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To assess the effects of azelastine in patients with cough-variant asthma, we measured the cough threshold for capsaicin (the concentration required to elicit more than five coughs) in 16 patients with cough-variant asthma before and after 4 weeks of treatment with azelastine (2 mg; b.i.d.) or placebo. After treatment, coughing decreased in all patients and the cough threshold for capsaicin increased significantly, from 0.67 +/- 0.30 microM to 4.76 +/- 1.55 microM (P < 0.01) in the azelastine group. However, the cough threshold for capsaicin did not increase significantly, from 0.86 +/- 0.33 microM to 1.11 +/- 0.35 microM (P > 0.10) in the placebo group. These results suggest that azelastine inhibits coughing in patients with cough-variant asthma.
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To understand the role of intestinal microflora in the pharmacological effect of ginsenoside Re, which is a main constituent of ginseng, we investigated its anti-scratching behavioral effect in the mice treated with or without antibiotics.
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This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis of > or = 1 year's duration. A total of 151 patients received 0.025% or 0.05% azelastine eye-drops or placebo b.i.d. for 14 days according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-dosing design; 129 patients completed the study as planned. The three target symptoms, scored on 4-point scales, were itching, lacrimation, and redness of the eyes; responders were patients whose symptom sum score decreased by > or = 3 from a baseline score of > or = 6 by day 3. Mean scores of these and five other symptoms were recorded also on days 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main symptoms and swollen eyelids. Responder rates were 73% for 0.025% (P=0.115 vs placebo) and 82% for 0.05% azelastine eye-drops (P=0.011 vs placebo) and 56% for placebo. The time courses of the mean (investigators' and patients') scores for the three main symptoms reflected the dose-dependent effect of azelastine eye-drops. One patient each from the two azelastine groups and three from the placebo group withdrew because of inefficacy. Adverse drug reactions were reported by 14 and 24 patients receiving 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops, respectively, and by eight placebo patients. These reactions were mainly slight application site reactions and taste perversion (bitter or unpleasant taste). Azelastine eye-drops are effective and well tolerated at a dose of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.
Azelastine, similar to capsaicin, exhibits direct activity on TRPV1 ion channels that may represent a novel mechanistic pathway explaining its clinical efficacy in NAR.
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Anti-allergic drugs, tranilast and azelastine, were examined for their effects on lysophosphatidylserine (lysoPS)-dependent histamine release from rat mast cells. Although both compounds suppressed the histamine release in a dose-dependent manner, the inhibition was affected by lysoPS concentration differently. In the presence of an increasing concentration of lysoPS, the suppressive effect of tranilast decreased. The inhibition by azelastine, however, was independent of the concentration of lysoPS. The findings suggest that these two drugs inhibit lysoPS-depedent histamine release through essentially different routes.
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Histamine and cysteinyl leukotrienes play an important role in early (EAR) and late (LAR) allergen reactions. Although protection by anti-histamines and anti-leukotrienes has been studied extensively, little is known about the effect of their combination. We, therefore, assessed the effect of clinically recommended doses of azelastine and montelukast alone and in combination on EAR and LAR.
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The ability of azelastine to influence allergic bronchial eosinophil infiltration in guinea pigs was studied. Aeroallergen challenge of actively sensitized guinea pigs produces eosinophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected 20-24 h after aeroallergen exposure. Azelastine and methylprednisolone, administered orally 2 h before challenge, inhibited eosinophilic infiltration yielding the ED50s of 1.55 and 4.48 mg/kg, respectively. WEB-2086, a platelet-activating factor antagonist (3 mg/kg), and theophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (30 mg/kg), also suppressed allergic bronchial infiltration of eosinophils by 44%. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that azelastine exerts direct bronchial anti-inflammatory activity in guinea pigs.
It is generally accepted that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a multifunctional cytokine which is involved in the regulation of inflammation as well as immunity. In the present study, we investigated whether azelastine, a potent antiallergic agent, affects release of TNF-alpha from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and U937 cell line in vitro. When human PBMC and U937 cells were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), respectively, the cells released significant amounts of TNF-alpha as determined by TNF-alpha-specific enzyme immunoassay. TNF-alpha levels in the culture supernatant of PHA-stimulated human PBMC and TPA-activated U937 cells decreased in a dose-dependent manner when these cells were cultured in the presence of azelastine. This inhibitory effect of azelastine was obtained at concentrations where the drug produced no toxicity. Moreover, azelastine also inhibited release of TNF-alpha from U937 cells which were already activated by TPA. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of azelastine on TNF-alpha release plays an important role in its antiallergic action in addition to inhibition and/or antagonism of histamine and leukotrienes, which has been previously reported.
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One of the dose-limiting adverse effects of chemoradiotherapy is mucositis, especially oral mucositis. Prophylaxis of severe mucosal reaction would allow application of aggressive chemoradiotherapy to malignancies.
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The group included 30 patients at the age of 17 to 40 years at the mean age of 33.2 years, where chemosis and hyperemia of bulbar conjunctiva originated suddenly as well as edema of eyelids. The reported subjective symptoms were itching, burning sensation in the eyes, lacrimation, and the feeling of pressure under the eyelid. Local treatment with azelastin (Allergodil gtt. oph., Pliva), was applied in 15 patients, the other 15 patients were treated locally with emedastin (Emadine gtt. oph., Alcon) at the dose of one drop twice daily into the conjunctival sac of both eyes. The time of onset of the therapeutic effect and the disappearance of subjective symptoms and objective signs were observed.
The most recent addition to intranasal sprays for the maintenance therapy of AR is MP-AzeFlu, a single formulation nasal spray of azelastine hydrochloride and fluticasone propionate in an advanced delivery system. Analysis of clinical data showed this to be the first new intranasal medication that provides greater clinical benefit than an INCS in treating AR.
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Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro.
The postnasal drip (PND) syndrome is often linked as a cause of chronic cough although this is disputed.
Subjects with asthma demonstrate hyperresponsive airways to histamine and require only small quantities of this mediator to demonstrate changes in their pulmonary functions. The discovery of drugs that could compete with and antagonize the target-tissue effects of histamine has provided a method of testing whether histamine contributes as a mediator of asthma. Now, there are potent and selective anti-H, drugs which are relatively non sedating. Some of them inhibit the bronchoconstrictions induced either by allergen or exercise (e.g. terfenadine, astemizole, azelastine); some others, moreover, inhibit mast cell degranulation (e.g. azelastine). Finally, some others (e.g. cetirizine, ketotifen) display some inhibitory actions on eosinophil functions, an important cell in allergic cellular recruitment and inflammation. Some studies with H1 antihistamines in asthma have demonstrated some therapeutic benefits. However, additional carefully controlled studies are required to confirm their efficacy in asthma.
Seventeen patients (mean age 31 years, 14 m/3 f) with asthma and proven EAR and LAR received an oral dose of 4 mg azelastine twice daily, or 10mg montelukast once daily, or both for 1 week, in a double-blind, double-dummy, cross-over fashion. FEV(1) was measured after single-dose allergen challenges during EAR (0-2h) and LAR (2-9h).
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Subjects with a history of SAR and symptomatic while exposed to ragweed pollen in an environmental exposure chamber (EEC) were randomized to azelastine nasal spray (n=150), mometasone nasal spray (n=150), or placebo (n=150) and recorded total nasal symptom scores (TNSS), consisting of sneezing, nasal pruritus, rhinorrhea, and congestion, during an 8-hour study period.
1. The effect of 4.4 mg azelastine administered orally on airway responsiveness, skin prick testing, daily peak expiratory flow rates and symptoms of asthma was compared with placebo in a 7 week double-blind, parallel group study of 24 patients with extrinsic asthma. The study was in two parts: a 2 week assessment period, during which all patients received placebo tablets but recorded daily peak flow rates (PEFRs) and symptoms, preceding the 7 week double-blind comparison. 2. Azelastine, 4.4 mg, significantly decreased airway responsiveness to histamine compared with placebo both after a single dose (P less than 0.001), and following 7 weeks continuous treatment (P less than 0.02). Airway responsiveness to methacholine was not altered by administration of azelastine compared with placebo. 3. Skin prick test weal diameters to both allergen and histamine were significantly reduced after both a single dose and following 7 weeks continuous therapy treatment with azelastine. 4. There was a significant improvement in both the mean of the morning and the evening peak flow rates recorded during the last week compared with the first week of the study in the group receiving 4.4 mg of azelastine twice daily compared with placebo. Scores for wheeze were significantly reduced during the final 3 weeks of the study in patients receiving azelastine compared both with those receiving placebo and with the first week of the study (P less than 0.05, P less than 0.01). Consumption of inhaled bronchodilators fell significantly during the study in the group receiving azelastine therapy (P less than 0.05); no such fall occurred in the placebo treated patients. 5. A bitter metallic taste was reported by 58% of patients who received azelastine therapy.
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Data describing change from baseline of the reflective Total Nasal Symptom Score (rTNSS) for four intranasal SAR treatments were obtained from United States Food and Drug Administration-approved prescribing information. Treatment effects were then compared with anchor-based MCID thresholds derived by Barnes et al. and thresholds obtained from an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) panel.
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When antiallergic agents are used to treat allergic conjunctivitis other than olopatadine, a particularly toxic effect on conjunctival cells associated with azelastine and ketotifen, rather than olopatadine, should be considered clinically.
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The effects of intravenous and intracerebroventricular administrations of certain H1-blockers on the active avoidance response in rats were studied. Among the classic H1-blockers used in this study: pyrilamine, diphenydramine, promethazine and chlorpheniramine, promethazine was the most effective and chlorpheniramine the least in inhibiting the active avoidance response; namely, a variation of prolongation in the response latency of the avoidance response. Meanwhile, ketotifen most potently inhibited the active avoidance response when the drugs were administered intracerebroventricularly. Mequitazine, astemizole and oxatomide were weak depressants when administered by either route. Azelastine was less effective than the classic H1-blockers by intravenous injection, while by intracerebroventricular injection, the inhibition was almost identical to those induced by the classic H1-blockers. Intracerebroventricular injection of histamine was antagonized the prolonged latency in the avoidance response induced by pyrilamine or diphenhydramine. A similar effect was also produced by 2-methylhistamine, but 4-methylhistamine had no effect. Intracerebroventricular injection of acetylcholine was restored the retarded avoidance response induced by pyrilamine, but a dose 20 times greater than that of histamine was required. From these findings, it can be concluded that inhibition of the active avoidance response induced by H1-blockers may be exerted through interaction with H1-receptors in the brain.
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The use of various medications in chronic rhinitis in children is discussed. Evastin has been shown to eliminate histamine papules in 93% of cases and those caused by D. pteronyssinus in 68% of cases. After 10 days of treatment, conjunctival response decreased or disappeared in 80% of cases and nasal response decreased in 69%. Clinically, evastin was effective in 14 of 22 children and produced moderate effects in 2 and no effect in 6. There were no dropouts because of problems of tolerance. In a preliminary study of intranasal azelastin in 21 children with chronic allergic rhinitis, clinical improvement was significant. Various multicenter trials are reported, focusing on those using fluid budesonide. Both medications were effective in reducing symptoms and the antihistamine effect usually was earlier. There were no differences between medications as evaluated by nasal challenge or tolerance. Finally, budesonide was used in 13 patients for 4 months. Nasal obstruction and secretion improved, and rhinomanometry results improved significantly.
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Treatment for allergic conjunctivitis has markedly expanded in recent years, providing opportunities for more focused therapy, but often leaving both physicians and patients confused over the variety of options. As monotherapy, oral antihistamines are an excellent choice when attempting to control multiple early-phase, and some late-phase, allergic symptoms in the eyes, nose and pharynx. Unfortunately, despite their efficacy in relief of allergic symptoms, systemic antihistamines may result in unwanted adverse effects, such as drowsiness and dry mouth. Newer second-generation antihistamines (cetirizine, fexofenadine, loratadine and desloratadine) are preferred over older first-generation antihistamines in order to avoid the sedative and anticholinergic effects that are associated with first-generation agents. When the allergic symptom or complaint, such as ocular pruritus, is isolated, focused therapy with topical (ophthalmic) antihistamines is often efficacious and clearly superior to systemic antihistamines, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with an oral or intranasal agent. Topical antihistaminic agents not only provide faster and superior relief than systemic antihistamines, but they may also possess a longer duration of action than other classes including vasoconstrictors, pure mast cell stabilisers, NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Many antihistamines have anti-inflammatory properties as well. Some of this anti-inflammatory effect seen with 'pure' antihistamines (levocabastine and emedastine) may be directly attributed to the blocking of the histamine receptor that has been shown to downregulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and, in turn, limit chemotaxis of inflammatory cells. Some topical multiple-action histamine H(1)-receptor antagonists (olopatadine, ketotifen, azelastine and epinastine) have been shown to prevent activation of neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages, or inhibit release of leukotrienes, platelet-activating factors and other inflammatory mediators. Topical vasoconstrictor agents provide rapid relief, especially for redness; however, the relief is often short-lived, and overuse of vasoconstrictors may lead to rebound hyperaemia and irritation. Another class of topical agents, mast cell stabilisers (sodium cromoglicate [cromolyn sodium], nedocromil and lodoxamide), may be considered; however, they generally have a much slower onset of action. The efficacy of mast cell stabilisers may be attributed to anti-inflammatory properties in addition to mast cell stabilisation. In the class of topical NSAIDs, ketorolac has been promoted for ocular itching but has been found to be inferior for relief of allergic conjunctivitis when compared with olopatadine and emedastine. Lastly, topical corticosteroids may be considered for severe seasonal ocular allergy symptoms, although long-term use should be avoided because of risks of ocular adverse effects, including glaucoma and cataract formation.
It is generally known that the substrates and/or inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overlap with each other. In intestinal epithelial cells, it is surmised that the metabolites coexist with their parent drug. However, most studies on P-gp did not take the effects of those metabolites into consideration. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of five substrates of CYP3A4 (nifedipine, testosterone, midazolam, amiodarone, and azelastine) and their metabolites on the P-gp-mediated transcellular transport. The transcellular transports of [(3)H]daunorubicin or [(3)H]digoxin by monolayers of LLC-GA5-COL150 cells in which P-gp was overexpressed were measured in the presence or absence of the CYP3A4 substrates and their metabolites. Nifedipine, testosterone, midazolam, and their metabolites exhibited no effects on the P-gp-mediated transport of [(3)H]daunorubicin and [(3)H]digoxin. On the other hand, the transport of [(3)H]daunorubicin was strongly inhibited by amiodarone, desethylamiodarone, azelastine, and desmethylazelastine, with IC(50) values of 22.5, 15.4, 16.0 and 11.8 microM, respectively. The transport of [(3)H]digoxin was also strongly inhibited by these compounds, with IC(50) values of 45.6, 25.2, 30.0 and 41.8 microM, respectively. Another metabolite of azelastine, 6-hydroxyazelastine, exhibited no effects on these transports. It was suggested that the CYP3A4 metabolites of which their parent drug exhibited inhibition on the P-gp-mediated transport are possibly also inhibitors. It would be possible more complicated drug-drug interactions would be caused by the metabolites as well as their parent drugs in the liver and the intestine via the inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp.