6 and 3A4 isoforms in humans.

astelin cost 2015-11-04

The new antiallergic drug azelastine (E-0659, Azeptin; CAS 58581-89-8) is used in the treatment of rhinitis and bronchial asthma. In the present study, the effect of azelastine on the regulation of the beta-adrenoceptors and the down regulation of beta-adrenoceptors by terbutaline, a beta-agonist, was investigated using guinea pig lungs. Guinea pigs were divided into four groups; (1) the control (saline-treated) group, (2) the terbutaline-treated group, (3) the azelastine-treated group, (4) terbutaline plus azelastine-treated group. Guinea pigs intramuscularly injected with each agent three times a day for successive 7 days. In the terbutaline buy astelin -treated group, a 26% reduction in the number of beta-adrenoceptors compared with those of the control group was observed. In the azelastine-treated group, the number of beta-adrenoceptors increased by 24% compared with those of the control group. The number of the beta-adrenoceptors in the terbutaline plus azelastine-treated group was significantly increased compared with that of the terbutaline-treated group. These results suggest that azelastine may prevent the down regulation observed during beta-agonist administration by increasing the number of beta-adrenoceptors.

astelin generic equivalent 2015-03-21

Azelastine hydrochloride is a pharmacologically distinct H1-receptor antagonist with a broad spectrum of antiallergic and anti-inflammatory activity. Azelastine has established antiallergic and anti-inflammatory effects that are unrelated to H1-receptor antagonism, including inhibitory effects on the synthesis of leukotrienes, kinins, and cytokines; the generation of superoxide free radicals; and the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Azelastine is available in the United States as a nasal spray formulation (Astelin) and is approved for treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis. In U.S. clinical trials, azelastine nasal spray was effective in treating all of the symptoms of the allergic rhinitis symptom complex including ocular symptoms, and in double-blind clinical trials in nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis, azelastine nasal spray was effective in treating the total vasomotor rhinitis symptom buy astelin complex including individual symptoms of nasal congestion and postnasal drip. This article reviews the pharmacologic profile and clinical efficacy and safety of azelastine nasal spray.

astelin dosage adults 2015-11-30

The effects of the novel antiasthmatic/antiallergic compound azelastine on IL-1 beta were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In leukocytes both, intra- and extracellular IL-1 generation stimulated by LPS was inhibited dose dependently. In contrast azelastine did not prevent IL-1 beta-induced immigration of PMNs into the mouse ear. These findings suggest buy astelin that azelastine is not an IL-1 antagonist but inhibits IL-1 synthesis and/or release in leukocytes.

astelin reviews 2015-10-22

Previous studies confirmed the efficacy of the Chinese herbal remedy Saiboku-to in patients with steroid-dependent asthma. We studied 8 phenolic compounds, isolated from the urine of patients receiving Saiboku-to, with respect to their effects on leukotriene (LT) release by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) obtained from 6 patients with atopic asthma and 8 healthy subjects. The compounds (0.01-10 micrograms/ml) were incubated with Ca2+ ionophore (A23187)-stimulated PMN, and concentrations of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in the supernatant were measured buy astelin by EIA. Each compound suppressed the release of LTB4 and LTC4 by PMN obtained from healthy and asthmatic subjects. In particular, baicalein and magnolol were 5-10 times more potent than azelastine, an antiallergic drug, and significantly suppressed LTC4 release by PMN obtained from asthmatic patients, as compared with healthy subjects. Suppression of LTC4 release by these compounds may play an important role in the clinical efficacy of Saiboku-to.

astelin alcohol 2016-03-11

Antihistamines are believed to reduce the sneezing and rhinorrhea associated with allergic rhinitis, primarily by competitive antagonism of histamine for H1 cellular receptors, but additional mechanisms of action may contribute to their clinical efficacy. To improve our understanding of H1 antihistamine action, we studied the effects of pretreatment with terfenadine, cetirizine, ketotifen, azatadine, diphenhydramine, and azelastine on increases in vascular permeability, mast cell activation, and sneezing induced by nasal challenge with antigen. All studied antihistamines reduced sneezing, indicating that they all effectively antagonize histamine after its release. In addition, terfenadine and topically administered azatadine blocked the release of histamine. Studies with cetirizine and Cefixime E Medicine azelastine revealed that these antihistamines significantly reduced sulfidopeptide leukotriene levels. Terfenadine and azelastine also reduced kinin production. These results confirm that antihistamines are effective in reducing sneezing and, in some cases, vascular permeability. The findings of these studies also illustrate that the various antihistamines have multiple and different mechanisms of action that may have implications for their clinical uses.

astelin generic nasal 2015-07-01

Effects of epinastine ((+/-)-3-amino-9,13b-dihydro-1H-dibenz[c,f]imidazo[1,5-a]azepine hydrochloride, WAL 801 CL, CAS 80012-43-7) and reference drugs on bronchoconstriction induced by histamine, platelet activating factor (PAF) and serotonin were studied in guinea pigs and rats. Oral administration of epinastine resulted in a potent inhibition on bronchoconstriction induced by all three bronchoconstrictor agents, and especially, an inhibitory effect on histamine-induced response was remarkable. The effect of epinastine was stronger than that of ketotifen in inhibiting the responses induced by both PAF and serotonin. However, the extent of inhibition Viagra 25mg Online in the latter was less remarkable than that seen after histamine. Azelastine was 1.36-4.57 times less potent than epinastine in inhibiting the bronchoconstriction induced by either bronchospasmogen. Although promethazine displayed inhibitory effects on the responses induced by histamine, PAF and serotonin, the inhibiting potency was distinctly inferior to that of epinastine.

astelin generic name 2016-02-17

The influence of peplomycin (PLM) and azelastine hydrochloride (Azeptin) on reactive oxygen (RO) and cytokine generation was examined in human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and rabbit alveolar macrophages (RAM). In addition, the influence of these drugs on DNA and collagen synthesis was investigated in human gingival and rabbit pulmonary fibroblasts. In vitro, PLM increased the FMLP- and PMA-induced chemiluminescence and superoxide (O2-) generation in human PMN and RAM in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast to PLM, Azeptin dose-dependently suppressed RO generation. Such contrasting actions of PLM and Azeptin were also observed in RAM and PMN obtained from rabbits treated with PLM or Azeptin. Even when human PMN were preincubated with 10-100 micrograms/ml of PLM, the increase in RO generation was negligible in the presence of 10(-5) M Azeptin in the culture medium. No increases in RO generation were observed in RAM or PMN obtained from rabbits that had received PLM (0.1 mg/kg per day) and Azeptin (0.04 mg/kg per day) concomitantly. PLM suppressed superoxide dismutase activity in RAM and human PMN, Avapro Maximum Dosage while Azeptin did not affect this activity. In vitro, PLM up-regulated the release of interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor both from human cells and from RAM and pulmonary fibroblasts. In the generation of these cytokines, Azeptin abrogated the up-regulatory action of PLM. PLM and Azeptin also had contrasting actions in [3H]thymidine and [3H]proline incorporation in human and rabbit fibroblasts. Furthermore, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, in particular that of a 115-kDa protein in human PMN, was suppressed by Azeptin and enhanced by PLM. These results seem to indicate that up-regulated RO and collagen generation are the causative factors of PLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and that Azeptin may suppress the adverse effect.

astelin usual dosage 2016-01-09

Azelastine 0.15% was effective and well tolerated with once Lanoxin En Alcohol -daily dosing. Azelastine 0.15% nasal spray significantly improved a complex of eye symptoms compared to placebo.

astelin pediatric dose 2017-03-28

Antibiotic resistance represents a serious problem that complicates microbial infection. The use of 'helper compounds' capable of enhancing the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics is being investigated. Azelastine, a new generation antihistaminic, possesses certain antibacterial activity and is capable of inducing alteration in the bacterial membrane permeability. Hence, we hypothesized that it could reverse resistance to antibiotics. Azelastine significantly increased the antibacterial activity of eight antibiotics belonging to five different classes (β-lactams, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and tetracyclines) against nine Gram-positive clinical isolates: five Staphylococcus aureus, two Staphylococcus epidermidis and two Enterococcus faecium, seven of which were multi-drug resistant, reversing their resistance to the tested antibiotics. The synergistic effects Imitrex 100 Mg of azelastine with the studied antibiotics increased with raising the pH from 5 to 8. Antibiotics did not affect the ability of azelastine to alter the permeability of a liposomal artificial membrane model, an effect thought to be critical for the interaction with antibiotics. The findings of this study present azelastine as a potential 'helper compound' that could reverse the resistance of multi-drug resistant Gram-positive clinical isolates to antibiotics.

astelin dosage form 2015-11-08

A total of 67 patients with chronic pruritus caused by different skin diseases or chronic pruritus of unknown origin were treated with levocetirizine 10 mg/fexofenadine 360 mg or levocetirizine 10 mg/fexofenadine 360 mg/azelastine 4 mg or Sinemet Cr Dosing desloratadine 20 mg per day.

astelin generic price 2017-04-04

Azelastine hydrochloride is a nasally administered antihistamine that is effective and safe for the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. In addition to acting as a histamine H1-receptor antagonist, azelastine also inhibits the production or release of many chemical mediators of the allergic response such as leukotrienes, free radicals, and cytokines. After nasal administration, azelastine is systemically absorbed with a bioavailability of about 40%. The side effects of azelastine are drowsiness, headache, and bitter taste. Azelastine Sporanox Reviews has a rapid onset of action with a benefit in about 2 hours and a prolonged duration of activity (12 to 24 hours). Studies have shown azelastine to be more effective than placebo in terms of reduction of the major and total symptom complexes of allergic rhinitis. Comparison studies have demonstrated that azelastine is as effective as ebastine, loratadine, cetirizine hydrochloride, and terfenadine at symptom reduction, with varying results when compared with the corticosteroids budesonide and beclomethasone. Although there are conflicting studies, some have demonstrated that azelastine reduces the nasal congestion of allergic rhinitis. This feature that distinguishes it from oral antihistamines is of great interest because corticosteroids are known to be quite effective for the relief of nasal congestion, whereas the antihistamines are effective for the sneezing, itchy eyes, itchy nose, and watery eyes, but not the congestion. Azelastine nasal spray seems to be an efficacious treatment for allergic rhinitis with a rapid onset and long duration of activity, but without the systemic adverse effects of traditional sedating antihistamines.

astelin tablet 2017-08-20

Symptoms of simple allergic conjunctivitis (itching, tearing and photophobia) were significantly reduced Imdur Tab at the end of 1(st) week. Signs such as conjunctival chemosis, congestion, tarsal papillae, and eyelid edema were effectively treated in all cases at the end of 1(st) week. At the end of 4(th) week, all cases were fully cured and none of the patient had any recurrences up to 7(th) week. Mean score at 1(st) day (9.6 ± 3.27) was significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced by 7(th) day (1.35 ± 1.19) of treatment.

astelin pediatric dosage 2016-01-11

Azelastine nasal spray was more efficacious than placebo in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. No significant differences were observed between azelastine and active comparators for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; however, when azelastine was compared with oral antihistamines as monotherapy, the trend favored azelastine. Because azelastine appears to be as efficacious as oral antihistamines, the choice of treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis should depend on the patient's preference regarding the route of administration, adverse effects, and the cost of the drug.

astelin overdose 2017-11-09

HaSMCs were treated for 4 days with azelastine (1 micromol/L, 25 micromol/L, 50 micromol/L). Half of the treated groups were incubated again with azelastine, the other half received azelastine-free medium every 4 days until day 20. The growth kinetics and clonogenic activity were assessed. The cell-cycle distribution was investigated by FACS -- analysis and the migratory ability was evaluated.

astelin drug interactions 2017-07-16

A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study involving 130 patients was conducted at 9 centres in the U.K. to assess the effect of 6 weeks of treatment with azelastine nasal spray (azelastine) and beclomethasone dipropionate nasal spray (BDP) on the symptoms of perennial rhinitis. Efficacy was assessed by patients recording daily the severity of the symptoms of rhinitis on 10-cm visual analogue scales. Analysis of this diary data showed significant reductions in sneezing, blocked nose, running nose, and itching nose during azelastine treatment. Patients on BDP recorded a consistent reduction in rhinitis symptoms, but these reductions were significant only for sneezing on treatment day 7. When rhinitis symptoms were assessed by clinical investigators on a 4-point scale, the scores obtained following treatment with the 2 study medications showed little change from baseline or "active" treatment scores. There was no evidence of a consistent change in nasal airway resistance, measured using anterior rhinomanometry, following treatment with either BDP or azelastine. Azelastine nasal spray and BDP nasal spray were well tolerated by the patients and the relative incidence of adverse events was similar in the azelastine and placebo/azelastine treatment groups, except that taste perversion occurred more frequently during azelastine treatment than during placebo/azelastine treatment. There was no evidence of an increased incidence of somnolence or fatigue in patients who received azelastine nasal spray. Overall, the results of this study indicate that azelastine administered twice daily as an intranasal spray is a safe and efficacious treatment for the symptoms of rhinitis in patients suffering from mild to moderate perennial rhinitis.

astelin dosing 2015-02-05

The heterogeneity in clinical presentation makes NAR treatment a daily challenge for otolaryngologists. The diversity of clinical studies with use of unique outcome measures limit systematic reviews which may be instrumental in providing strong recommendations.

astelin brand 2016-12-28

The ability of azelastine to inhibit allergic histamine release from rabbit mixed leukocytes was studied and compared with selected antiallergic drugs. Azelastine, ketotifen, diphenhydramine, theophylline and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of allergic histamine release from rabbit basophils. The concentrations inhibiting histamine release by 50% (IC50; microM) were as follows: azelastine = 4.5; ketotifen = 9.5; diphenhydramine = 18.9; theophylline = 56.9; DSCG = greater than 1,000. DSCG was added to the cells immediately prior to antigen challenge. All other drugs were preincubated for a period of 10 min prior to antigen challenge. At the IC50 level, azelastine is about 2, 4, 13 and greater than 200 times as effective as ketotifen, diphenhydramine, theophylline and DSCG, respectively. The IC50 of azelastine following 0, 10 and 30 min preincubation were 2.4, 1.9 and 3.5 microM, respectively. These observations showed: (1) azelastine is capable of acting rapidly on basophils and of inhibiting allergic histamine secretion, and (2) the prolongation of the preincubation time of azelastine up to 30 min with rabbit leukocytes did not exhibit any sign of tachyphylaxis (loss of activity). In conclusion, azelastine is a potent inhibitor of allergic histamine secretion from the leukocytes of ragweed-sensitized rabbits.

astelin buy online 2015-04-23

It is generally accepted that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a multifunctional cytokine which is involved in the regulation of inflammation as well as immunity. In the present study, we investigated whether azelastine, a potent antiallergic agent, affects release of TNF-alpha from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and U937 cell line in vitro. When human PBMC and U937 cells were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), respectively, the cells released significant amounts of TNF-alpha as determined by TNF-alpha-specific enzyme immunoassay. TNF-alpha levels in the culture supernatant of PHA-stimulated human PBMC and TPA-activated U937 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner when these cells were cultured in the presence of azelastine. This inhibitory effect of azelastine was obtained at concentrations where the drug produced no toxicity. Moreover, azelastine also inhibited release of TNF-alpha from U937 cells which were already activated by TPA. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of azelastine on TNF-alpha release plays an important role in its antiallergic action in addition to inhibition and/or antagonism of histamine and leukotrienes, which has been previously reported.

astelin review 2015-01-17

• The topical second generation anti-histamine azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) and the potent corticosteroid fluticasone propionate (FP) are well established first-line treatments in allergic rhinitis (AR). • MP29-02, a novel intranasal AZE and FP formulation, has been shown to control AR symptoms faster and better than standard intranasal AZE or FP. • The systemic bioavailabilities of marketed AZE and FP nasal spray products have been established at about 40% and 1% only, respectively. • For new combination medicinal products such as MP29-02, the determination of possible pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interactions between both active components and formulation-based bioavailability alterations is essential.