The endoscopic picture improved in 27, histologic one in 26, stool in 28 patients. Negative results were absent. A positive trend was observed in LPO and AOD.
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Rectal treatment with mesalazine enemas is the first-line therapy for distal ulcerative colitis. In order to improve the benefits of rectal therapy, a new 60 mL 5-ASA rectal gel enema preparation has been developed using a device which excludes direct contact of the inert propellant gas with the active drug. The purpose of the present study was to assess by scintigraphy the colonic distribution of this new mesalazine rectal gel enema.
Inflammatory bowel disease patients were recruited from 89 sites around the world. Inclusion criteria included normal renal function prior to commencing 5-ASA, ≥50% rise in creatinine any time after starting 5-ASA, and physician opinion implicating 5-ASA strong enough to justify drug withdrawal. An adjudication panel identified definite and probable cases from structured case report forms. A genome-wide association study was then undertaken with these cases and 4109 disease controls.
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A greater proportion of subjects on 4 g OD achieved remission at weeks 4 and 8 compared with 2g BD. After 32 weeks the average costs per patient with active UC were €3097 and €3548 for those treated with OD and BD mesalazine respectively, with an average saving of €451 per patient treated with OD mesalazine. The average costs per QALY for OD and BD mesalazine were €5433 and €6324 for OD and BD, respectively.
In this series, topical 5-aminosalicylic acid appears safe, effective, and well tolerated in the management of pregnant patients with distal colitis.
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Crohn's disease is associated with high rates of postoperative recurrence. By 10 years postoperatively a high percentage of patients suffer clinical relapses (as many as 75% and above) and many of these (up to 45%) require re-intervention. The aim of the study was to identify, among the various potentially predictive factors, those which today can be considered real risk factors for postoperative recurrence. A review of the literature of the last two decades was carried out. Factors related to the patient, disease, type of surgery and pharmacological treatment were analysed. The relapse rate we recorded was 41.17% (28 of 62 patients operated on in the last 20 years and included in an average 6-year follow-up (range: 1-19 years). Significant predictive factors, in adition to duration of the follow-up and smoking, are also the location of the disease in the colon, extent more than 100 cm and the absence of postoperative pharmacological prophylaxis. The high incidence of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease mandates a strict follow-up (clinical, laboratory and instrumental monitoring). Identifying patients at increased risk would enable physicians to implement a rational pharmacological prophylaxis.
Clinical trials in ulcerative colitis (UC) rely on certain parameters to evaluate responses that are highly subjective or of low sensitivity. Here, using a select group of genes, we tested the accuracy of gene expression analysis as a biomarker of clinical, endoscopic, and histologic improvements.
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The Pentasa tablet appeared completely dissolved in the stomach by 117 +/- 18 min. Samarium oxide was first detected in the small intestine 60 +/- 5 min after its ingestion; it reached the colon after 280 +/- 13 min and it was completely absent from the small intestine at 360 +/- 26 min. Plasma concentrations of 5-ASA started to rise after 67 +/- 7 min and were maximal at 222 +/- 25 min.
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The prevalence of VTE among patients with UC who responded to medical therapy was 1.3% and only 16% of these patients received heparin prophylaxis. In contrast, VTE was higher among patients who underwent an emergent (8.7%) and elective (4.9%) colectomy, despite greater than 90% of patients receiving postoperative heparin prophylaxis. The most common site of VTE was intra-abdominal (45.8%) followed by lower extremity (19.6%). VTE was diagnosed after discharge from hospital in 16.7% of cases. Elective (adjusted OR=3.69; 95%CI: 1.30-10.44) and emergent colectomy (adjusted OR=5.28; 95%CI: 1.93-14.45) were significant risk factors for VTE as compared to medically responsive UC patients. Furthermore, the odds of a VTE significantly increased across time (adjusted OR=1.10; 95%CI: 1.01-1.20). Age, sex, comorbidities, disease extent, disease activity, smoking, corticosteroids, mesalamine, azathioprine, and infliximab were not independently associated with the development of VTE.
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We reviewed records of the RCD patients who received SIRM in an open-label therapeutic trial. Data included demographics, disease characteristics, dose and duration of SIRM therapy, and response. Response was categorized as complete if there was complete resolution of symptoms, partial if there was at least 50% improvement, and nonresponsive if there was less than 50% improvement.
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Lactulose is used as a triggering substance in a unique colon-specific delivery technology called CODESTM. Colonic microflora degrades lactulose and forms short-chain fatty acids to activate the CODESTM system. However, lactulose has been reported to cause a Maillard-type reaction with substances containing primary or secondary amino groups that may produce carcinogenic compounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to look into the possibility to substitute lactulose with isomalt for fabrication of CODESTM. The in vitro degradation of both sugars before incorporating them into the CODESTM system was evaluated with the help of rat caecal microflora. The results showed that isomalt was less efficient with regard to its rate and extent of degradation into short-chain fatty acids by the microflora compared to lactulose. However, the in vitro dissolution study did not show a significant difference in the performance between lactulose and isomalt when they were incorporated separately in CODESTM. A similar result was also obtained in the in vivo study. Based on the above results, isomalt could be used as an alternative to lactulose for colonic delivery system utilizing the principles of CODESTM.
Of the 105 patients, 102 were included in the final analysis. After 12 months, treatment failure rate was 40% (14 of 35 patients) in the Plantago ovata seed group, 35% (13 of 37) in the mesalamine group, and 30% (nine of 30) in the Plantago ovata plus mesalamine group. Probability of continued remission was similar (Mantel-Cox test, p = 0.67; intent-to-treat analysis). Therapy effects remained unchanged after adjusting for potential confounding variables with a Cox's proportional hazards survival analysis. Three patients were withdrawn because of the development of adverse events consisting of constipation and/or flatulence (Plantago ovata seed group = 1 and Plantago ovata seed plus mesalamine group = 2). A significant increase in fecal butyrate levels (p = 0.018) was observed after Plantago ovata seed administration.
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Baseline platelet activation in inflammatory bowel disease was significantly greater than that in controls (P=0.0003). Independent of diagnosis or disease activity, spontaneous ex-vivo platelet activation was 50% lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease taking 5-aminosalicylic acid orally than in those not on such treatment (P < 0.05). In vitro, 5-aminosalicylic acid significantly reduced both spontaneous (P < 0. 03 for >/=1 microM 5-aminosalicylic acid) and thrombin-induced platelet activation (P < 0.02 for >/= 1 microM 5-aminosalicylic acid).
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Crohns Disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease of unknown origins that cannot be definitely resolved with surgical intervention. Therefore, pharmacologic therapies are of great importance both in preventing relapses and by determining remissions. In this paper the authors analyse the different drugs available for the treatment of Crohns disease, and focus on their efficacy and tollerability.
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Sera of 110 CD patients, 82 ulcerative colitis (UC), and 150 healthy controls were collected and the presence of antibodies against the mycobacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase PtpA was assayed using ELISA.
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The clinical course of the Crohn's disease maybe "sui generis" connected with Helicobacter pylori infection- but the exact mechanisms remain to be discovered.
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A study on orocaecal transit time (OCTT) in patients with different localizations of Crohn's disease (CD) is not available. Because slow-release drug formulations are increasingly available for the treatment, there is a concrete risk that delayed OCTT may impair the efficacy of these formulations.
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Two human acetyl-CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT1 and NAT2) have been identified. Therapeutic and carcinogenic agents that are substrates for these isoenzymes (including isoniazid, sulfamethazine, p-aminobenzoic acid, 5-aminosalicyclic acid, and 2-aminofluorene) have been used to evaluate the role of the N-acetylation polymorphisms of NAT1 and NAT2 in the treatment of disease and differential risk of various cancers among individuals of differing acetylator phenotypes. The mouse is frequently used as a model of the human acetylator polymorphism. As three Nat isoenzymes have been identified in mouse, it is necessary to determine the selectivity of mouse Nats toward common NAT substrates. In the present study, Nat1*, Nat2*8, and Nat3* were expressed in COS-1 cells, and their substrate selectivity was evaluated with various substrates. Under the conditions used, mouse Nat2 had 20-, 2.4-, and 5.4-fold higher catalytic activity for p-aminobenzoic acid, 5-aminosalicylic acid, and 2-aminofluorene, respectively, than Nat1. Isoniazid N-acetylation was catalyzed only by mouse Nat1. For the substrates tested in this study, mouse Nat3 exhibited activity only toward 5-aminosalicylic acid and only at 1/20 the activity shown by Nat2. In addition, p-aminobenzoylglutamate, the first endogenous NAT substrate identified, was selective for mouse Nat2. These results further support the functional analogy of mouse Nat2 and human NAT1.
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Important national differences in ulcerative colitis patients' attitudes and perceptions were observed, which may help physicians improve patient care based on country-specific needs and influence self-assessments in clinical trials. The results suggest a need for structured patient education to improve adherence and outcomes.
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A 16-year-old boy was diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Treatment with oral mesalazine was started at 3 g per day; however, he complained of high fever, a nonproductive cough, and left shoulder pain after 2 weeks. His chest radiography and chest computed tomography showed cardiomegaly and left pleural effusion, while an echocardiogram revealed pericardial effusion. Because no infection was detected by thoracentesis and the drug lymphocyte stimulation tests for mesalazine were positive, the patient was diagnosed with mesalazine-induced pleuropericarditis. After the cessation of mesalazine, the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings quickly improved.